The Rabbit is the fourth of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. The Year of the Rabbit is associated with the Earthly Branch symbol 卯. In the Vietnamese zodiac and the Gurung zodiac, the cat takes the place of the Rabbit. People born within these date ranges can be said to have been born in the "Year of the Rabbit", while bearing the following elemental sign: Rabbit
Sashimi is a Japanese delicacy consisting of fresh raw fish or meat sliced into thin pieces and eaten with soy sauce. The word sashimi 身 = mi; this word dates from the Muromachi period, was coined when the word "切る" = kiru, the culinary step, was considered too inauspicious to be used by anyone other than samurai. This word may derive from the culinary practice of sticking the fish's tail and fin to the slices for the purpose of identifying the fish being eaten. Another possibility for the name could come from the traditional method of harvesting. "Sashimi-grade" fish is caught by individual handline. As soon as the fish is landed, its brain is pierced with a sharp spike, it is placed in slurried ice; this spiking is called the ikejime process, the instantaneous death means that the fish's flesh contains a minimal amount of lactic acid. This means that the fish will keep fresh on ice for about ten days, without turning white or otherwise degrading. Many non-Japanese use the terms sashimi and sushi interchangeably, but the two dishes are distinct and separate.
Sushi refers to any dish made with vinegared rice. While raw fish is one traditional sushi ingredient, many sushi dishes contain seafood, cooked, others have no seafood at all. Sashimi is the first course in a formal Japanese meal, but it can be the main course, presented with rice and miso soup in separate bowls. Japanese chefs consider sashimi the finest dish in Japanese formal dining and recommend that it be eaten before other strong flavors affect the palate; the sliced seafood that composes the main ingredient is draped over a garnish. The typical garnish is Asian white radish, shredded into long thin strands, or single leaves of the shiso herb. Sashimi is popularly served with a dipping sauce and condiments such as wasabi paste, grated fresh ginger, grated fresh garlic, or ponzu for meat sashimi, such garnishes as shiso and shredded daikon radish. Wasabi paste is sometimes mixed directly into soy sauce as a dipping sauce, not done when eating sushi. Another way to flavor soy sauce with wasabi is to place the wasabi mound into the soy sauce dish and pour it in.
This allows the wasabi to infuse the soy sauce more subtly. A reputed motivation for serving wasabi with sashimi, besides its flavor, is killing harmful bacteria and parasites that could be present in raw seafood. Other garnishes, more common in Japan than overseas, include red water pepper sprouts beni-tade and a small chrysanthemum kogiku; the chrysanthemum, unlike other garnishes, is not intended to be eaten, in cheap service may be substituted with a plastic flower. To highlight the fish's appearance, the chef cuts it into different thicknesses; the hira-zukuri cut, which translates into "rectangular slice", is the standard cut for most sashimi. This style of cut is the size of a domino and 10 mm thick. Tuna and kingfish are most cut in this style; the usu-zukuri cut, which translates to "thin slice", is an thin, diagonally cut slice, used to cut firm fish, such as bream and flounder. The dimensions of this fish is 50 mm long and 2 mm wide; the kaku-zukuri cut, which translates to "square slice", is the style in which sashimi is cut into small, thick cubes that are 20 mm on each side.
The ito-zukuri cut, which translates into "thread slice," is the style in which the fish is cut into thin sheets, less than 2 mm thick. The fish cut with the ito-zukuri style include garfish and squid; the most popular main ingredients for sashimi includes: Salmon Squid Shrimp Tuna Mackerel Horse Mackerel Octopus Fatty tuna Yellowtail Scallop Sea urchin Some sashimi ingredients, such as octopus, are sometimes served cooked given its chewy nature. Most seafood, such as tuna and squid, are served raw. Tataki is a type of sashimi, it is and seared on the outside, leaving it raw inside. Less common, but not unusual, sashimi ingredients are vegetarian items, such as yuba, raw red meats, such as beef or horse. Chicken "sashimi" is considered by some to be a delicacy. Chicken sashimi is sometimes braised on the outside; as a raw food, consuming sashimi can result in foodborne illness when bacteria or parasites are present. In addition, incorrectly prepared Fugu fish may contain tetrodotoxin, a potent neurotoxin.
