JR Freight Class DF200
The Class DF200 is a Bo-Bo-Bo wheel arrangement diesel-electric locomotive type operated by Japan Freight Railway in Hokkaido, Japan. As of 1 March 2017, JR Freight operates 48 Class DF200s, JR Kyushu operates one. DF200-900 DF200-0 DF200-50 DF200-100 DF200-200 DF200-7000 The pre-production locomotive DF200-901 was delivered in March 1992 for testing, it has two MTU 12V396TE14 diesel engines. Full-production batch delivered from 1994. Red "JRF" logos were replaced by white logos. 12 locomotives were built. Batch built from March 2000 with Komatsu SDA12V170-1 diesel engines in place of the earlier MTU engines. External changes include grey front-end skirts, white "JRF" logos, "Red Bear Eco Power" logos. 13 locomotives were built. Batch built from August 2005 to December 2011 with IGBT VVVF inverters. 23 Class DF200-100 locomotives were built. In 2016, DF200-123 was moved from Hokkaido to Suita Depot in Osaka, where it underwent modifications and renumbering to DF200-223 before being returned to service on the Kansai Main Line in the Nagoya area.
This was followed by locomotives DF200-116 and DF200-120, which were modified and renumbered DF200-216 and DF200-220 in 2018. A dedicated Class DF200-7000 diesel locomotive was built in 2013 for JR Kyushu's Seven Stars in Kyushu luxury excursion train. Built specially for use in Kyushu and finished in a deep maroon livery, the locomotive was built by Kawasaki Heavy Industries in Kobe, delivered in July 2013; the DF200 classification for this locomotive type is explained below. D: Diesel locomotive F: Six driving axles 200: Diesel-electric locomotive with AC motors JR Freight website Details on Kawasaki Heavy Industries website
Fukui Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan located in the Chūbu region on Honshū island. The capital is the city of Fukui; the Kitadani Dinosaur Quarry, on the Sugiyama River within the city limits of Katsuyama, has yielded animals such As Fukuiraptor, Nipponosaurus, Fukuivenator and Tambatitanis as well as an unnamed dromaeosaurid. Fukui consisted of the old provinces of Wakasa and Echizen, before the prefecture was formed in 1871. During the Edo period, the daimyō of the region was surnamed Matsudaira, was a descendant of Tokugawa Ieyasu. During World War II, the city was bombed and its palace, surrounded by a moat, was demolished; the Fukui Prefectural government buildings were built on the site. Fukui faces the Sea of Japan, has a western part, a narrow plain between the mountains and the sea, a larger eastern part with wider plains including the capital and most of the population; the province lays within Japan's "Snow country". As of 31 March 2008, 15% of the total land area of the prefecture was designated as Natural Parks, namely the Hakusan National Park.
Nine cities are located in Fukui Prefecture: These are the towns in each district: Sabae is known for producing 90% of Japan's domestically-made glasses. There are several nuclear power plants located along Wakasa Bay in Tsuruga which supply power to the Keihanshin metropolitan region, it has the most of any prefecture. Fukui is one of the less populated prefectures of Japan; as seen in most of Japan, Fukui is facing the problem of decreasing population. Ichijōdani Asakura Family Historic Ruins is one of the most important cultural heritage sites in Japan. Eihei-ji is a serene temple offering education to Buddhist monks. Founded by Dogen Zenji in 1244, Eiheiji is located on a plot of land covering about 33 hectares. Myōtsū-ji's Three-storied Pagoda and Main Hall are National Treasures of Japan. Fukui is home to the oldest standing castle in Japan, it was built in 1576. Many dinosaur fossils have been excavated in Fukui and they can be seen at the Fukui Prefectural Dinosaur Museum. Residents of Fukui Prefecture have Fukui-ben.
