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Japanese economic miracle

The Japanese economic miracle is known as Japan's record period of economic growth between the post-World War II era to the end of the Cold War. During the economic boom, Japan became the world's second largest economy. By the 1990s, Japan's demographics began stagnating and the workforce was no longer expanding as it did in the previous decades, despite per-worker productivity remaining high; this economic miracle was the result of post-World War II Japan and West Germany benefiting from the Cold War. It occurred chiefly due to the economic interventionism of the Japanese government and due to the aid and assistance of the U. S. Marshall Plan. After World War II, the U. S. established a significant presence in Japan to slow the expansion of Soviet influence in the Pacific. The U. S. was concerned with the growth of the economy of Japan because there was a risk after World War II that an unhappy and poor Japanese population would turn to communism and by doing so, ensure Soviet control over the Pacific.

The distinguishing characteristics of the Japanese economy during the "economic miracle" years included: the cooperation of manufacturers, suppliers and banks in knit groups called keiretsu. The Japanese financial recovery continued after SCAP departed and the economic boom propelled by the Korean War abated; the Japanese economy survived from the deep recession caused by a loss of the U. S. continued to make gains. By the late 1960s, Japan had risen from the ashes of World War II to achieve an astoundingly rapid and complete economic recovery. According to Knox College Professor Mikiso Hane, the period leading up to the late 1960s saw "the greatest years of prosperity Japan had seen since the Sun Goddess shut herself up behind a stone door to protest her brother Susano-o's misbehavior." The Japanese government contributed to the post-war Japanese economic miracle by stimulating private sector growth, first by instituting regulations and protectionism that managed economic crises and by concentrating on trade expansion.

Japanese economic miracle refers to the significant increase in the Japanese economy during the time between the end of World War II and the end of the Cold War. The economical miracle can be divided into four stages: the recovery, the high increase, the steady increase, the low increase. Although damaged by the nuclear bombardment in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, other Allied air raids on Japan, Japan was able to recover from the trauma of WWII, managed to become the second largest economic entity of the world by the 1960s. However, after three decades, Japan had experienced the so-called "recession in growth", as the United States had been imposing economic protection policy in oppressing Japanese production and forcing the appreciation of the Japanese yen. In preventing further oppression, Japan improved its technological advances and raised the value of the yen, since to devalue, the yen would have brought further risk and a possible depressing effect on trade; the appreciation of the yen led to significant economic recession in the 1980s.

To alleviate the influence of recession, Japan imposed a series of economical and financial policy to stimulate the domestic demand. The bubble economy that took place in the late 1980s and early 1990s and the subsequent deflationary policy destroyed the Japanese economy. After the deflationary policy, the Japanese economy has been through a time of low increase period which has lasted until today. For more detailed information regarding this period, see Economic history of Japan and Lost Decade. Japan was harmed in WWII. For instance, during wartime, "the Japanese cotton industry was brought to its knees by the end of the Second World War. Two-thirds of its prewar cotton spindles were scrapped by wartime administrators, bombing and destruction of urban areas had caused a further loss of 20 percent of spinning and 14 percent of weaving capacity". Nonetheless, the ability of recovery astonished the world, earning the title of "Japanese Economic Miracle". By and large, every country has experienced some degree of industrial growth in the post-war period, those countries that achieved a heavy drop in industrial output due to war damage such as Japan, West Germany and Italy, have achieved a most rapid recovery.

In the case of Japan, industrial production decreased in 1946 to 27.6% of the pre-war level, but recovered in 1951 and reached 350% in 1960. One reason for Japan's quick recovery from war trauma was the successful economic reform by the government; the government body principally concerned with industrial policy in Japan was the Ministry of Industry. One of the major economic reforms was to adopt the "Inclined Production Mode"; the "Inclined Production Mode" refers to the inclined production that focus on the production of raw material including steel and cotton. Textile production occupied more than 23.9% of the total industrial production. Moreover, to stimulate the production, Japanese government supported the new recruitment of labour female labour. By enhancing the recruitment of female labour, Japan managed to recover from the destruction; the legislation on recruitment contains three components: the restriction placed on regional recruitment and relocation of workers, the banning of the direct recruitment of new school leavers, the direct recruitment of non-school leavers

Azio-class minelayer

The Azio-class minelayer was a class of six minelayers conceived in 1920 and built between 1924 and 1927 in Italy for the Regia Marina. The ships were conceived for colonial purposes and in this role they spent the whole Italian career; some units were sold to the Bolivarian Navy of Venezuela where they served until their decommissioning and scrapping in the early 1950s. These units had a standard displacement of 615 t, between 708 and 718t in normal load, 954 t full load, their waterline length was 58.79 metres, with a length overall of about 62.5 metres, a beam of 8.7 metres, a draught of between 2.6 metres and 2.9 metres. Steam was provided by 2 Thornycroft tube boilers and they were propelled by 2 vertical triple-expansion reciprocating steam engines with a power of 1,500 shaft horsepower, they were manned by 66 ratings. Ships were built at Monfalcone, near Trieste, in the Cantiere Navale Triestino and at Ancona, on the central Italian coast, in the Cantiere Navale Riuniti; the CNT ships were oil-fired.