Another type of food borne illness that could occur after consuming tainted sashimi is Diphyllobothriasis. This disease is an infection within the intestines that occurs when the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum is consumed. Common fish such as trout, salmon and sea bass harbor this parasitic larvae in their muscles. Due to the new innovation of the chilled transport system paired with the salmon and trout consumption, an increasing number of cases have been recorded annually in northern Japan due to the spread of this disease. Traditionally, fish that spend at least part of their
The Rooster is the tenth of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. The Year of the Rooster is represented by the Earthly Branch symbol 酉; the name is translated into English as Chicken. In the Tibetan zodiac and the Gurung zodiac, the bird is in place of the Rooster. People born within these date ranges can be said to have been born in the "Year of the Rooster", while bearing the following elemental signs: Rooster Birds in Chinese mythology Fenghuang Donna Stellhorn. Chinese Astrology: 2017 Year of the Fire Rooster. ETC Publishing. P. 300. ISBN 978-1-944-622-16-9. Neil Somerville; the Rooster in 2016: Your Chinese Horoscope. 2017-02-22. Thorsons/HarperCollins. P. 320. ISBN 9780008138165. Neil Somerville. Your Chinese Horoscope 2017: What the Year of the Rooster holds in store for you. 2017-02-16. Thorsons/HarperCollins. P. 320. ISBN 9780008144531. Peter So. Kaori Working House, ed. Your Fate in 2017 - The Year of the Rooster. Translated by Jay Lowe. P. 457.
ISBN 978-962-14-61-71-1. Ted E. Bear Press. 2017 Year of the Rooster. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. P. 196. ISBN 9781542711012
The Dragon is the fifth of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. The Year of the Dragon is associated with pronounced chen, it has been proposed by one academic researcher that the Earthly Branch character may have been associated with scorpions. In the Buddhist calendar used in Thailand, Laos and Sri Lanka, the Dragon is replaced by the nāga. In the Gurung zodiac, the Dragon is replaced by the eagle. People born within these date ranges can be said to have been born in the "Year of the Dragon", while bearing the following elemental sign: There are marked spikes in the birth rates of countries that use the Chinese zodiac or places with substantial Overseas Chinese populations during the year of the Dragon, because such "Dragon babies" are considered to be lucky and have desirable characteristics that lead to better life outcomes; the recent phenomenon of planning a child’s birth in the Dragon year has led to hospital overcapacity issues and an uptick in infant mortality rates toward the end of these years due to strained neonatal resources.
Among the 12 animal signs, the Monkey has the most tacit understanding with the Dragon people. The cunning Rat can be a good partner with the Dragon to make something big; the Dragon people can live with the Snake, for the Snake can prevent the Dragon from behaving outrageously. People under the signs of the Rooster, Rabbit, Goat and Horse like to be friends with the Dragon, as they admire the Dragon's beautiful bearing and strength. Two Dragons can get along well with each other. However, the relationship between the Dragon and the Ox people is tense, because both of them are majestic; the people whom the Dragon feels headaches with the most are the Dog people. They feel uncomfortable due to the Dog's close guard
Mochi is Japanese rice cake made of mochigome, a short-grain japonica glutinous rice. The rice is molded into the desired shape. In Japan it is traditionally made in a ceremony called mochitsuki. While eaten year-round, mochi is a traditional food for the Japanese New Year and is sold and eaten during that time. Mochi is a multicomponent food consisting of polysaccharides, lipids and water. Mochi has a heterogeneous structure of amylopectin gel, starch grains, air bubbles; this rice is characterized by its low level of amylose starch, is derived from short- or medium-grain japonica rices. The protein concentration of the rice is higher than that of normal short-grain rice, the two differ in amylose content. In mochi rice, the amylose content is negligible, the amylopectin level is high, which results in its gel-like consistency. Mochi is similar to dango, but is made using pounded whole grains while dango are made of rice flour; the pounding process of making mochi originates from China, where glutinous rice has been grown and used for thousands of years.
