The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
Nagai Naoyuki known as Nagai Genba or Nagai Mondonoshō, was a Japanese hatamoto under the Tokugawa of Bakumatsu period Japan. His great-great-grandchild was Yukio Mishima. Naoyuki's adopted son, Iwanojō Nagai, was the father of Natsu, Mishima's grandmother. Iwanojō's real father was Nagasumi Miyoshi, a Tokugawa retainer. Nagai Naoyuki, or as he was first known, Matsudaira Iwanojō, was born in the Nukada district of the Okutono Domain by a concubine to daimyō Matsudaira Noritada. Noritada, while head of a collateral branch of the Tokugawa clan, was not classified as shinpan, like the Matsudaira of Aizu, but was instead a fudai daimyo. Iwanojō, Noritada's second son, lost his father at the age of three. Subsequently, he was moved to Edo, to the Okutono domain's main residence in Azabu, where he was in the care of his adoptive brother, Matsudaira Noriyoshi, before being adopted by 2000 koku Tokugawa hatamoto Nagai Naonori at the age of 25. Following his adoption he took the adult name of Naoyuki.
After completing a thorough education in literature and military training, Nagai entered the ranks of the Tokugawa bureaucracy. He served from 1851 to 1852 as an instructor at the Kitenkan, a branch of the Shogunate's Shoheizaka academy, located in Kōfu, Kai Province. Shortly after the arrival of the Perry Expedition challenging Japan national isolation policy, Nagai was appointed as a metsuke and was placed in charge of casting new cannons for coastal defense. In 1855, Nagai was transferred to the newly formed Nagasaki Naval Training Center, where he served as its director, overseeing a group of Dutch military advisors and students from various domains around Japan in studies of western warship technologies. Katsu Kaishū credited Nagai for much of the training center's progress, as well as the construction of the Nagasaki Iron Works, one of its training ships, the Kottoru. In 1857, with the closure of the Nagasaki Naval Training Center, Nagai returned to Edo on board the Kankō Maru, Japan's first steam warship, together with 103 of his students.
In December 1857, Nagai was appointed Kanjō-bugyō. In July 1858, Nagai was appointed one of the first Gaikoku bugyō, he served from August 1858 through March 1859. During which time the difficult negotiations for the Ansei Treaties took place with the United States, United Kingdom and France. In February 1859, he added Gunkan-bugyō to his list of titles. However, in August, following the death of Shōgun Tokugawa Iesada, Nagai was purged from office by the Tairō Ii Naosuke for his support of the Hitotsubashi faction over the Kishu faction for the shogunal succession. After Ii's assassination, Nagai was recalled to public office and was appointed to serve as one of the city magistrates of Kyoto from August 1862 through March 1864; this was a difficult and violent period in Kyoto, with many daimyo establishing residences in Kyoto and maneuvering for political connections with various of the nobility. The city was filled it numerous rōnin, many of whom supported the sonnō jōi movement and who did not hesitate to use assassination or terrorist tactics to further their political agenda.
It was during his tenure. Following his two-year stint in the capital, he was made ōmetsuke from March 1864 through May 1865, he served again as Gaikoku bugyō from November 1865 through April 1867. Nagai was promoted to the position of wakadoshiyori-kaku from April 1867 through January 1868 and was in Kyoto on November 9, 1867 when Shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu formally surrendered his office. Returning to Edo following the Battle of Toba–Fushimi, Nagai joined Enomoto Takeaki and the remnants of the Tokugawa navy, boarding the Kaiten and heading to Ezo by way of Matsushima, in Sendai Domain. In Hokkaido, Nagai was chosen to be one of the city magistrates of Hakodate by the new Ezo Republic. However, the Imperial Army soon began its attack on Hokkaido, Nagai surrendered at the small fortress of Benten Daiba, along with the survivors of the Shinsengumi, he was stopped by those surrounding him. After a period of three years in prison, he was pardoned by the Meiji government in January 1871, again rose to positions of political prominence, serving most notably as the secretary to the Genrō from July 1875 to October 1876.
