January Uprising

The January Uprising was an insurrection principally in Russia′s Kingdom of Poland aimed at the restoration of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. It began on 22 January 1863 and continued until the last insurgents were captured by the Russian forces in 1864, it was the longest lasting insurgency in post-partition Poland. The conflict engaged all levels of society, arguably had profound repercussions on contemporary international relations and provoked a social and ideological paradigm shift in national events that went on to have a decisive influence on the subsequent development of Polish society, it was the confluence of a number of factors that rendered the uprising inevitable in early 1863. The Polish nobility and urban bourgeois circles hankered after the semi-autonomous status they had enjoyed in Congress Poland before the previous insurgency, a generation earlier in 1830, while youth encouraged by the success of the Italian independence movement urgently desired the same outcome. Russia had been weakened by its Crimean adventure and had introduced a more liberal attitude in its internal politics which encouraged Poland's underground National Government to plan an organised strike against their Russian occupiers no earlier than the Spring of 1863.

They had not reckoned with Aleksander Wielopolski, the pro-Russian arch-conservative head of the civil administration in the Russian partition, who got wind of the plans. Wielopolski was aware of his fellow countrymen's fervent desire for independence was coming to a head, something he wanted to avoid at all costs. In an attempt to derail the Polish national movement, he brought forward to January the conscription of young Polish activists into the Imperial Russian Army; that decision is what triggered the January Uprising of 1863, the outcome Wielopolski had wanted to avoid. The rebellion by young Polish conscripts was soon joined by high-ranking Polish-Lithuanian officers and members of the political class; the insurrectionists, as yet ill-organised were outnumbered and lacking sufficient foreign support, were forced into hazardous guerrilla tactics. Reprisals were ruthless. Public executions and deportations to Siberia persuaded many Poles to abandon armed struggle. In addition, Tsar Alexander II hit the landed gentry hard, as a result the whole economy, with a sudden decision in 1864 to abolish serfdom in Poland.

The ensuing break-up of estates and destitution of many peasants convinced educated Poles to turn instead to the idea of "organic work", economic and cultural self-improvement. Despite the Russian Empire losing the Crimean war and being weakened economically and politically, Alexander II warned in 1856 against further concessions with the words, "forget any dreams". There were two prevailing streams of thought among the population of the Kingdom of Poland at the time. One consisting of patriotic stirrings within liberal-conservative landed and intellectual circles centred around Andrzej Zamoyski, they were hoping for an orderly return to the constitutional status pre-1830. They became characterised as the Whites; the alternative tendency, characterised as the Reds represented a democratic movement uniting peasants and some clergy. For both streams central to their dilemma was the peasant question; however estate owners tended to favour the abolition of serfdom in exchange for compensation, whereas the democratic movement saw the overthrow of the Russian yoke as dependent on an unconditional liberation of the peasantry.

Just as the democrats organised the first religious and patriotic demonstrations in 1860, covert resistance groups began to form among educated youth. Blood was first shed in Warsaw in February 1861, when the Russian Army attacked a demonstration in Castle Square on the anniversary of the Battle of Grochów. There were five fatalities. Fearing the spread of spontaneous unrest, Alexander II reluctantly agreed to accept a petition for a change in the system of governance, he agreed to the appointment of Aleksander Wielopolski to head a commission to look into Religious Observance and Public Education and announced the formation of a State Council and Self-governance for towns and Powiats. These concessions did not prevent further demonstrations. On 8 April there were 500 wounded by Russian fire. Martial law was imposed in Warsaw and brutally repressive measures taken against the organisers in Warsaw and Vilna by deporting them into deepest Russia. In Vilna alone 116 demonstrations were held during 1861.

In the autumn of 1861 Russians had introduced a state of emergency in Vilna Governorate, Kovno Governorate and Grodno Governorate. These events led to a speedier consolidation of the resistance: Future leaders of the uprising gathered secretly in St. Petersburg, Vilna and London. Two bodies emerged from these consultations. By October 1861 the urban "Movement Committee" was formed and in June 1862 the "Central National Committee", CNC came into being, its leadership included, Stefan Bobrowski, Jarosław Dąbrowski, Zygmunt Padlewski, Agaton Giller, Bronisław Szwarce. This body directed the creation of national structures intended to become a new secret Polish state; the CNC had not planned an uprising before the Spring of 1863 at the earliest. However, Wielopolski's move to start conscription to the Russian Army in mid January, forced its hand to call the uprising prematurely on the night of 22–23 January 1863; the uprising broke out at a moment when general peace prevailed in Europe, although there was vociferous support for the Poles, powers such as France and Austria were unwilling to disturb international calm.

The revolutionary lead


Pobieda is a village of 509 people in the Novoaidar Raion of Luhansk Oblast in eastern Ukraine. The village is situated at 162 meters above sea level; the neighboring settlement of Chystopillya is subordinated to the Pobieda village council. The village name "Pobieda" means "victory" and there are several more minor villages in Ukraine with this name. According to 2001 all Ukraine census, Ukrainian language is native to 82.7% of village residents. Russian is native for 13.76% of Pobieda residents. Postal code – 3523 Telephone code – +380 6445 On 3 September 2014, pro-Russian insurgents shelled the village of Pobieda, using BM-30 "Smerch" multiple rocket launchers, it was reported by some Ukrainian sources that the village was destroyed. Due to shelling blast wave there was damage to some civil buildings. There were not fixed any dead of civil population. An OSCE Special Monitoring Mission visited Pobieda and spoke to the mayor who said that at least ten rockets had struck the village; the OSCE mission saw several unexploded rockets as well as shell holes.

