Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental questions about existence, values, reason and language. Such questions are posed as problems to be studied or resolved; the term was coined by Pythagoras. Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, systematic presentation. Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it? What is most real? Philosophers pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust? Do humans have free will? "philosophy" encompassed any body of knowledge. From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, "natural philosophy" encompassed astronomy and physics. For example, Newton's 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy became classified as a book of physics. In the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize.
In the modern era, some investigations that were traditionally part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including psychology, sociology and economics. Other investigations related to art, politics, or other pursuits remained part of philosophy. For example, is beauty objective or subjective? Are there many scientific methods or just one? Is political utopia a hopeful dream or hopeless fantasy? Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics, ethics, political philosophy and philosophy of science. Traditionally, the term "philosophy" referred to any body of knowledge. In this sense, philosophy is related to religion, natural science and politics. Newton's 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy is classified in the 2000s as a book of physics. In the first part of the first book of his Academics, Cicero introduced the division of philosophy into logic and ethics. Metaphysical philosophy was the study of existence, God, logic and other abstract objects; this division has changed.
Natural philosophy has split into the various natural sciences astronomy, chemistry and cosmology. Moral philosophy still includes value theory. Metaphysical philosophy has birthed formal sciences such as logic and philosophy of science, but still includes epistemology and others. Many philosophical debates that began in ancient times are still debated today. Colin McGinn and others claim. Chalmers and others, by contrast, see progress in philosophy similar to that in science, while Talbot Brewer argued that "progress" is the wrong standard by which to judge philosophical activity. In one general sense, philosophy is associated with wisdom, intellectual culture and a search for knowledge. In that sense, all cultures and literate societies ask philosophical questions such as "how are we to live" and "what is the nature of reality". A broad and impartial conception of philosophy finds a reasoned inquiry into such matters as reality and life in all world civilizations. Western philosophy is the philosophical tradition of the Western world and dates to Pre-Socratic thinkers who were active in Ancient Greece in the 6th century BCE such as Thales and Pythagoras who practiced a "love of wisdom" and were termed physiologoi.
Socrates was a influential philosopher, who insisted that he possessed no wisdom but was a pursuer of wisdom. Western philosophy can be divided into three eras: Ancient, Medieval philosophy, Modern philosophy; the Ancient era was dominated by Greek philosophical schools which arose out of the various pupils of Socrates, such as Plato, who founded the Platonic Academy and his student Aristotle, founding the Peripatetic school, who were both influential in Western tradition. Other traditions include Cynicism, Greek Skepticism and Epicureanism. Important topics covered by the Greeks included metaphysics, the nature of the well-lived life, the possibility of knowledge and the nature of reason. With the rise of the Roman empire, Greek philosophy was increasingly discussed in Latin by Romans such as Cicero and Seneca. Medieval philosophy is the period following the fall of the Western Roman Empire and was dominated by the ris
Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts, expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual ideas, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power. In their most general form these activities include the production of works of art, the criticism of art, the study of the history of art, the aesthetic dissemination of art; the three classical branches of art are painting and architecture. Music, film and other performing arts, as well as literature and other media such as interactive media, are included in a broader definition of the arts; until the 17th century, art referred to any skill or mastery and was not differentiated from crafts or sciences. In modern usage after the 17th century, where aesthetic considerations are paramount, the fine arts are separated and distinguished from acquired skills in general, such as the decorative or applied arts. Though the definition of what constitutes art is disputed and has changed over time, general descriptions mention an idea of imaginative or technical skill stemming from human agency and creation.
The nature of art and related concepts, such as creativity and interpretation, are explored in a branch of philosophy known as aesthetics. In the perspective of the history of art, artistic works have existed for as long as humankind: from early pre-historic art to contemporary art. One early sense of the definition of art is related to the older Latin meaning, which translates to "skill" or "craft," as associated with words such as "artisan." English words derived from this meaning include artifact, artifice, medical arts, military arts. However, there are many other colloquial uses of all with some relation to its etymology. Over time, philosophers like Plato, Aristotle and Kant, among others, questioned the meaning of art. Several dialogues in Plato tackle questions about art: Socrates says that poetry is inspired by the muses, is not rational, he speaks approvingly of this, other forms of divine madness in the Phaedrus, yet in the Republic wants to outlaw Homer's great poetic art, laughter as well.