He died in July 1891. One of his descendants, through his adopted son Iwanojō, was the famous author Yukio Mishima. Gaikoku bugyō, commissioners appointed to oversee trade and diplomatic relations with foreign countries Beasley, W. G.. Select Documents on Japanese Foreign Policy, 1853–1868. London: Oxford University Press. Banno, Junji. Japan's Modern History, 1857–1937: A New Political Narrative. Routledge. ISBN 1317682971. Http://www.mirai.ne.jp/~jkj8/bakusin.html http://bakusin.jp/eiketu/nagai.html
A jackass-barque, sometimes spelled jackass bark, is a sailing ship with three masts, of which the foremast is square-rigged and the main is square-rigged and fore-and-aft rigged. The mizzen mast is fore-and-aft rigged. A four-masted jackass barque is square-rigged on the two foremost masts and fore-and-aft rigged on the two after masts; some 19th-century sailors called such a ship "a fore-and-aft schooner chasing a brig". In general a jackass barque is a sailing ship, half square-rigged and half fore-and-aft rigged; the name appears to be an erroneous reference to a mule, half horse and half donkey. A five-masted jackass barque, which has never been built, would be equipped with square-rigged fore and main masts, with a square-rigged and fore-and-aft rigged mizzen mast, fore-and-aft rigged jigger and spanker masts. A well-known example of a four-masted jackass-barque was the Olympic, a 1,402 GRT "Down Easter". Said to be the only one in the world, she was launched in 1892 at the shipyard of the New England Ship Building Company, Bath, ME, for Captain W. H. Besse of New Bedford, MA1.
Her maiden voyage under her first master, Captain Stephen Bourne Gibbs, led her from Bath to New York City, South Street Seaport, with "clean swept holds" and without any ballast with a cargo of iron rails and plates around Cape Horn to Portland, Oregon. She carried steel and other cargoes. Captain Gibbs was an experienced square-rigged skipper, took great care of best stowage of the cargo, having the stevedores put 2/3 of it in the'tween decks. For her new owner, Hackfield & Co. of Honolulu, managed by Williams, Dimond & Co. the Olympic ran in the sugar trade between Hawaii and Australia from 1901 to 1912. Rigged with royal sails over double top and topgallant sails on both square-rigged masts and the main mast equipped with an additional single sky sail, she was re-fitted with royal sails over double top but single topgallant sails on both square-rigged masts and no main sky sail after being dismasted in 1901 during a voyage from Hawaii to San Francisco under Captain Gibbs, who retired from the sea in the same year.
Under her new master Captain T. H. Evans she sailed between New Zealand and the US west coast in the timber trade. Towards the end of World War I she changed hands to Thomas Co.. In that time she was re-rigged as a four-masted barquentine with a square-rigged foremast and three fore-and-aft rigged other masts. During the slump years cargo space of a sailing ship wasn't needed anymore. After being laid up for some years the 30-year-old ship was converted into a towing barge. A well-known example of a steel four-masted jackass-barque was the California, the last and largest of the White Star sailing ships; the use of steel enabled the addition of another hundred feet to the two hundred foot effective maximum length of a wooden vessel. A fourth mast, called the jigger, provided the driving power for the increased length; the lower and topmast were built in one steel tubular piece. Mechanical improvements were introduced to the rigging; the City of Grand Haven had two masts "set far apart to accommodate high piles of lumber on the deck and to make it easier to load and unload the vessel.
