A modern torpedo is a self-propelled weapon with an explosive warhead, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater towards a target, designed to detonate either on contact with its target or in proximity to it. It was called an automotive, locomotive or fish torpedo; the term torpedo was employed for a variety of devices, most of which would today be called mines. From about 1900, torpedo has been used to designate an underwater self-propelled weapon. While the battleship had evolved around engagements between armoured ships with large-calibre guns, the torpedo allowed torpedo boats and other lighter surface ships, submersibles ordinary fishing boats or frogmen, aircraft, to destroy large armoured ships without the need of large guns, though sometimes at the risk of being hit by longer-range shellfire. Modern torpedoes can be divided into heavyweight classes, they can be launched from a variety of platforms. The word torpedo comes from the name of a genus of electric rays in the order Torpediniformes, which in turn comes from the Latin "torpere".
In naval usage, the American Robert Fulton introduced the name to refer to a towed gunpowder charge used by his French submarine Nautilus to demonstrate that it could sink warships. The concept of a torpedo existed many centuries before it was successfully developed. In 1275, Hasan al-Rammah described "...an egg which moves itself and burns". In modern language, a'torpedo' is an underwater self-propelled explosive, but the term applied to primitive naval mines; these were used on an ad hoc basis during the early modern period up to the late 19th century. Early spar torpedoes were created by the Dutchman Cornelius Drebbel in the employ of King James I of England. An early submarine, attempted to lay a bomb with a timed fuse on the hull of HMS Eagle during the American Revolutionary War, but failed in the attempt. In the early 1800s, the American inventor Robert Fulton, while in France, "conceived the idea of destroying ships by introducing floating mines under their bottoms in submarine boats".
He coined the term "torpedo" in reference to the explosive charges with which he outfitted his submarine Nautilus. However, both the French and the Dutch governments were uninterested in the submarine. Fulton concentrated on developing the torpedo independent of a submarine deployment. On 15 October 1805, while in England, Fulton put on a public display of his "infernal machine", sinking the brig Dorothea with a submerged bomb filled with 180 lb of gunpowder and a clock set to explode in 18 minutes. However, the British government refused to purchase the invention, stating they did not wish to "introduce into naval warfare a system that would give great advantage to weaker maritime nations". Fulton carried out a similar demonstration for the US government on 20 July 1807, destroying a vessel in New York's harbor. Further development languished as Fulton focused on his "steam-boat matters". During the War of 1812, torpedoes were employed in attempts to destroy British vessels and protect American harbors.
In fact a submarine-deployed torpedo was used in an unsuccessful attempt to destroy HMS Ramillies while in New London's harbor. This prompted the British Captain Hardy to warn the Americans to cease efforts with the use of any "torpedo boat" in this "cruel and unheard-of warfare", or he would "order every house near the shore to be destroyed". Torpedoes were used by the Russian Empire during the Crimean War in 1855 against British warships in the Gulf of Finland, they used an early form of chemical detonator. During the American Civil War, the term torpedo was used for what is today called a contact mine, floating on or below the water surface using an air-filled demijohn or similar flotation device; these devices were primitive and apt to prematurely explode. They would be detonated on contact with the ship or after a set time, although electrical detonators were occasionally used. USS Cairo was the first warship to be sunk in 1862 by an electrically-detonated mine. Spar torpedoes were used; these were used by the Confederate submarine H. L. Hunley to sink USS Housatonic although the weapon was apt to cause as much harm to its user as to its target.