In Ion, Socrates gives no hint of the disapproval of Homer. The dialogue Ion suggests that Homer's Iliad functioned in the ancient Greek world as the Bible does today in the modern Christian world: as divinely inspired literary art that can provide moral guidance, if only it can be properly interpreted. With regards to the literary art and the musical arts, Aristotle considered epic poetry, comedy, dithyrambic poetry and music to be mimetic or imitative art, each varying in imitation by medium and manner. For example, music imitates with the media of rhythm and harmony, whereas dance imitates with rhythm alone, poetry with language; the forms differ in their object of imitation. Comedy, for instance, is a dramatic imitation of men worse than average. Lastly, the forms differ in their manner of imitation—through narrative or character, through change or no change, through drama or no drama. Aristotle believed that imitation is natural to mankind and constitutes one of mankind's advantages over animals.
The more recent and specific sense of the word art as an abbreviation for creative art or fine art emerged in the early 17th century. Fine art refers to a skill used to express the artist's creativity, or to engage the audience's aesthetic sensibilities, or to draw the audience towards consideration of more refined or finer work of art. Within this latter sense, the word art may refer to several things: a study of a creative skill, a process of using the creative skill, a product of the creative skill, or the audience's experience with the creative skill; the creative arts are a collection of disciplines which produce artworks that are compelled by a personal drive and convey a message, mood, or symbolism for the perceiver to interpret. Art is something that stimulates an individual's thoughts, beliefs, or ideas through the senses. Works of art can be explicitly made for this purpose or interpreted on the basis of images or objects. For some scholars, such as Kant, the sciences and the arts could be distinguished by taking science as representing the domain of knowledge and the arts as representing the domain of the freedom of artistic expression.
If the skill is being used in a common or practical way, people will consider it a craft instead of art. If the skill is being used in a commercial or industrial way, it may be considered commercial art instead of fine art. On the other hand and design are sometimes considered applied art; some art followers have argued that the difference between fine art and applied art has more to do with value judgments made about the art than any clear definitional difference. However fine art has goals beyond pure creativity and self-expression; the purpose of works of art may be to communicate ideas, such as in politically, spiritually, or philosophically motivated art. The purpose may be nonexistent; the nature of art has been described by philosopher Richard Wollheim as "one of the most elusive of the traditional problems of human culture". Art has been defined as a vehicle for the expression or communication of emotions and ideas, a means for exp
Ikebana is the Japanese art of flower arrangement. It is known as Kadō; the tradition dates back to the 7th century. They were placed in the tokonoma of a home. Ikebana reached its first zenith in the 16th century under the influence of Buddhist tea masters and has grown over the centuries, with over 1,000 different schools in Japan and abroad. Kadō is counted as one of the three classical Japanese arts of refinement, along with kōdō for incense appreciation and chadō for tea and the tea ceremony. "Ikebana" is from hana. Possible translations include "giving life to flowers" and "arranging flowers". Plants play an important role in the native Shinto religion. Yorishiro are objects. Evergreen plants such as kadomatsu are a traditional decoration of the New Year placed in pairs in front of homes to welcome ancestral spirits or kami of the harvest; the pastime of viewing plants and appreciating flowers throughout the four seasons was established in Japan early on through the aristocracy. Waka poetry anthologies such as the Man'yōshū and Kokin Wakashū from the Heian period included many poems on the topic of flowers.
During this time, Buddhism was introduced to Japan starting in the 6th century through China and Korea. Offering flowers at Buddhist altars became common. Although the lotus is used in India where Buddhism originated, in Japan other native flowers for each season were selected for this purpose. While in China the Buddhist priests were the first instructors of flower arrangement, in Japan they only introduced its crudest elements. For a long time the art had no meaning and was the placing in vases, without system, of the flowers to be used as temple offerings and before ancestral shrines; the first flower arrangements worked out with a system were known as shin-no-hana, meaning "central flower arrangement". A huge branch of pine or cryptomeria stood in the middle, around the tree were placed three or five seasonable flowers; these branches and stems were put in vases in upright positions without attempt at artificial curves. Symmetrical in form, the arrangements appeared in Japanese religious pictures of the 14th century.
