Japan national football team

The Japan national football team, nicknamed the Samurai Blue, represents Japan in men's international football and is controlled by the Japan Football Association, the governing body for football in Japan. The current head coach is Hajime Moriyasu, the current coach of the Japan U-23 team, The team represents both FIFA and Asian Football Confederation. Japan was not a major football force until the end of the 1980s, with its team small and amateur, but since the 1990s, when Japanese football became professionalized, Japan has emerged as the most successful teams in Asia, having qualified for the last six consecutive FIFA World Cups with second round advancements in 2002, 2010, 2018, having won the AFC Asian Cup a record four times, in 1992, 2000, 2004 and 2011; the team has finished second in the 2001 FIFA Confederations Cup and the 2019 AFC Asian Cup. Their principal continental rivals are South Korea, North Korea and most Australia. Japan was the first team from outside the Americas to participate in the Copa América, having been invited in 1999, 2011, 2015, 2019 editions of the tournament, although they only played in the 1999 and 2019 events.

Japan's earliest international matches were at the 1917 Far Eastern Championship Games in Tokyo, where it was represented by a team from the Tokyo Higher Normal School. Although Japan made strong showings in swimming and track and field, its football team suffered resounding defeats to the Republic of China and the Philippines; the game was promoted in Japanese schools in the 1920s. The Japan Football Association was formed in 1921, Japan joined FIFA in May 1929. Japan's first "true" national team was fielded at the 1930 Far Eastern Championship Games, drew with China for the championship title. Shigeyoshi Suzuki coached the national team to its first Olympic appearance at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin. Japan was an entrant for the 1938 FIFA World Cup qualification, but withdrew before its scheduled qualifying match against the Dutch East Indies. After World War II began in earnest, Japan did not play in international competition, except for a handful of matches against Manchuria and other colonies.

Its last prewar match for purposes of Elo ratings was a friendly against the Philippines in June 1940. While Korea was under Japanese rule, several Koreans played in international competition for Japan, including Kim Yong-sik, Kim Sung-gan and Lee Yoo-hyung. Japan's postwar debut was in the 1951 Asian Games in India. Japan re-joined FIFA in 1950 and played in qualifiers for the 1954 FIFA World Cup, but lost the AFC qualifying berth to South Korea after two matches, beginning an intense rivalry. Japan joined the Asian Football Confederation in 1954. Dettmar Cramer joined the Japan national team as coach in 1960, helped lead the team to the round of eight at the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo. Japan's first major achievement in international football came in the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City, where the team won the bronze medal. Although this result earned the sport increased recognition in Japan, the absence of a professional domestic league hindered its growth and Japan would not qualify for the FIFA World Cup until 30 years later.

Japan made its first appearance in the Asian Cup in 1988, where they were eliminated in the group stage following a draw with Iran and losses to South Korea, the United Arab Emirates and Qatar. The late 1980s saw concrete moves to professionalize the sport in Japan. JFA introduced a Special Licensed Player system in 1986, allowing a limited number of professional players to compete in the domestic semi-professional league. Action committees were held in 1988 and 1989 to discuss the introduction of a full professional league in Japan. In 1991, the owners of the semi-professional Japan Soccer League agreed to disband the league and re-form as the professional J. League to raise the sport's profile and to strengthen the national team program; the following year Japan hosted and won the Asian Cup in their second appearance, defeating Saudi Arabia 1–0 in the final. The J. League was launched in 1993, causing interest in football and the national team to grow. However, in its first attempt to qualify with professional players, Japan narrowly missed a ticket to the 1994 World Cup after drawing with Iraq in the final match of the qualification round, remembered by fans as the "Agony of Doha".

Japan's next tournament was a defence of their continental title at the 1996 Asian Cup. The team won all their games in the group stage but were eliminated in the quarter-finals after a 2–0 loss to Kuwait; the nation's first World Cup appearance was in 1998, where Japan lost all their games. The first two fixtures went 1–0 in favour of Argentina and Croatia, despite playing well in both matches, their campaign ended with a 2–1 defeat to Jamaica. In the 2000 Asian Cup, Japan managed to reclaim their title after defeating Saudi Arabia in the final, becoming Asian Champions for the second time. Two years Japan co-hosted the 2002 World Cup with South Korea. After a 2–2 draw with Belgium in their opening match, the Japanese team advanced to the second round with a 1–0 win over Russia and a 2–0 victory against Tunisia. However, they subsequently exited the tournament during the round of 16, after losing 1–0 to eventual third-place finishers Turkey. On 8 June 2005, Japan qualified for the 2006 World Cup in Germany, its third consecutive World Cup, by beating North Korea 2–0 on neutral ground.

However, Japan failed to advance to the Round of 16, losing to Australia 1–3, drawing Croatia

T. Surendra Reddy

T. Surendra Reddy, is an Indian Cinematographer known for his works with Director Mani Shankar in the Hindi film Industry Hindi Cinema, he is known for his works in films such as Rudraksh, released on 2005. He is the pioneer of Digital filmmaking in India. 2007 "Toss" is the first Digital film in India to be shot with the Thomson Viper Filmstream camera by Surendra Reddy. He has shot on more than 50 feature films as an independent cinematographer in multiple languages and various cities, including Hyderabad, Bangalore and Mumbai. T. Surendra Reddy’s distinct experience includes feature films, commercials, television serials and shooting a wide range of formats from Negative Film stock to Digital Filming, his collaboration with Indian cinema brought out notable North and South Indian films like Rudraksh - Tango Charlie, Alexander - Kunthi Putra, Thilagam, Aa Naluguru - Pellaina Kothalo - Toss - Srimannarayana. Along with feature films, Surendra Reddy has been worked as a cameraman more than thousand TV episodes and hundreds of TV commercials.