This rig was called the Grand Haven Rig or..." It was said to have been the result of a serendipity, when the master of a three-masted schooner had its mainmast removed due to rot, found how well the ship sailed. There "were at least a dozen craft with this rig many of them in Lake Michigan." Similar rigs might be called a "jackass schooner." Lubbock, Capt. Alfred Basil; the Down Easters, American deep-water sailing ships, 1868-1919'. Boston: Charles E. Lauriat Co, Dover Pubns. P. 284. ISBN 0486253384. ISBN 978-0486253381. Barque Barquentine Schooner SS Great Eastern, a ship with paddle wheels and a screw propeller rigged with six masts, three fore-and-aft rigged and three square-rigged 3-masted jackass-barque Ziba with four square top sails on her main mast 4-masted jackass-barque Olympic at drydock in Bath in 1892 with the main sky yard taken down on deck
William III of the Netherlands
William III was King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg from 1849 until his death in 1890. He was the Duke of Limburg from 1849 until the abolition of the duchy in 1866. William was the son of King William Anna Pavlovna of Russia. On the abdication of his grandfather William I in 1840, he became the Prince of Orange. On the death of his father in 1849, he succeeded as king of the Netherlands. William married his cousin Sophie of Württemberg in 1839 and they had three sons, William and Alexander, all of whom predeceased him. After Sophie's death in 1877 he married Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont in 1879 and they had one daughter Wilhelmina, who succeeded William to the Dutch throne. Meanwhile, being the last agnatic dynastic descendant of Otto I, Count of Nassau, the throne of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg passed to his patrilineal seventeenth cousin once removed, Adolphe. To date, he is the last Dutch monarch to die whilst on the throne. William was born on 19 February 1817 in the Palace of the Nation in Brussels, part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands at the time.
He was the eldest son of the future king William II of the Netherlands and Anna Pavlovna of Russia. He had three brothers, one of whom died in infancy, one sister. In 1827, at the age of ten, he was made an honorary colonel in the Royal Netherlands Army. In the 1830s, he served as lieutenant in the Grenadiers Regiment. In 1834, he was made honorary commander of the Grenadiers Regiment of Kiev nr. 5 in the Imperial Russian Army. He married his first cousin, daughter of King William I of Württemberg and Grand Duchess Catherine Pavlovna of Russia, in Stuttgart on 18 June 1839; this marriage was characterized by struggles about their children. Sophie was a liberal intellectual, hating everything leaning toward dictatorship, such as the army. William was simpler, more conservative, loved the military, he prohibited intellectual exercise at home, for which action Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, who corresponded with Princess Sophie, called him an uneducated farmer. His extramarital enthusiasms, led the New York Times to call him "the greatest debauchee of the age".
Another cause of marital tension was his capriciousness. William loathed the 1848 constitutional changes initiated by Johan Rudolf Thorbecke, his father saw them as key to the monarchy's survival in changing times. Sophie, a liberal shared this view. William himself saw them as useless limitations of royal power, would have preferred to govern as an enlightened despot in the mold of his grandfather, William I, he considered relinquishing his right to the throne to his younger brother Henry and to his older son. His mother convinced him to cancel this action; the Dutch constitution provided no way to relinquish one's claim to the throne. On 17 March 1849 his father died and William succeeded to the throne of the Netherlands, he was at that moment a guest of the Duchess of Cleveland in Raby Castle. Representatives of the Dutch government traveled to London to meet their new king in London. William was reluctant to return. Upon arrival the new Queen welcomed her spouse with the question "did you accept?".
The new king nodded. William contemplated abdicating as soon as his eldest son William, Prince of Orange, turned eighteen; this occurred in 1858. His first act was the inauguration of the parliamentary cabinet of Thorbecke, the liberal designer of the 1848 constitution, whom William loathed; when the Roman Catholic hierarchy of bishops was restored in 1853 he found growing conservative support and a reason to dismiss Thorbecke. In the first two decades of his reign, he dismissed several cabinets and disbanded the States-General several times, installing royal cabinets which ruled as long as there was support in the elected second chamber of parliament. In what became known as the "Luxembourg Coup of 1856", William unilaterally instituted a new, reactionary constitution for Luxembourg, which he ruled separate from the Netherlands crown. In 1867, France offered to buy Luxembourg, leading to the Luxembourg Crisis, which precipitated war between Prussia and France. However, the subsequent Second Treaty of London re-established Luxembourg as a independent country.