It was the first attempt to represent natural scenery. The large tree in the center represented distant scenery, plum or cherry blossoms middle distance, little flowering plants the foreground; the lines of these arrangements were known as sub-centre. On, among other types of Buddhist offering, placing mitsu-gusoku became popular in the Kamakura and Nanboku-chō periods. Various Buddhist scriptures have been named after flowers such as the Hokke-kyo; the Chōjū-jinbutsu-giga depicts lotus being offered by a monk in front of a frog mimicking the Buddha. With the development of the shoin-zukuri architectural style starting in the Muromachi period and containers could be suitable displayed as art objects in the oshiita, a precursor to the tokonoma alcove, the chigaidana, two-leveled shelves. Displayed in these spaces were flower arrangements in vases that influenced the interior decorations, which became simpler and more exquisite; this style of decoration was called zashiki kazari. The set of three ceremonial objects at the Buddhist altar called mitsugusoku consisted of candles lit in holders, a censer, flowers in a vase.
The flowers in the vase were arranged in the earliest style called tatebana or tatehana, were composed of shin and shitakusa. Recent historical research now indicates that the practice of tatebana derived from a combination of belief systems, including Buddhist, the Shinto yorishiro belief is most the origin of the Japanese practice of ikebana that we know today. Together they form the basis for the original purely Japanese derivation of the practice of ikebana; the art developed slowly, the many schools did not come into existence until the end of the 15th century following the period of the civil war. The eighth shōgun Ashikaga Yoshimasa, was a patron of the arts and the greatest promoter of cha-no-yu, the ceremonial tea, ikebana flower arrangement. Yoshimasa abdicated the office in order to devote his time to the fine arts, it was he who said that flowers offered on all ceremonial occasions and placed as offerings before the gods should not be offered loosely, but should represent time and thought.
Rules commenced to be formulated. It is to the celebrated painter Sōami, a contemporary and friend of Yoshimasa, who conceived the idea of representing the three elements of heaven and earth, from which have grown the principles of the arrangements used today, it was at Yoshimasa's Silver Pavilion in Kyoto, where the art of cha-no-yu, the tea ceremony, ko-awase, the incense ceremony, may be said to have been evolved that the art of ikebana received its great development. Artists of the Kanō school such as Sesshū Tōyō, Kanō Masanobu, Kanō Motonobu, Shugetsu of the 16th century were lovers of nature, so that ikebana advanced in this period a step further than temple and room decoration and commenced in a rudimentary way to consider natural beauty in floral arrangement. At this time ikebana was known as rikka; this same age conceived. Rikka and nageirebana are the two branches. Popularity of the two styles vacillated between these two for centuries. In the begi
Noh, derived from the Sino-Japanese word for "skill" or "talent", is a major form of classical Japanese musical drama, performed since the 14th century. Developed by Kan'ami and his son Zeami, it is the oldest major theatre art, still performed today. Traditionally, a Noh program includes five Noh plays with comedic kyōgen plays in between. An okina play may be presented in the beginning at New Year and other special occasions. Nō together with Kyōgen is part of Nōgaku theatre. Noh is based on tales from traditional literature with a supernatural being transformed into human form as a hero narrating a story. Noh integrates masks and various props in a dance-based performance, requiring trained actors and musicians. Emotions are conveyed by stylized conventional gestures while the iconic masks represent the roles such as ghosts, women and the elderly. Written in ancient Japanese language, the text "vividly describes the ordinary people of the twelfth to sixteenth centuries". Having a strong emphasis on tradition rather than innovation, Noh is codified and regulated by the iemoto system.
The word Noh is a borrowing from Middle Chinese nong 能, means "skill", "craft", or "talent" in the field of performing arts in this context. The word Noh may be used alone or with gaku to form the word nōgaku. Noh is a classical tradition, valued by many today; when used alone, Noh refers to the historical genre of theatre originated from sarugaku in the mid 14th century and continues to be performed today. Noh and kyōgen "originated in the 8th century. At the time, the term sangaku referred to various types of performance featuring acrobats and dance as well as comic sketches, its subsequent adaptation to Japanese society led to its assimilation of other traditional art forms."Various performing art elements in sangaku as well as elements of dengaku, shirabyōshi, gagaku evolved into Noh and kyōgen. Studies on genealogy of the Noh actors in 14th century indicate they were members of families specialized in performing arts. Sociological research by Yukio Hattori reveals that the Konparu School, arguably the oldest school of Noh, is a descendant of Mimashi, the performer who introduced gigaku, now-extinct masked drama-dance performance, into Japan from Kudara Kingdom in 612.