A number of Aboriginal Chinese tribes have used this process as part of their traditions. In folklore, the first mochitsuki ceremony occurred after the Kami are said to have descended to Earth, following the birth of rice cultivation in Yamato during the Yayoi period. Red rice was the original variation used in the production of mochi. At this time, it was eaten by the emperor and nobles due to its status as an omen of good fortune. During the Japanese Heian period, mochi was used as a "food for the gods" and in religious offerings in Shinto rituals performed by aristocrats. In addition to general good fortune, mochi was known as a talisman for happy marriages; the first recorded accounts of mochi being used as a part of New Year's festivities are from the Japanese Heian period. The nobles of the imperial court believed that long strands of freshly made mochi symbolized long life and well-being, while dried mochi helped strengthen one's teeth. Accounts of it can be found in the oldest Japanese novel, The Tale of Genji.
Mochi continues to be one of the traditional foods eaten around Japanese New Year, as it is sold and consumed in abundance around this time. A special type, called kagami mochi, is placed on family altars on December 28 each year. Kagami mochi is composed of two spheres of mochi stacked on top of one another, topped with an orange. On this occasion, practiced by the samurai, the round rice cakes of kagami mochi would be broken, thus symbolizing the mirror's opening and the ending of the New Year's celebrations. Kagami mochi is a New Year decoration, traditionally broken and eaten in a ritual called kagami biraki. Zōni is a soup containing rice cakes, it is eaten on New Year's Day. In addition to mochi, zoni contains vegetables such as taro, carrot and red and white colored kamaboko. Kinako mochi is traditionally made on New Year's Day as an emblem of luck; this style of mochi preparation involves roasting the mochi over a fire or stove dipping it into water coating it with sugar and kinako. The cherry is a symbol of Japan and signifies the onset of full-fledged spring.
Sakuramochi is a pink-coloured mochi surrounding sweet anko and wrapped in an edible, salted cherry leaf. Children's Day is celebrated in Japan on May 5. On this day, the Japanese promote the well-being of children. Kashiwa-mochi and chimaki are made for this celebration. Kashiwa-mochi is white mochi surrounding a sweet anko filling with a Kashiwa oak leaf wrapped around it. Chimaki is a variation of a dango wrapped in bamboo leaves. Hishi mochi is a ceremonial dessert presented as a ritual offering on the days leading up to Hinamatsuri or "Girls' Day" in Japan. Hishi mochi is rhomboid-shaped mochi with layers of red and white; the three layers are coloured with jasmine flowers, water caltrop, mugwort. Traditionally, mochi was made in a labor-intensive process; the traditional mochi-pounding ceremony in Japan is mochitsuki: Polished glutinous rice is soaked overnight and steamed. The steamed rice is pounded with wooden mallets in a traditional mortar; the work involves two people, one pounding and the other turning and wetting the substance the mochi.
They must keep a steady rhythm or they may accidentally injure each other with the heavy kine. The sticky mass can be eaten or formed into various shapes. Mochi is prepared from a flour of sweet rice; the flour is mixed with water and cooked on a stovetop or in the microwave until it forms a sticky, white mass. This process is performed twice, the mass is stirred in between until it becomes malleable and transparent. With modern equipment, mochi can be made at home, with the technology automating the laborious dough pounding. Household mochi appliances provide a suitable space where the environment of the dough can be controlled; the assembly-line sections in mochi production control these aspects: Viscoelasticity or the products' chewiness by selecting specific species of rice Consistency of the dough during automated pounding process Size Flavourings and fillings Varieties of glutinous and waxy rice are produced as major raw material for mochi. The rice is chosen for tensile compressibility.