T. Surendra Reddy was born in Parlapalli Village in Nellore District. Due to the desire to be a cameraman, he first worked as a "Mitchell studio camera" attender at "Murugalaya Studio". A few months after learning about the camera, in the profession in order to gain more knowledge. Around 40 films in 10 years span; when working with various cameramen for more excellence in the profession without wasting time, he used to read books on photography in the American Library of Madras when he had time. While working in cinemas, he was working as a helper to the television serial cameraman Sri Vijay Kumar to hold on to the ever-growing electronic media. Surendra Reddy, who had a chance to work as a cameraman for the TV serial Tenali Ramakrishna directed by Mani Shankar in 1990 and worked as a cinematographer for the film Margadarsi directed by B. S. Narayana in 1991 and made a distinctive identity in the electronic media and film industry. T. Surendra Reddy on IMDb

Battle of Jerusalem

The Battle of Jerusalem occurred during the British Empire's "Jerusalem Operations" against the Ottoman Empire, in World War I, when fighting for the city developed from 17 November, continuing after the surrender until 30 December 1917, to secure the final objective of the Southern Palestine Offensive during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of World War I. Before Jerusalem could be secured, two battles were recognised by the British as being fought in the Judean Hills to the north and east of the Hebron–Junction Station line; these were the Battle of Nebi Samwill from 17 to 24 November and the Defence of Jerusalem from 26 to 30 December 1917. They recognised within these Jerusalem Operations, the successful second attempt on 21 and 22 December 1917 to advance across the Nahr el Auja, as the Battle of Jaffa, although Jaffa had been occupied as a consequence of the Battle of Mughar Ridge on 16 November; this series of battles was fought by the British Empire's XX Corps, XXI Corps, the Desert Mounted Corps against strong opposition from the Yildirim Army Group's Seventh Army in the Judean Hills and the Eighth Army north of Jaffa on the Mediterranean coast.

The loss of Jaffa and Jerusalem, together with the loss of 50 miles of territory during the Egyptian Expeditionary Force advance from Gaza, after the capture of Beersheba, Gaza and Sheria, Tel el Khuweilfe and the Battle of Mughar Ridge, constituted a grave setback for the Ottoman Army and the Ottoman Empire. As a result of these victories, British Empire forces captured Jerusalem and established a new strategically strong fortified line; this line ran from well to the north of Jaffa on the maritime plain, across the Judean Hills to Bireh north of Jerusalem, continued eastwards of the Mount of Olives. With the capture of the road from Beersheba to Jerusalem via Hebron and Bethlehem, together with substantial Ottoman territory south of Jerusalem, the city was secured. On 11 December, General Edmund Allenby entered the Old City on foot through the Jaffa Gate instead of horse or vehicles to show respect for the holy city, he was the first Christian in many centuries to control Jerusalem, a city held holy by three great religions.

The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, David Lloyd George described the capture as "a Christmas present for the British people". The battle was a great morale boost for the British Empire. British General Edmund Allenby, Commander-in-Chief of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, had won a decisive victory against the German General Erich von Falkenhayn, commander of Ottoman forces in Palestine, at the Battle of Mughar Ridge on 13 November; the British Empire victory forced von Falkenhayn to withdraw his Seventh and Eighth Armies and move his headquarters from Jerusalem to Nablus on 14 November. As the Ottoman III Corps reached Jerusalem via the Hebron road after its defeat at Beersheba, it was ordered to develop defences around Jerusalem; this corps held the city while the XX Corps retreated from Junction Station into the Judean Hills towards Jerusalem. As they retired the XX Corps left strong rearguards to slow the British advance. Time was needed to construct defences and for reorganisation of the depleted and disorganised Seventh Army.

When they arrived in the city XX Corps took over responsibility for Jerusalem's defences, while III Corps continued to move northwards from Jerusalem along the Nablus road. The British War Cabinet had cautioned Allenby not to commit to any operations that might not be sustainable in the long term if the strength of British forces in the area could not be maintained, their concerns were linked to a peace proposal published on 8 November by the new Russian Bolshevik government between Russia and Germany. The document, scheduled to be signed on 3 March 1918, would constitute a separate peace treaty and result in the withdrawal of all Russian troops from the war. All German forces on the eastern front could turn their attention to fighting British and French forces elsewhere. Allenby was aware of the lack of accurate maps of the Judean Hills and that the history of previous campaigns in the region gave clear warnings against hasty or supported assaults on the strong western ramparts, his front-line forces had been fighting and advancing for an extended period fighting many miles from their bases and were tired and depleted.

Now 35 miles from the railhead at Deir el Belah, Allenby's troops did not have a line of defensive entrenchments behind which they could stop a concerted push by these two Ottoman armies. Such a counterattack could well see them driven back to Beersheba. Allenby reviewed the threat of counterattack and his supply situation and decided that a force large enough to attack into the Judean Hills and a separate force to operate on the maritime plain could be maintained far from base, he decided to attack Fevzi Pasha's Ottoman 7th Army in the Judean Hills with the hope of capturing Jerusalem. This would keep pressure on this army in the hope of denying them time to complete their reorganisation, dig deep trenches or worst of all, counterattack; the planned advance into the Judean Hills would rely on the ability of the lines of communications to keep the front line troops supplied with food and ammunition. These were operating at considerable distances from the railhead and base areas, as a result the advance was forced to pause on 17 November to enable supplies to be brought forward by columns under corps control, sent back to railhead for rations and supplies.

Transporting supplies forward from railhead was a slow but continuous 24-hour-a-day business, because the Ottoman Army had destroyed as much of their infrastructure as they could during