The Japan Self-Defense Forces, JSDF referred to as the Self-Defense Forces, Japan Defense Forces, or the Japanese armed forces, are the unified military forces of Japan that were established in 1954, are controlled by the Ministry of Defense. The JSDF ranked as the world's fourth most-powerful military in conventional capabilities in a Credit Suisse report in 2015 and it has the world's eighth-largest military budget. In recent years they have been engaged in international peacekeeping operations including UN peacekeeping. Tensions with North Korea, have reignited the debate over the status of the JSDF and its relation to Japanese society. Military guidelines of December 2010 refocused the JSDF from the former Soviet Union to a focus on China regarding the territorial dispute over the Senkaku Islands. Cooperation has increased with the United States, United Kingdom, South Korea and Australia. Deprived of any military capability after being defeated by the Allies in World War II and signing a surrender agreement presented by General Douglas MacArthur in 1945, Japan had only the U.
S. occupation forces and a minor domestic police force on. Rising Cold War tensions in Europe and Asia, coupled with leftist-inspired strikes and demonstrations in Japan, prompted some conservative leaders to question the unilateral renunciation of all military capabilities; these sentiments were intensified in 1950 as occupation troops began to be moved to the Korean War theater. This left Japan defenseless and much aware of the need to enter into a mutual defense relationship with the United States to guarantee the nation's external security. Encouraged by the American occupation authorities, the Japanese government in July 1950 authorized the establishment of a National Police Reserve, consisting of 75,000 men equipped with light infantry weapons. In 1952, the Coastal Safety Force, the waterborne counterpart of NPR, was founded; the Security Treaty Between the United States and Japan was signed on 8 September 1951. The treaty allowed United States forces stationed in Japan to deal with external aggression against Japan while Japanese ground and maritime forces would deal with internal threats and natural disasters.
It permitted the United States to act for the sake of maintaining peace in East Asia and exert its power on Japanese domestic quarrels. Accordingly, in mid-1952, the National Police Reserve was expanded to 110,000 men and named the National Safety Forces; the Coastal Safety Force was transferred with it to the National Safety Agency to constitute an embryonic navy. The trauma of World War II produced strong pacifist sentiments among the nation. In addition, under Article 9 of the United States–written 1947 constitution, Japan forever renounces war as an instrument for settling international disputes and declares that Japan will never again maintain "land, sea, or air forces or other war potential." Cabinets interpreted these provisions as not denying the nation the inherent right to self-defense and, with the encouragement of the United States, developed the JSDF step by step. On July 1, 1954, the National Security Board was reorganized as the Defense Agency, the National Security Force was reorganized afterwards as the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force, the Coastal Safety Force was reorganized as the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force and the Japan Air Self-Defense Force was established as a new branch of JSDF.
General Keizō Hayashi was appointed as the first Chairman of Joint Staff Council—professional head of the three branches. The enabling legislation for this was the 1954 Self-Defense Forces Act; the Far East Air Force, U. S. Air Force, announced on 6 January 1955, that 85 aircraft would be turned over to the fledgling Japanese air force on about 15 January, the first equipment of the new force. On 19 January 1960, the amended Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan corrected the unequal status of Japan in the 1951 treaty by adding mutual defense obligations. During US army mobilization the US is required to pre-inform Japan; the US is prohibited from exerting power on domestic issues of Japan. The treaty obligates Japan and the United States to assist each other if there's an armed attack in territories administered by Japan; because it states that any attack against Japan or the United States in Japanese territory would be dangerous to each country's peace and safety.
The revised treaty requires Japan and the United States to maintain capacities to resist common armed attacks. Thus it explains the need for US military bases in Japan; this established a security alliance between the United States. The treaty has lasted longer than any other alliance between two great powers since the Peace of Westphalia treaties in 1648. In 1983, Japanese Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone pledged to make Japan an "unsinkable aircraft carrier in the Pacific", assisting the United States in defending against the threat of Soviet bombers. Although possession of nuclear weapons is not explicitly forbidden in the constitution, Japan, as the only nation to have experienced the devastation of nuclear attacks, expressed early its abhorrence of nuclear arms and its determination never to acquire them; the Atomic Energy Basic Law of 1956 limits research and use of nuclear power to peaceful uses only. Beginning in 1956, national policy embodied "three non-nuclear principles"—forbidding the nation to possess or manufacture nuclear weapons or to allow them to be introduced into its territories.