One study found that in Kantomochi rice 172 and BC3, amylopectin distribution varied and affected the hardness of mochi. Kantomochi rice produced harder, grainy textures, all undesirable qualities except for ease of cutting. For mass p
New Year's Day
New Year's Day simply called New Year or New Year's, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar. In pre-Christian Rome under the Julian calendar, the day was dedicated to Janus, god of gateways and beginnings, for whom January is named; as a date in the Gregorian calendar of Christendom, New Year's Day liturgically marked the Feast of the Naming and Circumcision of Jesus, still observed as such in the Anglican Church and Lutheran Church. In present day, with most countries now using the Gregorian calendar as their de facto calendar, New Year's Day is the most celebrated public holiday observed with fireworks at the stroke of midnight as the new year starts in each time zone. Other global New Year's Day traditions include making New Year's resolutions and calling one's friends and family. Mesopotamia instituted the concept of celebrating the new year in 2000 BC and celebrated new year around the time of the vernal equinox, in mid-March.
The early Roman calendar designated March 1 as the first day of the year. The calendar had just ten months, beginning with March; that the new year once began with the month of March is still reflected in some of the names of the months. September through December, our ninth through twelfth months, were positioned as the seventh through tenth months. Roman legend credited their second king Numa with the establishment of the months of Ianuarius and Februarius; these were first placed at the end of the year, but at some point came to be considered the first two months instead. The January Kalends came to be celebrated as the new year at some point after it became the day for the inaugurating new consuls in 153 BC. Romans had long dated their years by these consulships, rather than sequentially, making the kalends of January start the new year aligned this dating. Still and religious celebrations around the March new year continued for some time and there is no consensus on the question of the timing for January 1's new status.
Once it became the new year, however, it became a time for family celebrations. A series of disasters, notably including the failed rebellion of M. Aemilius Lepidus in 78 BC, established a superstition against allowing Rome's market days to fall on the kalends of January and the pontiffs employed intercalation to avoid its occurrence. In 567 AD, the Council of Tours formally abolished January 1 as the beginning of the year. At various times and in various places throughout medieval Christian Europe, the new year was celebrated on December 25 in honor of the birth of Jesus; these days were astronomically and astrologically significant since, at the time of the Julian reform, March 25 had been understood as the spring equinox and December 25 as the winter solstice. Medieval calendars nonetheless continued to display the months running from January to December, despite their readers reckoning the transition from one year to the next on a different day. Among the 7th century pagans of Flanders and the Netherlands, it was the custom to exchange gifts on the first day of the new year.
This custom was deplored by Saint Eligius, who warned the Flemish and Dutch: " make vetulas, little deer or iotticos or set tables at night or exchange New Year gifts or supply superfluous drinks." However, on the date that European Christians celebrated the New Year, they exchanged Christmas presents because New Year's Day fell within the twelve days of the Christmas season in the Western Christian liturgical calendar. Because of the leap year error in the Julian calendar, the date of Easter had drifted backward since the First Council of Nicaea decided the computation of the date of Easter in 325. By the sixteenth century, the drift from the observed equinox had become unacceptable. In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII declared the Gregorian calendar used today, correcting the error by a deletion of 10 days; the Gregorian calendar reform restored January 1 as New Year's Day. Although most Catholic countries adopted the Gregorian calendar immediately, it was only adopted among Protestant countries; the British, for example, did not adopt the reformed calendar until 1752.
Until the British Empire – and its American colonies – still celebrated the new year on March 25. Most nations of Western Europe adopted January 1 as New Year's Day somewhat before they adopted the Gregorian Calendar. In Tudor England, New Year's Day, along with Christmas Day and Twelfth Night, was celebrated as one of three main festivities among the twelve days of Christmastide. There, until the adoption of the Gregorian Calendar in 1752, the first day of the new year was the Western Christian Feast of the Annunciation, on March 25 called "Lady Day". Dates predicated on the year beginning on March 25 became known as Annunciation Style dates, while dates of the Gregorian Calendar commencing on January 1 were distinguished as Circumcision Style dates, because this was the date of the Feast of the Circumcision, the observed memorial of the eighth day of Jesus Christ's l
The Meiji period, or Meiji era, is an era of Japanese history which extended from October 23, 1868 to July 30, 1912. This era represents the first half of the Empire of Japan, during which period the Japanese people moved from being an isolated feudal society at risk of colonisation by European powers to the new paradigm of a modern, industrialised nationstate and emergent great power, influenced by Western scientific, philosophical, political and aesthetic ideas; as a result of such wholesale adoption of radically-different ideas, the changes to Japan were profound, affected its social structure, internal politics, economy and foreign relations. The period corresponded to the reign of Emperor Meiji and was succeeded upon the accession of Emperor Taishō by the Taishō period. On February 3, 1867, the 14-year-old Prince Mutsuhito succeeded his father, Emperor Kōmei, to the Chrysanthemum Throne as the 122nd emperor. On November 9, 1867, then-shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu tendered his resignation to the Emperor, formally stepped down ten days later.