Fukui has long been a center for papermaking in Japan. Its Echizen Papermaking Cooperative is a world-famous collection of papermakers making paper in the traditional Echizen style. Fukui is renowned for its clean water and crops, which result in delicious sake and soba noodles. In August 2010 Fukui launched its own dating website entitled Fukui Marriage-Hunting Café in hopes of helping the declining population growth of Japan increase. Couples who meet in the site and continue on to marry receive monetary aid from the government as well as gifts. Vihti, Finland Fukui University Fukui University of Technology Fukui Prefectural University Jin-ai University JR West Hokuriku Line Obama Line Kuzuryu Line Echizen Railway Katsuyama-Eiheiji Line Mikuni-Awara Line Fukui Railway Fukubu Line Hokuriku Expressway Maizuru-Wakasa Expressway Chubu Jukan Expressway Mikata Lake Rainbow Road Mount Hoonji Toll Road Route 8 Route 27 Route 157 Route 158 Route 161 Route 162 Route 303 Route 305 Route 364 Route 365 Route 367 Route 416 Route 417 Route 418 Route 476 Tsuruga Port - Ferry route to Niigata, Tomakomai and International container hub Fukui Port Ichijōdani Asakura Family Historic Ruins Eihei-ji Temple Tōjinbō, a scenic piece of coastline, a notorious spot for suicide.
Echizen crabs are a local delicacy available year-round, though the crabbing season is during the winter. Another traditional sea-side Fukui dish is genge, a small guppy-like fish that when eaten raw as sashimi, gives the body a brief tingling sensation. Awara is a famous onsen in the north of the prefecture. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth.. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
Japan Railways Group
The Japan Railways Group, more known as JR Group, consists of seven for-profit companies that took over most of the assets and operations of the government-owned Japanese National Railways on April 1, 1987. Most of the liability of the JNR was assumed by the JNR Settlement Corporation; the JR Group lies at the heart of Japan's railway network, operating a large proportion of intercity rail service and commuter rail service. Despite JR East, JR Central, JR West and JR Kyushu now having full private ownership, Japanese people talk about "private railways" as if none of the JR Group companies is part of them, since they are successors of Japanese National Railways Maps always denoted JR and private railways differently, as does JR itself; the group consists of seven operating companies and two other companies that do not provide rail service. The operating companies are organized into six passenger operators and a nationwide freight operator. Unlike some other groups of companies, the JR Group is made up of independent companies, it does not have group headquarters or a holding company to set the overall business policy.
The six passenger railways of the JR Group are separated by region. Nearly all their services are within the prescribed geographic area. However, some long-distance operations extend beyond the boundaries; the Shirasagi train service between Nagoya and Toyama, for instance, uses JR West rolling stock but the segment of track between Nagoya and Maibara is owned by JR Central, whose crew manage the train on that section. Japan Freight Railway Company operates all freight service on the network owned by JNR. In addition, the group includes two non-operating companies; these are Railway Information Systems Co. Ltd.. To cover various non-railway business areas, each regional operator in the JR Group has its own group of subsidiary companies with names like "JR East Group" and "JR Shikoku Group." JR maintains a nationwide railway network as well as common ticketing rules that it inherited from JNR. Passengers may travel across several JR companies without changing trains and without purchasing separate tickets.
However, trains running across the boundaries of JR companies have been reduced. JR maintains the same ticketing rules based on the JNR rules and has an integrated reservation system known as MARS; some types of tickets, such as Japan Rail Pass and Seishun 18 Ticket, are issued as "valid for all JR lines" and accepted by all passenger JR companies. In 1987, the government of Japan took steps to divide and privatize JNR. While division of operations began in April of that year, privatization was not immediate: the government retained ownership of the companies. Privatization of some of the companies began in the early 1990s. By 2006, all of the shares of JR East, JR Central and JR West had been offered to the market and they are now publicly traded. On the other hand, all of the shares of JR Hokkaido, JR Shikoku, JR Kyushu and JR Freight are still owned by Japan Railway Construction and Technology Agency, an independent administrative institution of the state; the demise of the government-owned system came after charges of serious management inefficiencies, profit losses, fraud.