In 1976 Japan ratified the Treaty on the
Sawsan Ali Majid Al-Sharifi was made the Minister of Agriculture in Iyad Allawi's Iraqi Interim Government in 2004. Sawsan Ali Sharifi was born in Baghdad in 1955. After completing her Bachelor of Science in Animal production from the University of Baghdad, she moved to the United States to pursue studying at Iowa State University and earned a Master's degree in 1981 in Animal Science, earned a PhD. in 1983. After her return to Iraq, Sharifi was appointed on the Scientific Research Council in 1984. Six years she was promoted to the post of major researcher. More than 40 of her research papers were published in Iraqi Journal of Agriculture and she edited the publication for several years. Sharifi served on the State Board of Agricultural Research; when the Food and Agriculture Organization conducted a research on Iraqi buffaloes, she was made its national co-ordinator. Following the 2003 invasion of Iraq, Sharifi was made deputy minister of Agriculture in the Coalition Provisional Authority, she was promoted to the cabinet minister post in Iraqi Interim Government under Iyad Allawi.
The following year, she secured a seat in Iraqi List and was elected to the Transition National Assembly and served on its Committee for Agriculture. To aid the takeover of genetically engineered plants being sold en mass to Iraqi farmers, who had to pay large sums of money for the pesticides and fertilizers and taxes on the yield, Sharifi came out in support of government aid: "We need Iraqi farmers to be competitive, so we decided to subsidize inputs like pesticides, improved seeds and so on. We cut down on the other subsidies, but we have to become competitive."In July 2017, Commission on Public Integrity sentenced Sharifi to seven-year imprisonment for corruption. She had signed a contract between a private firm for supplying portable excavators; the commission in its inquiry, found that the amount approved was beyond the limit prescribed for ministers. Orders were issued for seizure of her property; the sentence was reduced to five years
Aviation in Wisconsin refers to the aviation industry of the American Midwestern state of Wisconsin. Wisconsin's first aeronautical event was a flight of a Curtiss aircraft by Arthur Pratt Warner on November 2, 1909 in Beloit. 1953 - The Experimental Aircraft Association is founded in Hales Corners. 1962, September 6 - Korabl-Sputnik 1 imbeds itself into a street in Manitowoc. 1970 - The Experimental Aircraft Association moves its airshow to Oshkosh. The airshow has grown to become the largest annual airshow in the United States. American Champion, Rochester 1980 – present, Builds modern variations of the Aeronca Champion. Basler Turbo Conversions, Oshkosh 1957 – present, manufactures Basler BT-67s by retrofitting Douglas DC-3 aircraft with Turboprop engines. Champion Aircraft, Osceola 1954 − present, acquired by AviaBellanca Aircraft Corporation in 1970. Hamilton Manufacturing Company in Milwaukee, Wisconsin 1918 – 1929 Maker of propellers. Hamilton Metalplane Company, Wisconsin − 1927 Sold to Boeing, maker of the Hamilton Metalplane.
Sonex Aircraft, Homebuilt kit designs and kits. Manafacutres the Sonex series of aircraft. DeltaHawk Engines, Inc. in Racine, Wisconsin develops heavy fuel light aircraft engines. United Gear and Assembly Inc, is Headquartered in Hudson. Producer of airspeed gauges. List of airports in Wisconsin Wisconsin has 8 airports which offer regular commercial airline service Air Wisconsin, 1965 – present. Operates as a regional airline under the name United Express. Kohler Aviation, 1929–1934. Operated Loening C-2 amphibious aircraft between Michigan. Richard Bong, highest-scoring air ace during WWII, was born in Superior. Klapmeier brothers, founders of Cirrus Aircraft, started their careers in Baraboo. Billy Mitchell, a major general, regarded as the father of the United States Air Force, grew up in West Allis. Paul Poberezny, founder of the EAA and the EAA AirVenture Oshkosh airshow, lived in Hales Corners and Oshkosh. Tom Poberezny, former aerobatic world champion and president of the EAA, lived in Hales Corners and Oshkosh.
Robert Campbell Reeve, founder of Reeve Aleutian Airways, was born in Waunakee. Experimental Aircraft Association – is headquartered in Oshkosh. Wisconsin Aviation Hall of Fame. All flight operations in Wisconsin are conducted within FAA oversight; the Wisconsin Department of Transportation manages taxes and state regulations for Wisconsin. The Wisconsin Air National Guard includes the 115th Fighter Wing, based out of Dane County Regional Airport; the Wisconsin State Patrol operates 4 Cessna 172 aircraft. The Law Enforcement Aviation Coalition, Inc. is a multi-state law enforcement equipment sharing service that has a Bell OH-58 Kiowa operating at a base in Kenosha EAA Aviation Museum Oshkosh. Fortaleza Hall, Wisconsin. A Frank Lloyd Wright style building housing the SC Johnson Sikorsky S-38 The Spirit of Carnauba. Mitchell Gallery of Flight at the General Mitchell International Airport Richard I. Bong Veterans Historical Center in Superior, Wisconsin
A stone butch is a lesbian who displays female butchness or traditional "masculinity". The term "stone butch" was popularized by Leslie Feinberg in her 1993 novel Stone Butch Blues, which describes the protagonist's explorations of the lesbian community. A large segment is devoted to the tribulations of being a stone butch person, the experience of being a lesbian while identifying with masculine traits. Bonnie Zimmerman documents a use of the term to refer to a lesbian who "does not allow herself to be touched during lovemaking", but may experience vicarious sexual pleasure from her partner's enjoyment. Zimmerman notes that this may have been prevalent in the 1940s and 1950s; the term "stone butch" has been used in reference to a subculture or set of mannerisms, as opposed to a statement about sexual behaviour. In this context, "stone butch" can describe the opposite of "femme" or "high femme" attributes, although an individual can identify with both categories. Stone butch identities can overlap with non-binary gender identities and transgender masculine identities among assigned-female lesbians.