Another theory by Shinhachirō Matsumoto suggests Noh originated from outcastes struggling to claim higher social status by catering to those in power, namely the new ruling samurai class of the time. The transferral of the shogunate from Kamakura to Kyoto at the beginning of Muromachi period marked the increasing power of the samurai class and strengthened the relationship between the shogunate and the court; as Noh became the shōgun's favorite art form, Noh was able to become a courtly art form through this newly formed relationship. In 14th century, with strong support and patronage from shōgun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, Zeami was able to establish Noh as the most prominent theatre art form of the time. Kan'ami Kiyotsugu and his son Zeami Motokiyo brought Noh to what is its present-day form during the Muromachi period. Kan'ami was a renowned actor with great versatility fulfilling roles from graceful women and 12-year-old boys to strong adult males; when Kan'ami first presented his work to 17-year-old Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, Zeami was a child actor in his play, around age 12.
Yoshimitsu fell in love with Zeami and his position of favor at court caused Noh to be performed for Yoshimitsu thereafter. During the Edo period Noh continued to be aristocratic art form supported by the shōgun, the feudal lords, as well as wealthy and sophisticated commoners. While kabuki and joruri popular to the middle class focused on new and experimental entertainment, Noh strived to preserve its established high standards and historic authenticity and remained unchanged throughout the era. To capture the essence of performances given by great masters, every detail in movements and positions was reproduced by others resulting in an slow, ceremonial tempo over time; the fall of the Tokugawa shogunate in 1868 and the formation of a new modernized government resulted in the end of financial support by the government, the entire field of Noh experienced major financial crisis. Shortly after the Meiji Restoration both the number of Noh performers and Noh stages diminished; the support from the imperial government was regained due to Noh's appeal to foreign diplomats.
The companies that remained active throughout the Meiji era significantly broadened Noh's reach by catering to the general public, performing at theatres in major cities such as Tokyo and Osaka. In 1957 the Japanese Government designated nōgaku as an Important Intangible Cultural Property, which affords a degree of legal protection to the tradition as well as its most accomplished practitioners; the National Noh Theatre founded by the government in 1983 stages regular performances and organizes courses to train actors in the leading roles of nōgaku. Noh was inscribed in 2008 on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Human
Japanese street fashion
There are many styles of street fashion in Japan, created from a mix of both local and foreign labels. Some of these styles are extreme and avant-garde, similar to the haute couture seen on European catwalks; the rise and fall of many of these trends has been chronicled by Shoichi Aoki since 1997 in the fashion magazine Fruits, a notable magazine for the promotion of street fashion in Japan. In 2003, Japanese hip-hop, which had long been present among underground Tokyo's club scene, influenced the mainstream fashion industry; the popularity of the music was so influential that Tokyo's youth imitated their favorite hip hop stars from the way they dress with oversized clothes to tanned skin. Though the styles have changed over the years, street fashion is still prominent in Tokyo today. Young adults can be found wearing subculture attire in large urban fashion districts such as Harajuku, Ginza, Odaiba and Shibuya. Containing many different themes within its boundaries, Lolita has become one of the larger, more recognizable styles in Japanese street fashion and is now gaining interest worldwide.
The more well-known styles within Lolita fashion are as follows: Gothic Lolita - is Lolita with a heavy influence from the Eastern and Victorian Goth style. Characterized by dark colors, crosses and spiders, as well as other popular gothic'icons'. Victorian iron gates and architectural designs are often seen in dress prints. Skirts are worn knee length with petticoats beneath for volume. Blouses or shirts are ruffled in the Victorian style. Knee length socks with boots, brooches, a parasol finish out this style of Lolita. Sweet Lolita - is the most childlike style characterized by baby animals, fairy tale themes and innocent, childlike attire, it was inspired by Victorian children's clothing and Alice in Wonderland. Hello Kitty and other cute pop culture characters are popular among the Sweet lolitas. Pastel colors are used, as well as other muted colors like black and dark blues. Large head bows, cute purses, elegant parasols and stuffed animals are popular accessories for Sweet Lolita. Punk Lolita - An experimental style, mixing the influences of Punk with Lolita.