During his reign, the king became more and more unpopular with his bourgeois-liberal subjects, his whims provoking their resistance and mockery, but remained quite popular with the common man. The king was a man of immense stature and with a boisterous voice, he could be gentle and kind suddenly he could become intimidating and violent. He hit his servants about, he was inclined to humiliate his courtiers. The king was cruel to animals as well, his ministers were afraid of him. Most people around him agreed; the king could be erratic, he ordered the dismissal and the arrest and execution of those that he found in lack of respect, including a Mayor of The Hague. Orders like these were disregarded; the king who thought of himself as a specialist on all matters military tried to take command of manoeuvres, creating chaos wherever he went. He was made the 963rd Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece in Spain in 1842, the 777th Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1882 and the 72nd Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and Sword.
In 1877, Q
Netherlands Trading Society
The Netherlands Trading Society was a Dutch trading company established in 1824 by King William I of the Netherlands to promote and develop trade and agriculture. For the next 140 years the NHM developed a large international branch network and engaged in banking operations, subsequently would become one of the primary ancestors of ABN AMRO; the NHM was a private company which issued publicly traded shares and according to the king, the NHM would act to leverage economic activity and encourage the development of national wealth. However, in practice it came down to expanding existing trade, by gathering data and searching for new markets as well as financing industry and shipping, its close association with Dutch government meant it played an important role in the development of trade between the Netherlands and the Dutch East Indies. Its former headquarters in De Bazel in Amsterdam houses the Amsterdam Archives today; the NHM is sometimes called the successor of the Dutch East India Company, as it was a private company that issued shares and financed trade with the Dutch East Indies.
The establishment of the NHM could be seen as an attempt to bring new impetus to trade with the Dutch East Indies after the depression of the years of French domination and the final collapse of the Dutch East India Company two decades earlier. The NHM financing of trade and shipping led to the development of a network of branches which engaged in financing and banking operations; the network extended throughout South East Asia and on the trade routes between the Netherlands and the Dutch East Indies and the NHM continued to extend its network into the 20th century. It lost a number of its branches when the Indonesian government nationalised them in 1960 to form a new locally owned bank, but by had branches in many other parts of the world; the NHM continued to develop more and more banking and financing operations with its branch network and it went on to become one of the primary ancestors of ABN AMRO bank when in 1964 it merged with the Dutch Twentsche Bank to form Algemene Bank Nederland.
1824: King William I created the Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij by Royal Decree to revive trade between the Netherlands and the Netherlands East Indies. 1826: NHM opened an office in Batavia. 1858: NHM opened a branch in Singapore. 1870: NHM extended its activities to include banking. 1888: NHM opened a branch in Penang. 1889: NHM opened a branch in Hong Kong. 1920: NHM opened branches in Bombay and Calcutta to work with clients in the diamond business. 1926: NHM opened a branch in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Know as the Saudi Hollandi Bank it was the first, until 1948 the only, commercial bank in the Kingdom; the branch existed to serve the needs of Indonesian Muslims coming to perform Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca. 1941: NHM opened an agency in New York City. 1948: NHM opened a branch in Karachi to become the first foreign bank to receive a banking license from the new government of Pakistan. 1949: NHM acquired De Surinaamsche Bank. 1951: NHM opened branches in Mombasa, Dar-es-Salaam. 1954: NHM opened a branch in Beirut, one in Kampala.
1960: The Indonesian government nationalized NHM's local operations and formed a new bank, Bank Ekspor Impor Indonesia Bank Mandiri. 1963: NHM set up its Malaysian head office in Kuala Lumpur. 1964: NHM merged with De Twentsche Bank to form Algemene Bank Nederland. Documents and clippings about Netherlands Trading Society in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
The Perry Expedition was a diplomatic and military expedition to Bakumatsu period Japan, involving two separate trips by warships of the United States Navy, which took place during 1853–54. The goals of this expedition included exploration and the establishment of diplomatic relations and negotiation of trade agreements with various nations of the region; the expedition was commanded by Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry, under orders from American President Millard Fillmore. Perry’s primary goal was to force an end to Japan’s 220-year-old policy of isolation and to open Japanese ports to American trade, through the use of gunboat diplomacy if necessary; the Perry Expedition led directly to the establishment of diplomatic relations between Japan and the western "Great Powers", to the collapse of the ruling Tokugawa shogunate and the Meiji Restoration. Following the expedition, Japan's burgeoning trade routes with the world led to the cultural trend of Japonism, in which aspects of Japanese culture influenced art in Europe and America.