The sociologist Sara Crawley has written that, while stone butch and masculine transgender identities may share significant characteristics, the primary distinction between the two is that lesbian self-identification prioritizes communicating one's identity to a lesbian audience, whereas transgender masculine self-identification does not. Jack Halberstam has contextualised stone butch identities as one of many distinct female masculinities. Butch and femme Stone femme Soft butch
Sillyon Sylleion, in Byzantine times Syllaeum or Syllaion, was an important fortress and city near Attaleia in Pamphylia, on the southern coast of modern Turkey. The native Greco-Pamphylian form was Selyniys deriving from the original Hittite Sallawassi, its modern Turkish names are Asar Köy. Throughout Antiquity, the city was unimportant. According to one legend, the city was founded as a colony from Argos, while another holds that it was founded, along with Side and Aspendos, by the seers Mopsos and Amphilochus after the Trojan War; the city is first mentioned in c. 500 BC by Pseudo-Scylax. From 469 BC, the city became part of the Athenian-led Delian League, it is mentioned in the Athenian tribute lists in c. 450 BC and again in 425 BC, disappears again from the historical record until 333 BC, when Alexander the Great is said to have unsuccessfully besieged it. According to Arrian, the site was well-fortified and had a strong garrison of mercenaries and "native barbarians", so that Alexander, pressed for time, had to abandon the siege after the first attempt at storming it failed.
The city was extensively rebuilt under the Seleucids its theatre. In times, when most of western Asia Minor fell to the Kingdom of Pergamon, Sillyon remained a free city by a decision of the Roman Senate; the city has an attested continuous tradition of minting its own coins from the early 3rd century BC up to the reign of the Roman emperor Aurelian in the 270s. Silver tetradrachms of the Alexandrian and Lysimachian types were minted between 281 and 190 BC, but other than that, the city's coinage is in bronze. 3rd-century BC coins feature a bearded head or a standing figure identifiable with Apollo, or a lightning and the inscription ΣΕΛΥΝΙΥΣ. Coinage under Roman suzerainty featured the same motifs, but with the inscription hellenized to ϹΙΛΛΥΕΩΝ. Epiphania was a city in Cilicia Secunda, in Anatolia. Under the Byzantine Empire, the city rose to relative prominence, it is mentioned as the site of the destruction of an Arab fleet by storm in late 677 or 678, following the unsuccessful Arab Siege of Constantinople.
As one of the major fortified sites of the area, it became the seat of an imperial representative, complementing the stratēgos of the naval theme of the Kibyrrhaiotai. Syllaeum was located at the start of the great public road that linked the southern coast, via Amorium and Nicaea, with Bithynia and the capital Constantinople. In this position, it began to eclipse the traditional local metropolis of Perge, sometime between 787 and 815, the local bishop's seat was transferred to Syllaeum. Together with the wider area of Pamphylia, the city fell to the Seljuks in 1207. Saint Antony the Younger was ek prosōpou at Syllaion in c. 821-29. Patriarch Constantine II of Constantinople was bishop of the city. Patriarch Antony I of Constantinople was born in the city; the ruins of Sillyon/Syllaion date from the Hellenistic, Roman and Seljuk eras. Among these are remains of city gates, a stadium, an amphitheatre and an odeon, a temple, a cistern and a gymnasium. Much of it is threatened by landslide. Kazhdan, Alexander, ed..
Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford University Press. P. 1980. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6. Lang, Gernot. Klassische antike Stätten Anatoliens, Band II: Larissa-Zeleia. Books on Demand GmbH. pp. 439–443. ISBN 978-3-8330-0068-3. Niewöhner, Philipp. "Archäologie und die "Dunklen Jahrhunderte" im byzantinischen Anatolien". In Henning, Joachim. Post-Roman Towns and Settlement in Europe and Byzantium, Vol. 2: Byzantium and the Balkans. Walter de Gruyter. Pp. 130–131. ISBN 978-3-11-018358-0. Panoramic photo of the ruins of Sillyon/Syllaion by Pierre Trémaux, taken c. 1862-1868 Over 160 pictures of Sillyon
Many Buddhists have experienced persecution because of their faith including unwarranted arrest, beating, torture, or execution. It may refer to the confiscation or destruction of property, or the incitement of hatred towards Buddhists. In 224 CE Zoroastrianism was made the official religion of the Persia, other religions were not tolerated, thus halting the spread of Buddhism westwards. In the 3rd century the Sassanids overran the Bactrian region, overthrowing Kushan rule, were persecuted with many of their stupas fired. Although strong supporters of Zoroastrianism, the Sassanids tolerated Buddhism and allowed the construction of more Buddhist monasteries, it was during their rule. During the second half of the third century, the Zoroastrian high priest Kirder dominated the religious policy of the state, he ordered the destruction of several Buddhist monasteries in Afghanistan, since the amalgam of Buddhism and Zoroastrianism manifested in the form of a "Buddha-Mazda" deity appeared to him as heresy.
Buddhism recovered after his death. The first alleged persecution of Buddhists in India took place in the 2nd century BC by King Pushyamitra Shunga. A non-contemporary Buddhist text states. While some scholars believe he did persecute Buddhists based on the Buddhist accounts, others consider them biased because of him not patronising them. Many other scholars have expressed skepticism about the Buddhist claims. Étienne Lamotte points out that the Buddhist legends are not consistent about the location of Pushyamitra's anti-Buddhist campaign and his death: "To judge from the documents, Pushyamitra must be acquitted through lack of proof." Agreeing with him, D. Devahuti states that Pushyamitra's sudden destruction after offering rewards for Buddhist heads is "manifestly false". R. C. Mitra states that "The tales of persecution by Pushyamitra as recorded in Divyavadana and by Taranatha bear marks of evident absurdity." Central Asian and North Western Indian Buddhism weakened in the 6th century following the White Hun invasion who followed their own religions such as Tengri and Manichaean.
Around 440 CE they conquered Sogdiana conquered Gandhara and pushed on into the Gangetic Plains. Their King Mihirkula who ruled from 515 CE suppressed Buddhism, destroying monasteries as far as modern-day Allahabad before his son reversed the policy. Persecution of Buddhism started as early as soon after the death of King Ashoka. D. N. Jha writes that according to Kashmiri texts dated to the 12th century, Ashoka's Son Jalauka was shaivite and was responsible for the destruction of many Buddhist monasteries; the story of Jalauka is legendary, no independent corroboration of the Kashmir tradition has been discovered. Patanjali, a famous grammarian stated in his Mahabhashya that Brahmins and Sharamanas were eternal enemies With the emergence of Hindu rulers of the Gupta Empire, Hinduism saw a major revivalism in the Indian subcontinent which challenged Buddhism, at that time at its zenith. Though Gupta empire was tolerant towards Buddhism and patronized Buddhist arts and religious institutions, Hindu revivalism became a major threat to Buddhism which led to its decline.
A Buddhist illustrated palm leaf manuscript from Pala period is preserved in University of Cambridge library. Composed in the year 1015, the manuscript contains a note from the year 1138 by a Buddhist believer called Karunavajra which indicates that without his efforts, the manuscript would have been destroyed during a political struggle for power; the note states that'he rescued the'Perfection of Wisdom, incomparable Mother of the Omniscient' from falling into the hands of unbelievers. In 1794 Jagat Singh, Dewan of Raja Chet Singh of Banaras began excavating two pre Ashokan era stupas at Sarnath for construction material. Dharmarajika stupa was demolished and only its foundation exists today while Dhamekh stupa incurred serious damage. During excavation a green marble relic casket was discovered from Dharmarajika stupa which contained Buddha's ashes was subsequently thrown into Ganges river by Jagat Singh according to his Hindu faith; the incident was reported by a British resident and timely action of British authorities saved Dhamekh Stupa from demolition.
Emperor Wuzong of Tang indulged in indiscriminate religious persecution, solving a financial crisis by seizing the property of Buddhist monasteries. Buddhism had developed into a major religious force in China during the Tang period, its monasteries had tax-exempt status. Wuzong closed many Buddhist shrines, confiscated their property, sent the monks and nuns home to lay life. Apart from economic reasons, Wuzong's motivation was philosophical or ideological; as a zealous Taoist, he considered Buddhism a foreign religion, harmful to Chinese society. He went after other foreign religions as well, all but eradicating Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism in China, his persecution of the growing Nestorian Christian churches sent Chinese Christianity into a decline from which it never recovered. Langdarma was a Tibetan King, who reigned from 838-841 CE, he is believed to have been a follower of the Bön religion. The Oirats converted to Tibetan Buddhism around 1615; the Dzungars were a confederation of several Oirat tribes that emerged in the early 17th century.