It can sometimes look deconstructed or crazy, while keeping most of the'Lolita silhouette'. Classic Lolita is traditional, it is more business-like and focuses on light colors such as, blue and red. Kodona, a.k.a.'boy style' and ouji, is a more masculine counterpart of lolita, influenced by Victorian boys' clothing.'Prince pants', which are short capri-style pants that are cut off the knee with some sort of detail are worn with masculine blouses, top hats, knee socks etc. Gyaru, sometimes known as ganguro, a subcategory of gyaru, is a type of Japanese street fashion that originated in the 1970s. Gyaru focuses on dwelling on man-made beauty. Gyaru is heavily inspired by Western fashion; the ganguro style of Japanese street fashion became popular among Japanese girls in the early 1990s and peaked in the early 2000s. Ganguro falls into the larger subculture of gyaru fashion. Ganguro includes brightly colored outfits, mini-skirts, tie-dyed sarongs; the ganguro style consists of bleached hair, a deep tan, fake eyelashes and white eyeliner, earrings, rings and platform shoes.
The kogal look is based on a high school uniform, but with a shorter skirt, loose socks, dyed hair and a scarf as well. The girls sometimes call themselves gyaru; this style has since declined. While bōsōzoku fashion has not been popular since the 1990s, the stereotypical bōsōzoku look is portrayed, caricatured, in many forms of Japanese media such as anime and films; the typical bōsōzoku member is depicted in a uniform consisting of a jumpsuit like those worn by manual laborers or a tokko-fuku, a type of military issued over-coat with kanji slogans. These are worn open, with no shirt underneath, showing off bandaged torsos and matching baggy pants tucked inside tall boots; the Decora style originated in the late 1990s/early 2000s and rose to great popularity both in and outside Japan. It is exemplified by singer Kyary Pamyu Pamyu, who rose to prominence in the Harajuku fashion scene prior to her musical debut; the wearers stick to color palettes for their decora. Pink Decora, Red Decora, Dark Decora, Rainbow Decora.
A plain shirt and hoodie was worn with short tutu-like skirts. The hair and make-up itself tends to be quite plain. However, the most significant part of decora is to pile on many layers of cute accessories until the bangs and front hair is visible. Stockings, legwarmers and knee socks are worn over each other in different layers. Common details include leopard prints and patterned dental masks; the style was merged/replaced in the late 2000s by fairy kei and OTT lolita in Japan, though it is still a popular style overseas. Kuroi Niji means "Black Rainbow" and the style is a mix between things from the general black scene and rainbow colors, it was introduced by Bou Osaki in 2012. Visual kei is a style created in the mid-1980s by Japanese musicians consisting of striking makeup, unusual hair styles and flamboyant costumes, similar to Western glam rock and glam metal. Androgyny is a popular aspect of the style; some of the more well-known and influential artists of the style include X Japan, Luna Sea, The Gazette, Royz, L'Arc en Ciel, An Cafe, Malice Mizer, Diaura.
Japanese calligraphy called shūji is a form of calligraphy, or artistic writing, of the Japanese language. For a long time, the most esteemed calligrapher in Japan had been Wang Xizhi, a Chinese calligrapher from the 4th century, but after the invention of Hiragana and Katakana, the Japanese unique syllabaries, the distinctive Japanese writing system developed and calligraphers produced styles intrinsic to Japan; the term shodō is of Chinese origin as it is used to describe the art of Chinese calligraphy during the medieval Tang dynasty. Early Japanese calligraphy was originated from Chinese calligraphy. Many of its principles and techniques are similar, it recognizes the same basic writing styles: seal script clerical script regular script semi-cursive cursive. A number of tools are used to create a work of modern calligraphy; the four most basic tools were collectively called the Four Treasures of the Study. A brush An inkstick; the hardened mixture of vegetable or pine soot and glue in the shape of a stick.
The best inksticks are between 100 years old. Mulberry paper mixed with water. Other tools include: A paper weight to hold the paper in place A cloth to place under the paper to prevent ink from bleeding through. A seal; the art of engraving a seal is called "tenkoku" 篆刻. The student is encouraged to engrave his own seal; the position of the seal or seals is based on aesthetic preferences. One is not allowed to put a seal on calligraphy of a sutra. During preparation, water is poured into the inkstone and the inkstick is ground against it, mixing the water with the dried ink to liquefy it; as this is a time-consuming process, modern-day beginners use bottled liquid ink called Bokuju. More advanced students are encouraged to grind their own ink. Paper is placed on a desk, while a large piece of paper may be placed on the floor or on the ground; the brushes come in various shapes and sizes, are made using animal hair bristles. Typical animal hair may come from sheep, or horses; the handle may be made from wood, plastic or other materials.