Imperial restoration occurred the next year on January 3, 1868, with the formation of the new government. The fall of Edo in the summer of 1868 marked the end of the Tokugawa shogunate, a new era, was proclaimed; the first reform was the promulgation of the Five Charter Oath in 1868, a general statement of the aims of the Meiji leaders to boost morale and win financial support for the new government. Its five provisions consisted of: Establishment of deliberative assemblies. Implicit in the Charter Oath was an end to exclusive political rule by the bakufu, a move toward more democratic participation in government. To implement the Charter Oath, a rather short-lived constitution with eleven articles was drawn up in June 1868. Besides providing for a new Council of State, legislative bodies, systems of ranks for nobles and officials, it limited office tenure to four years, allowed public balloting, provided for a new taxation system, ordered new local administrative rules; the Meiji government assured the foreign powers that it would follow the old treaties negotiated by the bakufu and announced that it would act in accordance with international law.
Mutsuhito, to reign until 1912, selected a new reign title—Meiji, or Enlightened Rule—to mark the beginning of a new era in Japanese history. To further dramatize the new order, the capital was relocated from Kyoto, where it had been situated since 794, to Tokyo, the new name for Edo. In a move critical for the consolidation of the new regime, most daimyōs voluntarily surrendered their land and census records to the Emperor in the abolition of the Han system, symbolizing that the land and people were under the Emperor's jurisdiction. Confirmed in their hereditary positions, the daimyo became governors, the central government assumed their administrative expenses and paid samurai stipends; the han were replaced with prefectures in 1871, authority continued to flow to the national government. Officials from the favored former han, such as Satsuma, Chōshū, Hizen staffed the new ministries. Old court nobles, lower-ranking but more radical samurai, replaced bakufu appointees and daimyo as a new ruling class appeared.
In as much as the Meiji Restoration had sought to return the Emperor to a preeminent position, efforts were made to establish a Shinto-oriented state much like it was 1,000 years earlier. Since Shinto and Buddhism had molded into a syncretic belief in the prior one-thousand years and Buddhism had been connected with the shogunate, this involved the separation of Shinto and Buddhism and the associated destruction of various Buddhist temples and related violence. Furthermore, a new State Shinto had to be constructed for the purpose. In 1871, the Office of Shinto Worship was established, ranking above the Council of State in importance; the kokutai ideas of the Mito school were embraced, the divine ancestry of the Imperial House was emphasized. The government supported a small but important move. Although the Office of Shinto Worship was demoted in 1872, by 1877 the Home Ministry controlled all Shinto shrines and certain Shinto sects were given state recognition. Shinto was released from Buddhist administration and its properties restored.
Although Buddhism suffered from state sponsorship of Shinto, it had its own resurgence. Christianity was legalized, Confucianism remained an important ethical doctrine. However, Japanese thinkers identified with Western ideology and methods. A major proponent of representative government was Itagaki Taisuke, a powerful Tosa leader who had resigned from the Council of State over the Korean affair in 1873. Itagaki sought peaceful, rather than rebellious, he started a school and a movement aimed at establishing a constitutional monarchy and a legislative assembly. Such movements were called People's Rights Movement. Itagaki and others wrote the Tosa Memorial in 1874, criticizing the unbridled power of the oligarchy and calling for the immediate establishment of representative government. Between 1871 and 1873, a series of land and tax laws were enacted as the basis for modern fiscal policy. Private ownership was legalized, deeds were issued, lands were assessed at fair market value with taxes paid in cash rather than in k