Rear Admiral David Farragut's famous/apocryphal command during the Battle of Mobile Bay in 1864, "Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead!" Refers to a minefield laid at Alabama. On 26 May 1877, during the Romanian War of Independence, the Romanian spar torpedo boat Rândunica attacked and sank the Ottoman river monitor Seyfi; this was the first instance in history when a torpedo craft sank its targets without sinking. In 1866 British engineer Robert Whitehead invented the first effective self-propelled torpedo, the eponymous Whitehead torpedo. French and German inventions followed and the term torpedo came to describe self-propelled projectiles that traveled under or on water. By 1900, the term no longer included mines and booby-traps as the navies of the world added submarines, torpedo boats and torpedo boat destroyers to their fleets. A prototype self-propelled torpedo was created by a commission placed by Giovanni Luppis, an Austro-Hungarian naval officer from Fiume, a port city of the
Washington Naval Treaty
The Washington Naval Treaty known as the Five-Power Treaty, was a treaty signed during 1922 among the major nations that had won World War I, which agreed to prevent an arms race by limiting naval construction. It was negotiated at the Washington Naval Conference, held in Washington, D. C. from November 1921 to February 1922, it was signed by the governments of the United Kingdom, the United States, France and Japan. It limited the construction of battleships and aircraft carriers by the signatories; the numbers of other categories of warships, including cruisers and submarines, were not limited by the treaty, but those ships were limited to 10,000 tons displacement each. The treaty was concluded on February 6, 1922. Ratifications of that treaty were exchanged in Washington on August 17, 1923, it was registered in the League of Nations Treaty Series on April 16, 1924. Naval arms limitation conferences sought additional limitations of warship building; the terms of the Washington treaty were modified by the London Naval Treaty of 1930 and the Second London Naval Treaty of 1936.
By the mid-1930s, Japan and Italy renounced the treaties, while Germany renounced the Treaty of Versailles which had limited its navy. Naval arms limitation became difficult for the other signatories. After World War I, the United Kingdom had the world's largest and most powerful navy, followed by the United States and more distantly by Japan and Italy; the High Seas Fleet of defeated Germany had been interned by the British. The allies had differing opinions concerning the final disposition of the German fleet, with the French and Italians wanting the German fleet divided between the victorious powers and the Americans and British wanting the ships destroyed; these negotiations became moot when the German crews scuttled most of their ships. News of the scuttling angered the French and Italians, with the French unimpressed with British explanations that their fleet guarding the Germans had been away on exercises at the time; the British joined their allies in condemning the German actions and no credible evidence emerged to suggest that the British had collaborated with the Germans with respect to the scuttling.
The Treaty of Versailles, signed soon after the scuttling of the German High Seas Fleet, imposed strict limits on the size and number of warships that the newly-installed German government was allowed to build and maintain. The US, UK, France and Japan had been allied for World War I. President Woodrow Wilson's administration had announced successive plans for the expansion of the US Navy from 1916 to 1919 that would have resulted in a massive fleet of 50 modern battleships. In response, the Japanese parliament authorized construction of warships to enable the Japanese Navy to attain its goal of an "eight-eight" fleet programme, with eight modern battleships and eight battlecruisers; the Japanese started work on four battleships and four battlecruisers, all much larger and more powerful than those of the classes preceding. The 1921 British Naval Estimates planned four battleships and four battlecruisers, with another four battleships to follow the subsequent year; the new arms race was unwelcome to the U.
S. public. The United States Congress disapproved of Wilson's 1919 naval expansion plan, during the 1920 presidential election campaign, politics resumed the non-interventionalism of the prewar era, with little enthusiasm for continued naval expansion. Britain could ill afford any resumption of battleship construction, given the exorbitant cost. During late 1921, the USA government became aware that Britain was planning a conference to discuss the strategic situation in the Pacific and Far East regions. To forestall the conference and satisfy domestic demands for a global disarmament conference, the Harding administration called the Washington Naval Conference during November 1921; the Conference agreed this Five-Power Naval Treaty, as well a Four-Power Treaty about Japan and a Nine-Power Treaty about China. At the first plenary session held November 21, 1921, US Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes presented his country's proposals. Hughes provided a dramatic beginning for the conference by stating with resolve: "The way to disarm is to disarm".
The ambitious slogan received enthusiastic public endorsement and abbreviated the conference while helping ensure his proposals were adopted. He subsequently proposed the following: A ten-year pause or "holiday" of the construction of capital ships, including the immediate suspension of all building of capital ships; the scrapping of existing or planned capital ships to give a 5:5:3:1.75:1.75 ratio of tonnage with respect to Britain, the United States, Japan and Italy respectively. Ongoing limits of both capital ship tonnage and the tonnage of secondary vessels with the 5:5:3 ratio; the proposals for capital ships were accepted by the UK delegation, but they were controversial with the British public. It would no longer be possible for Britain to have adequate fleets in the North Sea, the Mediterranean, the Far East simultaneously; that provoked outrage from parts of the Royal Navy. There was huge demand for the UK to agree; the risk of war with the United States was regarded as theoretical, as there were few policy differences between the two Anglophone powers.