The growing commerce between America and China, the presence of American whalers in waters off Japan, the increasing monopolization of potential coaling stations by the British and French in Asia were all contributing factors in the decision by President Fillmore to dispatch an expedition to Japan. The Americans were driven by concepts of manifest destiny and the desire to impose the benefits of western civilization and the Christian religion on what they perceived as backward Asian nations. By the early nineteenth century, the Japanese policy of isolation was under challenge. In 1844, King William II of the Netherlands sent a letter urging Japan to end the isolation policy on its own before change would be forced from the outside. Between 1790 and 1853 at least twenty-seven U. S. ships visited Japan. There were increasing sightings and incursions of foreign ships in Japanese waters, this led to considerable internal debate in Japan on how best to meet this potential threat to Japan’s economic and political sovereignty.
In May 1851, American Secretary of State Daniel Webster authorized Commodore John H. Aulick, commander of the East India Squadron, to attempt to return seventeen shipwrecked Japanese in San Francisco, which might provide the opportunity for opening commercial relations with Japan. On May 10, 1851, Webster drafted a letter addressed to the "Japanese Emperor" with assurances that the expedition had no religious purpose, but was only to request "friendship and commerce" and supplies of coal needed by ships en route to China; the letter boasted of American expansion across the North American continent and its technical prowess, was signed by President Fillmore. However, Aulick became involved in a diplomatic row with a Brazilian diplomat and quarrels with the captain of his flagship, was relieved of his command before he could undertake the Japan expedition, his replacement, Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry was a senior-ranking officer in the United States Navy, had extensive diplomatic experience.
Perry was well aware of the difficulties involving attempting to establish relations with Japan, protested that he would prefer to command the Mediterranean Squadron of the US Navy instead of being assigned to yet another doomed attempt to “open” Japan. These precedents included: From 1797 to 1809, several American ships traded in Nagasaki under the Dutch flag, upon the request of the Dutch, who were not able to send their own ships because of their conflict against Britain during the Napoleonic Wars. In 1837, an American businessman in Canton named Charles W. King saw an opportunity to open trade by trying to return to Japan three Japanese sailors, shipwrecked a few years before on the coast of Washington, he went to Uraga Channel with an unarmed American merchant ship. The ship was attacked several times, sailed back without completing its mission. In 1846, Commander James Biddle, anchored in Edo Bay on an official mission with two ships, including one warship armed with 72 cannons, asking for ports to be opened for trade, but his requests for a trade agreement remained unsuccessful.
In 1849, Captain James Glynn sailed to Nagasaki, leading at last to the first successful negotiation by an American with Japan. James Glynn recommended to the United States Congress that negotiations to open Japan be backed up by a demonstration of force, thus paving the way for Perry's expedition. In advance of his voyage, Perry read amongst available books about Japan, his research included consultation with the renowned Japanologist Philipp Franz von Siebold. Siebold spent eight years working and studying at the isolated Dutch island-trading post of Dejima in Nagasaki harbour, before returning to Leiden in the Netherlands. Perry demanded greater latitude in his orders from Webster, a demand the Secretary of State granted just before his death in October 1852. Perry thus sailed for Japan with "full and discretionary powers", including possible use of force if the Japanese tried to treat him as they had the unfortunate Commodore Biddle. Perry refused to allow any professional diplomats to accompany the expedition.
He asked the German painter William Heine and pioneer daguerreotype photographer Eliphalet M. Brown, Jr. to join the expedition as official artists. Agricultural specialist Dr. James Morrow was assigned by the US State Department. Several Japanese castaways were taken on as unofficial interpreters; the expedition was assigned the steam warships Mississippi, Powhatan, a