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Japanese aircraft carrier Akagi

Akagi was an aircraft carrier built for the Imperial Japanese Navy, named after Mount Akagi in present-day Gunma Prefecture. Though she was laid down as an Amagi-class battlecruiser, Akagi was converted to an aircraft carrier while still under construction to comply with the terms of the Washington Naval Treaty; the ship was rebuilt from 1935 to 1938 with her original three flight decks consolidated into a single enlarged flight deck and an island superstructure. The second Japanese aircraft carrier to enter service, the first large or "fleet" carrier and the related Kaga figured prominently in the development of the IJN's new carrier striking force doctrine that grouped carriers together, concentrating their air power; this doctrine enabled Japan to attain its strategic goals during the early stages of the Pacific War from December 1941 until mid-1942. Akagi's aircraft served in the Second Sino-Japanese War in the late 1930s. Upon the formation of the First Air Fleet or Kido Butai in early 1941, she became its flagship, remained so for the duration of her service.

With other fleet carriers, she took part in the Attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941 and the invasion of Rabaul in the Southwest Pacific in January 1942. The following month, her aircraft bombed Darwin and assisted in the conquest of the Dutch East Indies. In March and April 1942, Akagi's aircraft helped sink a British heavy cruiser and an Australian destroyer in the Indian Ocean Raid. After a brief refit and three other fleet carriers of the Kido Butai participated in the Battle of Midway in June 1942. After bombarding American forces on the atoll and the other carriers were attacked by aircraft from Midway and the carriers Enterprise and Yorktown. Dive bombers from Enterprise damaged Akagi; when it became obvious she could not be saved, she was scuttled by Japanese destroyers to prevent her from falling into enemy hands. The loss of Akagi and three other IJN carriers at Midway was a crucial strategic defeat for Japan and contributed to the Allies' ultimate victory in the Pacific; the wreckage of Akagi was found on the bottom of the Pacific in October 2019 by the Research Vessel Petrel.

Akagi was laid down as an Amagi-class battlecruiser at Kure, Japan, on 6 December 1920. The ship was named after Mount Akagi, following the Japanese ship-naming conventions for battlecruisers. Construction was halted, when Japan signed the Washington Naval Treaty on 6 February 1922; the treaty placed restrictions on the construction of battleships and battlecruisers although it authorized conversion of two battleship or battlecruiser hulls under construction into aircraft carriers of up to 33,000 long tons displacement. The IJN had decided, following the launch of its first aircraft carrier, Hōshō, to construct two larger, faster carriers for operations with major fleet units; the incomplete hulls of Amagi and Akagi were thus selected for completion as the two large carriers under the 1924 fleet construction program. ¥24.7 million was budgeted to complete Akagi as a battlecruiser and an estimated ¥8 million had been expended when construction stopped in February 1922. Shortly thereafter, the Diet approved an additional ¥90 million to complete Akagi and Amagi as carriers.

Her guns were turned over to the Imperial Japanese Army for use as coastal artillery. The rest of her guns were placed in reserve and scrapped in 1943. Construction of Akagi as an aircraft carrier began on 19 November 1923. Amagi's hull was damaged beyond economically feasible repair in the Great Kantō earthquake of 1 September 1923 and was broken up and scrapped. Akagi, the only remaining member of her class, was launched as a carrier on 22 April 1925 and commissioned at Kure Naval Arsenal on 25 March 1927, although trials continued through November 1927, she was the second carrier to enter service after Hōshō and before Kaga. Since Akagi was conceived as a battlecruiser, the prevailing ship naming conventions dictated that she be named after a mountain. Akagi came from a dormant volcano in the Kantō region. After she was redesignated as an aircraft carrier, her mountain name remained, in contrast to ships like Sōryū that were built as aircraft carriers, which were named after flying creatures.

Her name was given to the Maya-class gunboat Akagi. Akagi was completed at a length of 261.21 meters overall. She had a beam of 31 meters and, at deep load, a draft of 8.08 meters. She displaced 26,900 long tons at load, 34,364 long tons at full load, nearly 7,000 long tons less than her designed displacement as a battlecruiser, her complement totaled 1,600 crewmembers. Akagi and Kaga were completed with three superimposed flight decks, the only carriers to be designed so; the British carriers converted from "large light cruisers", Glorious and Furious, each had two flight decks, but there is no evidence that the Japanese copied the British model. It is more that it was a case of convergent evolution to improve launch and recovery cycle flexibility by allowing simultaneous launch and recovery of aircraft. Akagi's main flight deck was 190.2 meters long and 30.5 meters wide, her middle flight deck was only 15 meters long and her lower flight deck was 55.02 meters long. The utility of her middle flight deck was questionable as it was so short that only some loaded aircraft could use it in an

Habsburgwarte

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George Parker Tuxford of Barnes, was a British magazine publisher. Born in Boston, the eldest son of John Tuxford, George was a co-proprietor with John Rogerson of the English agricultural newspaper Mark Lane Express, cofounded by Cuthbert William Johnson, brother of George W. Johnson, William Shaw and edited by Shaw, the Farmers' Magazine with offices at 246 The Strand. A frequent contributor to these magazines was Henry Hall Dixon, an entertaining writer on country matters. Tuxford and Rogerson published the New Sporting Magazine, he was a founder and for many years a director of Farmers' Insurance Office, an early member of the Farmers Club, a Life Governor of the Royal Agricultural Society of England. Tuxford was the eldest brother of the Hon. William Wedd Tuxford, John Lefevre Tuxford and Walsingham Weston Tuxford, all of whom emigrated to Adelaide, South Australia and achieved a measure of importance in the new colony, his sister Hannah. The Farmer's Magazine Volume the Fifteenth, January to June 1859