Naval spending was unpopular in both the UK and its dominions. Furthermore, Britain was implementing major decreases of its budget because of the post–World War I recession; the Japanese delegation was divid
A broadside is the side of a ship, the battery of cannon on one side of a warship. From the 16th century until the early decades of the steamship, vessels had rows of guns set in each side of the hull. Firing all guns on one side of the ship became known as a "broadside"; the cannons of 18th-century men of war were accurate only at short range, their penetrating power mediocre, entailing that the thick hulls of wooden ships could only be pierced at short ranges. These wooden ships sailed closer towards each other until cannon fire would be effective; each tried to be the first to fire a broadside giving one party a decisive headstart in the battle when it crippled the other ship. Since ancient times, war at sea had been fought much like on land: with melee weapons and bows and arrows, but on floating wooden platforms rather than battlefields. Though the introduction of guns was a significant change, it only changed the dynamics of ship-to-ship combat; the first guns on ships were small wrought-iron pieces mounted on the open decks and in the fighting tops requiring only one or two men to handle them.
They were designed to injure, kill or stun and frighten the enemy prior to boarding. As guns were made more durable to withstand stronger gunpowder charges, they increased their potential to inflict critical damage to the vessel rather than just its crew. Since these guns were much heavier than the earlier anti-personnel weapons, they had to be placed lower in the ships, fire from gunports, to avoid ships becoming unstable. In Northern Europe the technique of building ships with clinker planking made it difficult to cut ports in the hull; the solution was the gradual adoption of carvel-built ships that relied on an internal skeleton structure to bear the weight of the ship. The development of propulsion during the 15th century from single-masted, square-rigged cogs to three-masted carracks with a mix of square and lateen sails made ships nimbler and easier to maneuver. Gunports cut in the hull of ships had been introduced as early as 1501. According to tradition the inventor was a Breton shipwright called Descharges, but it is just as to have been a gradual adaptation of loading ports in the stern of merchant vessels, in use for centuries.
The gunports were used to mount heavy so-called stern chasers pointing aft, but soon gun ports migrated to the sides of ships. This made possible coordinated volleys from all the guns on one side of a ship for the first time in history, at least in theory. Guns in the 16th century were considered to be in fixed positions and were intended to be fired independently rather than in concerted volleys, it was not until the 1590s that the word "broadside" in English was used to refer to gunfire from the side of a ship rather than the ship's side itself. The main batteries in 20th century battleships tended to be powered gun turrets which could swivel 180 degrees or more to establish wider firing arcs around the entire vessel. Although this could allow at least some of the main guns to be focused directly forward or aft, most or all battleships still relied on broadsides for maximum firepower. Structures such as the bridge tower in the middle of a battleship would prevent guns in the aft portion of the ship from firing forward, vice versa.
Additionally, directing the guns to the port or starboard projected the massive muzzle blast out over the ocean, while firing the guns too close to the deck could cause damage to the ship. Additionally, the term broadside is a measurement of a vessel's maximum simultaneous firepower which can be delivered upon a single target, because this concentration is obtained by firing a broadside; this is calculated by multiplying the shell weight of the ship's main armament shells times the number of barrels that can be brought to bear. If some turrets are incapable of firing to either side of the vessel, only the maximum number of barrels which can fire to one side or the other are counted. For example, the American Iowa-class battleships carried a main armament of nine 16-inch main guns in turrets which could all be trained to a single broadside; each 16-inch shell weighed 2,700 pounds, which when multiplied by nine equals a total of 24,300 pounds. Thus, an Iowa-class battleship had a broadside of 12 short tons, the weight of shells that she could theoretically land on a target in a single firing.