By the early 1980s, passenger and freight business had declined, fare increases had failed to keep up with higher labor costs. What remained of the debt-ridden Japanese National Railways after its 1987 breakup was named the Japanese National Railways Settlement Corporation, its purpose was to dispose of assets and debts not absorbed by the successor companies and to execute other activities relating to the breakup, such as outplacement of former personnel. The new companies introduced competition, cut their staffing, made reform efforts. Initial public reaction to these moves was good: the combined passenger travel on the Japan Railways Group passenger companies in 1987 was 204.7 billion passenger-kilometers, up 3.2% from 1986, while the passenger sector had been stagnant since 1975. The growth in passenger transport of private railways in 1987 was 2.6%, which meant that the Japan Railways Group's rate of increase was above that of the private-sector railways for the first time since 1974. Demand for rail transport improved, although it still accounted for only 28% of passenger transportation and only 5% of cargo transportation in 1990.
Rail passenger transportation was superior to automobiles in terms of energy efficiency and of speed in long distance transportation. The six companies had 18,800 km of routes in use in the late 1980s. About 25% of the routes were in double-track and multitrack sections, the rest were single-track. In 1988 about 51% of the six companies' 1,000 locomotives were diesel, the rest were electric. Japan Freight Railway Company owns its locomotives, rolling stock and stations, but hires track from the six passenger companies, it runs fewer trains on less track than Japanese National Railways freight service did before its demise, but at increased revenues and higher productivity. The Shinkansen Property Corporation leased Shinkansen railway facilities, including 2,100 km of 1,435 mm gauge high-speed track, to the passenger companies on Honshū. In 1991, the SPC was reorganized into the Railway Development Fund and the three operators bought their lines on 60-year loans; some of the Shinkansen electric-powered
JNR Class EF65
The Class EF65 is a 6-axle DC electric locomotive type operated on passenger and freight services in Japan since 1965. A total of 308 locomotives were built between 1965 and 1979, with 52 still in service as of 1 April 2016; the class was divided into the EF65-0 subclass for general freight and the EF65-500 subclass for express freight and passenger use. EF65-0: Numbers EF65 1 – 135 EF65-500: Numbers EF65 501 – 542 EF65-1000: Numbers EF65 1001 – 1139 EF65-2000: The Class EF65 was designed by Japanese National Railways as a standard locomotive type developed from the earlier Class EF60 design for use on the Tokaido Main Line and Sanyo Main Line. During the JNR era, these locomotives were used for freight trains and for passenger work - hauling night trains such as the Izumo sleeping car limited express and Ginga sleeping car express; the EF65-0 subclass was designed for general freight use on the Tokaido Main Line and Sanyo Main Line. 135 locomotives were built between 1965 and 1970. As of 2016, all EF65-0 locomotives had been withdrawn.
Five 6th-batch Class EF65-0 locomotives, numbers EF65 131 to EF65 135, were converted in 1990 and 1991 to become Class EF67-100 banking locomotives for use on the "Senohachi" section of the Sanyo Main Line. The EF65-500 subclass consisted of a total of 42 locomotives, including newly built locomotives and locomotives modified from the earlier EF65-0 subclass for use on overnight sleeping car services and express freight services operating at a maximum speed of 110 km/h; as of 1 April 2016, only one EF65-500 locomotive, EF65-501, owned by JR East, remained in service. Locomotives used for hauling passenger services are referred to as "P" type, those used for freight services are referred to as "F" type; the original designations are as shown below. The EF65-1000 was intended for use on both passenger and freight services, was referred to as the "PF" type. 139 locomotives were built between 1969 and 1979. As of 1 April 2016, 15 EF65-1000 locomotives remained in service, operated by JR West. There are former Class EF65-1000 locomotives renumbered from May 2012 by JR Freight to differentiate them from locomotives fitted with driving recording units mandated for operations over 100 mph.