The Chinese roots of Japanese calligraphy go back to the twenty-eighth century BC, to a time when pictographs were inscribed on bone for religious purposes. When this writing developed into an instrument of administration for the state, the need for a uniform script was felt and Li Si, prime minister in the Chinese dynasty of Qin, standardized a script and its way of being written, he sanctioned a form of script based on squares of uniform size into which all characters could be written from eight strokes. He devised rules of composition where horizontal strokes are written first and characters are composed starting from top to bottom, left to right; because the symbols were inscribed with sharp instruments, the lines were angular and in many ways, Li Si's achievements were made obsolete by the appearance of brush and ink. The ink-wet brush creates a line quite different from a sharp stylus, it affords variation in curve of line. Calligraphy retained the block form of Li Si and his eight strokes but the writer was free to create characters that emphasized aesthetically pleasing balance and form.
The way a character was written gave a message of style. Calligraphy in the Chinese tradition was thus introduced to Japan about AD 600 Known as the karayō tradition, it has been practiced up to today, rejuvenated continuously through contact with Chinese culture; the oldest existing calligraphic text in Japan is the inscription on the halo of the Medicine Buddha statue in the Hōryū-ji Temple. This Chinese text was written in prominent in the Chinese Six Dynasties period; the Hōryū-ji Temple holds bibliographic notes on the Lotus Sutra: the Hokke Gisho was written early in the 7th century and is considered the oldest Japanese text. It is written in Cursive script and illustrates that calligraphy in the Asuka period was refined to a high degree; the oldest hand-copied sutra in Japan is the Kongō Jōdaranikyō. Copied by the priest Hōrin in AD 686, the calligraphy style shows influences from the work of Ouyang Xun. "Broken Stone in Uji Bridge" and Stone in Nasu County "Stone in Nasu County" are typical examples from this time.
Both inscriptions were influenced by the Northern Wei robust style. In the 7th century, the Tang dynasty established hegemony in China, their second Emperor Taizong esteemed Wang Xizhi's calligraphic texts and this popularity influenced Japanese calligraphers. All of the original texts written by Wang Xizhi have been lost, copies such as Gakki-ron written by the Empress Kōmyō are regarded as important sources for Wang Xizhi's style; however Wang's influence can be overstated, in particular for the wayō style unique to Japan: "Even today, there is something about Japanese calligraphy that retains the unchanged flavour of Wang Xizhi's style". Emperor Kanmu moved the capital from Heijō-kyō in Nara, first to Nagaoka-kyō in 784, to Heian-kyō, Kyoto in 794; this marks the beginning of the Heian era, Japan's "golden age". Chinese influences in calligraphy were not changed in the early period. For example, under the Emperor Saga's reign, the aristocracy and court ladies studied calligraphy by copying Chinese poetry texts in artistic style.
Wang Xizhi's influences rem
The Pine Trees screen is a pair of six-panel folding screens by the Japanese artist Hasegawa Tōhaku. The precise date for the screens is not known, but they were made in the late 16th century, in the Momoyama period, around 1595; the screens are held by the Tokyo National Museum, were designated as a National Treasure of Japan in 1952. The ink-on-paper work depicts a view of Japanese pine trees in the mist, with parts of the trees visible and parts obscured, illustrating the Zen Buddhist concept of ma and evoking the Japanese wabi aesthetic of rustic simplicity, they are said to be the first paintings of their scale to depict only trees as subject matter, although a white shape to the upper right of the left panel might suggest a background mountain peak. Each screen measures 156.8 by 356 centimetres. Each of the twelve panels comprises six joined pieces of paper, but the top and bottom pieces are half the usual size; some aspects of the screens suggest the screen may be a preparatory work: unusually, the sizes of paper used in each screen are different, the joins between the sheets are not regular.
The trees on the far right of the right panel are cropped, suggesting that the order of the panels may have been altered or that some may have been replaced. The work is a development of suibokuga paintings made with Chinese ink, using dark and light shades on a silk or paper medium, it combines naturalistic Chinese ideas of ink painting by Muqi Fachang with themes from the Japanese yamato-e landscape tradition, influenced by the "splashed ink" works of Sesshū Tōyō. The painting makes use of the intended foldings of the screen in use to create perspective, with branches directed towards or away from the viewer; the artist Hasegawa Tōhaku was the founder of the Hasegawa school of Japanese art. List of National Treasures of Japan