See list of broadsides of major World War II ships for a comparison. Barrage Salvo Fusillade Volley fire Sailing ship tactics#Early history Marsden, Sealed by Time: The Loss and Recovery of the Mary Rose; the Archaeology of the Mary Rose, Volume 1. The Mary Rose Trust, Portsmouth. 2003. ISBN 0-9544029-0-1 Platt, Richard,Man-of-war. Dorling Kindersley, New York. 1993. ISBN 978-1-56458-321-5. Rodger, Nicholas A. M; the Safeguard of the Sea: A Naval History of Britain 660–1649. W. W. Norton & Company, New York. 1997. ISBN 0-393-04579-X Rodger, N. A. M.. The Command of the Ocean: a naval history of Great Britain 1649 - 1815. Penguin History. ISBN 0-14-102690-1. George Dorsey, "When a U. S. Battleship Fires a Broadside," The New York Times Magazine, 30 December 1917
Kagoshima Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan located on the island of Kyushu. The capital is the city of Kagoshima. Kagoshima Prefecture corresponds to the ancient Japanese provinces Ōsumi and Satsuma, including the northern part of the Ryukyu Islands; this region played a key role in the Meiji Restoration, the city of Kagoshima was an important naval base during Japan's 20th century wars and the home of admiral Tōgō Heihachirō. More recent incidents are the sinking of a North Korean spy ship in 2001 by the Coast Guard, salvaged and exhibited in Tokyo, the abduction of an office clerk from a Kagoshima beach in 1978 by agents from the same country; this became known only under the Koizumi administration. Kagoshima Prefecture is located at the southwest tip of Kyushu on the Satsuma Peninsula and Ōsumi Peninsula; this prefecture includes a chain of islands stretching further to the southwest of Kyushu for a few hundred kilometers. The most important group is the Amami Islands. Surrounded by the East China Sea to the west, Okinawa Prefecture in the south, Kumamoto Prefecture to the north, Miyazaki Prefecture to the east, it has 2,632 km of coastline.
It has a bay called Kagoshima Bay, sandwiched by two peninsulas, Satsuma and Ōsumi. Its position made it a'gateway' to Japan at various times in history. While Kyushu has about 13 million people, there are less than 2 million in this prefecture; the prefecture boasts a chain of active and dormant volcanoes, including the great Sakurajima, which towers out of the Kagoshima bay opposite Kagoshima city. A steady trickle of smoke and ash emerges from the caldera, punctuated by louder mini-eruptions on an daily basis. On active days in Kagoshima city an umbrella is advisable to ward off the ash. Sakurajima is one of Japan's most active volcanoes. Major eruptions occurred in 1914, when the island mountain spilled enough material to become permanently connected to the mainland, a lesser eruption in 1960. Volcanic materials in the soil make Sakurajima a source for record daikon radishes the size of a basketball. Many beaches around the Kagoshima Bay are littered with well-worn pumice stones. A crater lake in the southwestern tip of the prefecture, near the spa town of Ibusuki, is home to a rare species of giant eel.
As of March 31, 2008, 9% of the total land area of the prefecture was designated as Natural Parks, namely the Kirishima-Yaku and Unzen-Amakusa National Parks. Most of the economic sector is focused in Kagoshima City and the surrounding area, corresponding to the extent of the former Satsuma Province; the eastern part of the prefecture, the former Ōsumi Province, is rural and shows a general population decline. The prefecture has strong agricultural roots, which are reflected in its most well-known exports: green tea, sweet potato, Pongee rice, Satsuma ware and Berkshire pork. Kagoshima prefecture's production of bonito flakes is second only to that of Shizuoka. In addition it produces Japan's largest volume of unagi eels; the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency has several facilities within the prefecture, including the country's main launch facility on Tanegashima and the Uchinoura Space Center. The prefecture's gross domestic product is 4.834 trillion yen. The following is a list of Kagoshima Prefecture's cities, its administrative districts with their constituent towns and villages: Nineteen cities are located in Kagoshima Prefecture: Kagoshima These are the towns and villages in each district: Kagoshima Rebnise, a professional basketball team, was founded in 2003 and competes in the second division of the national B.