As of 1 April 2016, 35 EF65-2000 locomotives remained in service, operated by JR Freight. EF65 9: Repainted in early-style all-over brown livery with white lettering on the side EF65 57: Repainted in early-style all-over brown livery EF65 105: Repainted in Euroliner livery EF65 116: Repainted in blue with large yellow "JR" lettering on the sides and yellow bands on the cab ends EF65 123: Repainted in Yuyu Salon Okayama livery EF65 1019: Repainted in Super Express Rainbow red livery in March 1987. Removed from service on 31 December 1997, withdrawn on 1 September 1998. EF65 1059: Repainted in blue with yellow front-end warning panels and large "JR" logo in July 1987. Remained in this livery until withdrawal on 31 March 2009. EF65 1065: Experimental JR Freight livery EF65 1118: Super Express Rainbow livery EF65 1124: Twilight Express dark green and yellow livery from November 2015 EF65 1: Preserved at the Kyoto Railway Museum in Kyoto. EF65 5: JR Freight Ōi Depot in Shinagawa, Tokyo EF65 520: Usui Pass Railway Heritage Park, Gunma Prefecture EF65 535: Originally stored at Ōmiya Works, Saitama Prefecture, donated to Toshiba in Fuchu, Tokyo in March 2013 EF65 536: Sekisui Kinzoku factory, Saitama Prefecture EF65 539: Privately preserved in Gunma Prefecture EF65 1001: JR Freight Ōi Depot in Shinagawa, Tokyo Japan Railways locomotive numbering and classification
JNR Class EF66
The Class EF66 is a six-axle, three-bogied DC electric locomotive designed for fast freight used by Japanese National Railways and operated by its descendents JR West and JR Freight. As of 1 April 2016, 39 locomotives remained in service, all operated by JR Freight. EF66-900: Prototype locomotive EF66 901, delivered in 1966 EF66-0: Full-production type, built 1968 to 1975 EF66-100: Later type, built 1989 to 1991 The locomotives were designed to be able to haul 1,000-tonne trains at 100 km/h; each traction motor has a power output of 650 kW. The bogies have an air suspension system to limit the impulsive forces on the track. During the JNR era, these locomotives were used for freight trains and for passenger work - hauling night trains such as the Hayabusa sleeping car limited express. By 1 April 2009, 73 EF66s were in service, with 63 owned by JR Freight, 10 owned by JR West; as of 1 April 2016, 39 locomotives remained in service, all operated by JR Freight. With the opening of the Meishin Expressway between Nagoya and Kobe in 1965 and the Tomei Expressway between Tokyo and Nagoya in 1968, JNR faced increasing competition for freight transport from road hauliers.
JNR therefore developed the "10000 series" freight wagons capable of operating at 100 km/h. Express freight services formed of these wagons were introduced on the Tokaido Main Line and Sanyo Main Line from October 1966 using Class EF65-500 electric locomotives built in 1965; these locomotives were designed to be used in pairs hauling 1,000-tonne freight trains, but as pairs of locomotives drew excessive current from the overhead wires, 1,000-tonne freight trains had to be split into 600-tonne and 400-tonne sections when operating on the Sanyo Main Line. This led to the need for a new locomotive design that would be capable of hauling 1,000-tonne trains singly. A prototype locomotive classified EF90 and numbered EF90 1, was built by Kawasaki Sharyo in 1966, it had a total power output of 3.9 MW, making it the world's most powerful narrow-gauge locomotive at the time. EF66 901 was retired from service in 1996, has been stored at Hiroshima Depot since 2001; the production series of locomotives were delivered from 1968, with 55 built in two batches between 1968 and 1975.
The second batch of locomotives, EF66 21 to EF66 55, delivered between 1973 and 1975, incorporated a number of minor changes and improvements. Most noticeable was the extension of the cab roofs over the windscreens to reduce the deposition of abrasion dust from the pantographs on the windscreens; some of the first-batch locomotives were subsequently modified with the "sun visor" style cab end roofs. Following the privatisation of JNR on 1 April 1987, JR Freight received the prototype and 39 of the original series as well as the Class EF66-100 machines. JR West obtained the remainder of the machines - a total of 16. Shortly after privatization, JR Freight tried out a number of new experimental liveries on its various locomotives, one Class EF66, locomotive number EF66 20, received an experimental cream and blue livery with large "JR" logos in August 1987. No other members of the class were reliveried, EF66 20 received the new JR Freight two-tone blue livery when it underwent refurbishment in October 1993.
