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Japanese addressing system

The Japanese addressing system is used to identify a specific location in Japan. When written in Japanese characters, addresses start with the largest geographical entity and proceed to the most specific one; when written in Latin characters, addresses follow the convention used by most Western addresses and start with the smallest geographic entity and proceed to the largest. The Japanese system is complex and idiosyncratic, the product of the natural growth of urban areas, as opposed to the systems used in cities that are laid out as grids and divided into quadrants or districts. Japanese addresses begin with the largest division of the prefecture. Most of these are called ken, but there are three other special prefecture designations: to for Tokyo, dō for Hokkaidō and fu for the two urban prefectures of Osaka and Kyoto. Following the prefecture is the municipality. For a large municipality this is the city. Cities with a large enough population, called designated cities, can be further broken down into wards.

For smaller municipalities, the address includes the district followed by the village. In Japan, a city is separate from districts, which contain villages. For addressing purposes, municipalities may be aza. Despite using the same character as town, the machi here is purely a unit of address, not administration. There are two common schemes: Municipality is divided first into machi and into city districts. Example: 台東区 Municipality is divided into ōaza, which may be divided into aza, which may in turn be divided into koaza. Example: 青森市 However, exceptions abound, the line between the schemes is blurry as there are no clear delimiters for machi, etc. There are some municipalities like Ryūgasaki, Ibaraki which do not use any subdivisions. Below this level, two styles of addressing are possible. In the newer jūkyo hyōji style, enacted into law by the 1962 Act on Indication of Residential Address and used by the majority of the country, the next level is the city block, always followed by the building number.

Building 10 in block 5 would be formally written as 5番10号. For apartment buildings, the apartment number may be appended to the building with a hyphen, so apartment 103 in the aforementioned building would be 5番10-103号. In the older chiban style, still used in some rural and older city areas, the next level is the lot number, optionally followed by a lot number extension; the lot number designates a plot of land registered in the land registry, a lot number extension is assigned when a piece of land is divided into two or more pieces in the registry. This can be written as any of 3番地5, 3番地の5 or 3番5. Land not designated by the registry is known with any dwellings there being bangaichi. In both styles, since all address elements from chōme down are numeric, in casual use it is common to form them into a string separated by hyphens or the possessive suffix の, resulting in Asakusa 4-5-10 or Asakusa 4の5の10; this renders the two styles indistinguishable, but since each municipality adopts one style or the other, there is no risk of ambiguity.

The apartment number may be appended, resulting in 4-5-10-103. Street names are used in postal addresses, most Japanese streets do not have names. Banchi blocks have an irregular shape, as banchi numbers were assigned by order of registration in the older system, meaning that in older areas of the city they will not run in a linear order, it is for this reason that when giving directions to a location, most people will offer cross streets, visual landmarks and subway stations, such as "at Chūō-dori and Matsuya-dori across the street from Matsuya and Ginza station" for a store in Tokyo. In fact, many businesses have maps on their business cards. In addition, signs attached to utility poles specify the city district name and block number, detailed block maps of the immediate area are sometimes posted near bus stops and train station exits. In addition to the address itself, all locations in Japan have a postal code. After the reform of 1998, this begins with a three-digit number, a hyphen, a four-digit number, for example 123-4567.

A postal mark, 〒, may precede the code to indicate. In Japanese, the address is written in order from largest unit to smallest, with the addressee's name last of all. For example, the address of the Tokyo Central Post Office is 〒100-8994 東京都中央区八重洲一丁目5番3号 東京中央郵便局〒100-8994 Tōkyō-to Chūō-ku Yaesu 1-Chōme 5-ban 3-gō Tōkyō Chūō Yūbin-kyokuor 〒100-8994 東京都中央区八重洲1-5-3 東京中央郵便局〒100-8994 Tōkyō-to Chūō-ku Yaesu 1-5-3 Tōkyō Chūō Yūbin-kyokuThe order is reversed when writing in roman letters, to better suit Western conventions; the format recommended by Japan Post is: Tokyo Central Post Office5-3, Yaesu 1-ChomeChuo-ku, Tokyo 100-8994In this address, Tokyo is the prefecture. In practice it is common for

Charles Montgomery Rivaz

Sir Charles Montgomery Rivaz was a colonial administrator in British India, Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab 1902-1907. Rivaz was born in 1845, the son of John Theophilus Rivaz, of Watford Hall, who served as a civilian for 30 years in the North-Western Provinces, his maternal grandfather had served in India, in the Bengal Civil Service, three brothers all served or held office in British India, including Colonel Vincent Rivaz, CB. He was educated at Blackheath Proprietary School, went to the Punjab in 1864. Rivaz served in various posts in Punjab, he was for a time superintendent of the Kapurthala State a 1st Finance Commissioner and Member of the Legislative Council of Punjab Province. He was a temporary Member of the Council of the Viceroy of India from 1897, a permanent member from May 1898. In 1899, he was responsible for proposing what became the Punjab Land Alienation Act, 1900. On 6 March 1902 he took up the position as Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab, where he is remembered for promoting irrigation.