League. Kagoshima United FC, a soccer team, competes in the J3 League. Although no major professional baseball teams are based in the prefecture, a number of Kagoshima's ballparks have hosted the spring training camps of Nippon Professional Baseball teams: Kamoike Ballpark, previous camp home of the Chiba Lotte Marines and Lotte Giants. Hosts regular season games. Kamoike Citizen Stadium Ibusuki Municipal Ballpark, camp home of the Kokutesu Swallows Yunomoto Ballpark, camp home of the Yakult Atoms Kagoshima Kamoike Stadium, camp home of Júbilo Iwata and Toshiba Brave Lupus Kagoshima Fureai Sportsland, camp home of Sagan Tosu The Kirishima-Yaku National Park is located in Kagoshima Prefecture. Kagoshima University National Institute of Fitness and Sports in Kanoya The International University of Kagoshima Kagoshima Immaculate Heart University Daiichi Institute of Technology Shigakukan University Kagoshima Prefectural College Kagoshima Immaculate Heart College Kagoshima Women's Junior College Daiichi Junior College of Infant Education Tanegashima Space Center Uchinoura Space Center Bansei Tokkō Peace Museum Chiran Peace Museum for Kamikaze Pilots Museum of the Meiji Restoration Reimeikan, Kagoshima Prefectural Center for Historical Material Uenohara site JR Kyushu Kyushu Shinkansen Kagoshima Line Nippō Main Line Ibusuki Makurazaki Line Hisatsu Line Kitto Line Hisatsu Orange Railway Kagoshima City Tram Kyushu Expressway Miyazaki Expressway Ibusuki Toll Road Minamikyushu Expressway Higashikyushu Expressway National Route 3 National Route 10 National Route 58 Route 220 (Miyazaki-Nichinan-Shibushi-Kanoya
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Vickers 10-inch 45-calibre naval gun
The Vickers 10 inch naval gun was used on battleships and armoured cruisers built during the first decade of the 20th century. They were used as the Type 41 10-inch /45-caliber aboard the British-built semi-dreadnought Katori-class and Satsuma-class battleships of the Imperial Japanese Navy; the Type 41 10-inch naval gun was designed by Vickers for the Imperial Japanese Navy, was of a similar design to the Vickers-built Mark VII guns produced for the Chilean Navy and used in Royal Navy service. The Katori class used these weapons as secondary armament; the Satsuma class was intended to be built with all 12-inch guns, which would have made this class the first true all big gun dreadnought class in the world. The gun was designated as "Type 41" from the 41st year of the reign of Emperor Meiji on 25 December 1908, it was further re-designated in centimeters on 5 October 1917 as part of the standardization process for the Imperial Japanese Navy to the metric system. After the scrapping of both the Katori class and the Satsuma class under the terms of the Washington Naval Treaty in 1923, the guns were salvaged and used in coastal artillery batteries.
The guns on the Aki were re-used in fortifications around Tokyo Bay. The Type 41 10-inch gun fired a 518-pound shell with either an armor-piercing, high-explosive or general-purpose warhead. Vickers supplied 5 of their 10-inch 45-calibre guns for use on the battleship Libertad that they were building for Chile. Britain took the ship over in 1903 as HMS Triumph, the guns were designated BL 10 inch Mk VII in UK service; these guns fired a 500-pound projectile using 146 pounds 12 ounces of cordite MD propellant. Each of the Pisa-class armoured cruisers was fitted with four of these guns. EOC 10-inch /45 naval gun: EOC equivalent Brown, D. K.. Warrior to Dreadnought: Warship Development, 1860-1905. Book Sales. ISBN 1-84067-529-2. Brown, D. K.. The Grand Fleet: Warship Design and Development, 1906-1922. Caxton Editions. P. 208. ISBN 978-1-84067-531-3. Friedman, Norman. Naval Weapons of World War One. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK: Seaforth. ISBN 978-1-84832-100-7. Gardiner, Robert. Steam and Shellfire: The Steam Warship, 1815-1905.
Conway's History of the Ship. Book Sales. P. 192. ISBN 978-0-78581-413-9. Hodges, Peter; the Big Gun: Battleship Main Armament, 1860-1945. United States Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-917-0. Parkes, Oscar. British Battleships. United States Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-075-4. DiGiulian, Tony. "Japanese 15.2 cm/40 Type 41". NavWeaps.com. Tony DiGiulian, British 10"/45 Marks VI and VII