Бойовики "Смерчем" зрівняли із землею селище Побєда і базу батальйону "Воля", — бійці


Bosko is an animated cartoon character created by animators Hugh Harman and Rudolf Ising. Bosko was the first recurring character in Leon Schlesinger's cartoon series, was the star of 39 Looney Tunes shorts released by Warner Bros, he was voiced by Carman Maxwell, Johnny Murray, Billie Thomas during the 1920s and 1930s, once by Don Messick during the 1990s. In 1927, Harman and Ising were still working for the Walt Disney Studios on a series of live-action/animated short subjects known as the Alice Comedies; the two animators created Bosko in 1927 to capitalize on the new "talkie" craze, sweeping the motion picture industry. They began thinking about making a sound cartoon with Bosko in 1927, before leaving Walt Disney. Hugh Harman made drawings of the new character and registered it with the copyright office on 3 January 1928; the character was registered as a "Negro boy" under the name of Bosko. After leaving Walt Disney in early 1928, Harman and Ising went to work for Charles Mintz on Universal's second-season Oswald the Lucky Rabbit cartoons.

April 1929 found them leaving Universal to market their new cartoon character. In May 1929, they produced a short pilot cartoon, similar to Max Fleischer's Out of the Inkwell cartoons, the Talk-Ink Kid that showcased their ability to animate soundtrack-synchronized speech and dancing; the short, plotless cartoon opens with live action footage of Ising at a drafting table. After he draws Bosko on the page, the character springs to life, talks and dances. Ising returns Bosko to the inkwell, the short ends; this short is a landmark in animation history as being the first cartoon to predominantly feature synchronized speech, though Fleischer Studios' Song Car-Tune "My Old Kentucky Home" was the first cartoon to contain animated dialogue a few years earlier. This cartoon set Harman and Ising "apart from early Disney sound cartoons because it emphasized not music but dialogue." The short was marketed to various people by Harman and Ising until Leon Schlesinger offered them a contract to produce a series of cartoons for the Warner Bros.

It would not be seen by a wide audience until 71 years in 2000, as part of Cartoon Network's special Toonheads: The Lost Cartoons, a compilation special of rare material from the WB/Turner archives. In his book, Of Mice and Magic, Leonard Maltin states that this early version of Bosko "was in fact a cartoonized version of a young black boy... he spoke in a Southern Negro dialect... in subsequent films this characterization was eschewed, or forgotten. This could be called sloppiness on the part of Harman and Ising, but it indicates the uncertain nature of the character itself." Schlesinger saw the Harman-Ising test film and signed the animators to produce cartoons at their studio for him to sell to Warner Bros. Bosko became the star vehicle for the studio's new Looney Tunes cartoon series. Bosko wore long pants and a derby hat, he had a girlfriend named Honey and a dog named Bruno, he was sometimes accompanied by an orphan cat named Wilbur and an antagonistic goat in early cartoons. The role of Bosko was to serve as a cartoony version of Al Jolson in The Jazz Singer.

According to Ising, he was supposed to be an "inkspot sort of thing". He was not conceived as either an animal, though behaving like a little boy. According to Leonard Maltin, Bosko was a cartoonized version of a young black boy who spoke a Southern dialect of African American Vernacular English, he cites as an example a phrase from Bosko's Holiday, said with an intermittent drawl: "I sho'done likes picnics."Whether admiring a dress worn by Honey or eating a sandwich Bosko had a stock exclamatory reaction indicating his pleasure "Mmmm! Dat sho' is fine!" which became something of a catch phraseAccording to Terry Lindvall and Ben Fraser and Honey "were the most balanced portrayals of blacks in cartoons to that point". They had the same type of formulaic coy adventures as Minnie Mouse, they point to Bosko in Person where Honey gives a Billie Holiday-style performance as an example of nonracist racial tribute to a real person. According to Tom Bertino and Ising never called attention to Bosko's racial status, stayed clear of negative stereotypes involving dice and watermelon.

Bosko instead received positive portrayals as a spunky and resourceful boy. An exception to this was a demeaning representation in Congo Jazz. Bosko in a jungle setting is depicted standing between a gorilla. All three are depicted with identical faces; the only things identifying him as human is his clothes. From his first Looney Tunes outing, Sinkin' in the Bathtub, Bosko would star in 39 musical films, his cartoons are notable for their weak plots and their abundance of music and dancing. These were the early days of sound cartoons, audiences were enthralled to see characters talking and moving in step with the music. In terms of animation, the shorts are on-par with Disney's shorts of the same period. Harman and Ising were allowed production costs of up to $6000 per cartoon. During the same period, Disney was spending around $10,000 per cartoon; the smaller budgets forced Harman and Ising to recycle footage much more than Disney did. In terms of music and sound recording, however and Ising had an advantage, as the Warner Bros. provided access to a large musical library with all the popular tunes of the day, lavish orchestras and sound recording equipment and staff free of charge.

Disney, on the other hand, had no access to a music library and was forced to rely, for the m