He was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Star of India in the Birthday Honours List 25 May 1895, in the 1901 New Year Honours list was promoted to a Knight Commander of the same order. He died at his residence in London 7 October 1926. Rivaz married, in 1874, Emilie Agnew, daughter of Major-General Agnew. Lady Rivaz died at Kensington 2 January 1941, they had three sons.

Wauseon, Ohio

Wauseon is a city in and the county seat of Fulton County, United States 31 mi west of Toledo. The population was 7,332 at the 2010 census. Wauseon was platted 1853. Land speculators bought 160 acres of land; the original name for the city was "Litchfield" after Litchfield, New York, where many of the city's new settlers had emigrated from. However, Hortensia Hayes, the daughter of an early settler, suggested that the new village be named after an Ottawa Tribe Chief named Wauseon, forced by the federal government to forfeit their land, before moving to Oklahoma in 1839; the village was incorporated in 1859. With the commercial success that the railroad brought, Wauseon would grow larger than the original seat of Fulton County, in 1869 Wauseon was named the county seat; the Fulton County Courthouse was built in 1871. Between 1901 and 1939, the community was served by the Toledo and Indiana Railway, an interurban between Toledo and Bryan, Ohio; the construction of the Ohio Turnpike in the mid 20th century helped lead to the commercial growth of Wauseon.

Wauseon is located at 41°33′8″N 84°8′21″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.19 square miles, of which 5.17 square miles is land and 0.02 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 7,332 people, 2,798 households, 1,939 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,418.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,061 housing units at an average density of 592.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90.3% White, 0.9% African American, 0.3% Native American, 1.0% Asian, 5.2% from other races, 2.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.2% of the population. There were 2,798 households of which 38.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.4% were married couples living together, 13.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 30.7% were non-families. 26.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.10. The median age in the city was 35.4 years. 28.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.9% male and 52.1% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 7,091 people, 2,706 households, 1,875 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,437.6 people per square mile. There were 2,851 housing units at an average density of 578.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.77% White, 0.55% African American, 0.37% Native American, 0.82% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 4.02% from other races, 1.47% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.79% of the population. There were 2,706 households out of which 37.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.0% were married couples living together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.7% were non-families. 26.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.13. In the city the population was spread out with 29.1% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 28.8% from 25 to 44, 20.5% from 45 to 64, 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $39,591, the median income for a family was $48,981. Males had a median income of $32,645 versus $24,042 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,491. About 3.9% of families and 5.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.5% of those under age 18 and 1.7% of those age 65 or over. Wauseon Exempted Village School District operates four schools within the city: a primary school, elementary school, middle school, Wauseon High School; the library was funded by tycoon and entrepreneur Andrew Carnegie in 1906. In 2005, the library loaned more than 238,000 items to its 20,000 cardholders.

Total holdings in 2005 were over 91,000 volumes with over 210 periodical subscriptions. From 2016-2017 the library underwent a major renovation, fixing the crumbling foundation of the library building; the library temporarily moved out to the former location of Bill's Lockeroom on Shoop Avenue until mid April 2017 before moving back in to the original library building on Elm Street. Fulton County Health Center is a rural critical access hospital that includes an emergency department with a heliport for medical evacuation. Biddle Park, opened in 2009, is a 52-acre sports complex and park that consists of 8 baseball/softball fields, 3 T-ball fields, batting cages, 3 basketball courts, 3 sand volleyball courts, a football field, 9 soccer pitchers; the park will add 4 more baseball/softball fields before being completed. Biddle Park hosts many events each summer, city league youth sports, multi state baseball and softball tournaments, NWOAL league tournaments, the city's 4th of July Fireworks display.

The park is named after Dorothy Biddle, who donated 1.7 million dollars to the building of the park in 2003. City of Wauseon Pool, opened in 2018, consists of two diving boards, two large slides, along with a zero depth entry which include tumble buckets and a few drop for the l