From 1988, JR Freight retrofitted a number of its EF66s with roof-mounted cab air-conditioning units. From 1993, JR Freight started refurbishing its fleet of EF66s. Refurbishment included rewinding of the traction motor coils, removal of the former JNR decorations on the front-end number plates, repainting into a two-tone blue livery similar to that carried by the EF66-100s. Locomotives refurbished from 2004 onward, received a simplified blue livery, similar to the original JNR-style livery. Due to increased demand, JR Freight began building more EF66s in 1989; this batch of locomotives was classified EF66-100, with locomotive numbered EF66 101 to EF66 133. The Class EF66-100 locomotives were fundamentally the same design as the EF66-0, but with more modern external styling; the driver's cabs are air-conditioned. The Class EF66 100 locomotives were built in two batches, EF66 101 to 108 and EF66 109 to EF133; the second batch differed in having rectangular headlamps and tail lamps, while the first batch had round lamps.
The individual locomotive build. Notes EF66 1: Stored at Hiroshima Depot in Hiroshima. EF66 11: Preserved at The Railway Museum in Saitama. EF66 35: Preserved at the Kyoto Railway Museum in Kyoto. EF66 45: Preserved at a museum located next to Torokko Saga Station in Kyoto. EF66 45: Preserved outside the Hoshiai Eye Clinic in Midori-ku, Saitama Prefecture. EF66 49: Preserved at a museum located next to Torokko Saga Station in Kyoto. EF66 49: Preserved at the Pain Aux Seigle bakery in Kizugawa, located near Kizu Station. Japan Railways locomotive numbering and classification
JR Freight Class HD300
The Class HD300 is a hybrid diesel/battery Bo-Bo wheel arrangement shunting locomotive type operated by Japan Freight Railway Company in Japan. Following the delivery and evaluation of a prototype locomotive in March 2010, the first full-production locomotive entered service in February 2012. Class HD300-0: Standard type, entering service from February 2012 Class HD300-500: Sub-class designed for operation in cold-climate conditions, delivered from November 2014 Class HD300-900: Prototype locomotive delivered in March 2010 The locomotives use lithium ion batteries, are designed to reduce exhaust emissions by at least 30% to 40% and noise levels by at least 10 dB compared with existing Class DE10 diesel locomotives. Tests conducted at Tokyo Freight Terminal in June 2010 demonstrated fuel savings of 36%, NOx emission reductions of 62%, noise level reductions of 22 dB compared with a class DE10 locomotive. Externally, the locomotives are finished in a bright red livery to aid visibility, with yellow and black diagonal warning stripes at the ends.
The first full-production locomotive, HD300-1, delivered in January 2012, while broadly identical to the prototype HD300-901 locomotive, incorporates a few minor improvements, including changes to the headlamps, a wider front-end warning panel to reduce snow build-up on the steps, larger windows in the driving cab doors to improve visibility. The prototype locomotive, HD300-901, was delivered from the Toshiba factory in Fuchū, Tokyo to Tokyo Freight Terminal on 30 March 2010 for six months of trials before being moved to Matsumoto in Nagano Prefecture in the year to assess performance at higher altitudes; the locomotive was moved to Sapporo Freight Terminal in Hokkaido in January 2011 to assess battery performance and adhesion in cold winter conditions. The prototype locomotive entered revenue service from 11 July 2011, on shunting operations at Tokyo Freight Terminal; the first full-production locomotive was delivered from the Toshiba factory in Fuchū, Tokyo, in January 2012, entered service at Tokyo Freight Terminal from 8 February.
In May 2012, the Class HD300-900 prototype was awarded the 2012 Laurel Prize, presented annually by the Japan Railfan Club. A formal presentation ceremony was held at Tokyo Freight Terminal on 18 November 2012. In November 2014, the first Class HD300-500 locomotive, HD300-501, designed for operations in cold-climate areas, was delivered to Naebo Depot in Hokkaido; as of 1 March 2017, 29 Class HD300 locomotives are in service. The HD300 classification for this locomotive type is explained below; as with previous locomotive designs, the prototype is numbered HD300-901, with subsequent production locomotives numbered from HD300-1 onward. H - hybrid locomotive D - four driving axles 300 - synchronous motors Sugiyama, Giichi. HD300形量産車. Japan Railfan Magazine. Vol. 52 no. 616. Japan: Koyusha Co. Ltd. pp. 62–67. JR Freight press release announcing development in September 2008 Official press release from Toshiba JR Freight HD300