Azio Lepanto Legnano Ostia Dardanelli Milazzo Ships of the class spent their Italian career on colonial duty, with Lepanto deployed to China. In 1937 Milazzo and Dardanelli were converted to oil-firing and sold to the Venezuelan Navy in exchange of a great amount of naphtha for boilers. Lepanto was extensively used in China, when the Second World War broke out, was still there unscathed, Italy being allied with Japan. After the surrender of Italy to the Allies on 8 September 1943, Lepanto was scuttled by her crew, but was raised by the Japanese, she was used for escort duties for the rest of conflict. She was seized by the Republic of China Navy and the People's Liberation Army Navy and renamed Sien Ning. In July 1950 Sien Ning seized a British merchantman. Struck in 1956, the ship was scrapped in the same year. Ostia was assigned to support the Italian Red Sea Flotilla based at the port of Eritrea. After the Italian declaration of war, the flotilla was isolated from the Italian homeland and continued supply and reinforcement became difficult.

Ostia was sunk in Massawa harbor by British air attacks before the surrender of the port in April 1941, still carrying a full cargo of mines. Dardanelli was rechristened General Soublette. Both were reclassified gunboats; these units were the only new vessels of the Venezuelan Navy, spent their Venezuelan career patrolling territorial waters until their decommissioning in the late 1940s or early 1950s and scrapping. Gardiner, Robert, ed.. Conway's All The World's Fighting Ships 1922-1946. London, UK: Conway's Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-146-7. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list

Terence Seu Seu

Terence Seu Seu is a New Zealand former rugby league footballer who last played as a hooker in the Newcastle Rugby League competition. He had played in the National Rugby League for the Newcastle Knights, the Cronulla-Sutherland Sharks, the Manly-Warringah Sea Eagles. Seu Seu was born in New Zealand. Seu Seu made his First Grade Debut in 2007 for the Newcastle Knights against the Bulldogs at EnergyAustralia Stadium on 18 March, scoring one try in the match. Between 2008 and 2009 he played for the Cronulla Sharks, he joined the Manly Sea Eagles in 2010. In 2012 Seu Seu played for the Cessnock Goannas in the Newcastle Rugby League competition. Seu Seu was a part of the Samoa squad for the 2008 Rugby League World Cup. In 2009 he was named as part of the Samoan side for the Pacific Cup

Bryn railway station

Bryn railway station is in Bryn, in the Metropolitan Borough of Wigan, Greater Manchester, England. It is the nearest station to Ashton-in-Makerfield; the station is situated on the electrified Liverpool to Wigan Line 16 1⁄4 miles northeast of Liverpool Lime Street and 3 3⁄4 miles south of Wigan. The station, all trains serving it, are operated by Northern; the station is the only unstaffed one on the Huyton to Wigan line, being outside the Merseytravel area. Ticket machines have been installed on both platforms; the old station buildings shown in the caption have since been demolished and were replaced by basic waiting shelters. Digital display screens and timetable poster boards on each side provide train running information. Step-free access is provided only on the Wigan-bound platform. Monday to Saturday daytimes, there is a half-hourly service to Wigan North Western northbound and Liverpool Lime Street southbound. Evenings there is an hourly service in each direction. From 10 December 2017 there has been an hourly service on Sundays, to Wigan North Western northbound and Liverpool Lime Street southbound for the first time in many years.

The station was opened on 1 December 1869 by the Lancashire Union Railway on their route between St Helens and Blackburn via Wigan and Chorley. The line beyond Wigan was closed to passengers in January 1960 and in 1971; the Liverpool to Manchester line electrification encompasses the entire Liverpool to Wigan route. This allows electric trains to operate from Bryn to St Helens and Wigan. Electrification was completed in May 2015. Train times and station information for Bryn railway station from National Rail

2012 H.E. Mahinda Rajapaksa Under-23 International Football Trophy

The 2012 H. E. Mahinda Rajapaksa Under-23 International Football Trophy was the first edition of the tournament which took place in Sri Lanka from 3–9 December 2012; the tournament was won by Maldives. Sri Lanka were the hosts of the tournament as this is organised by the Ministry of Sports in association with the Football Federation of Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka – Host Pakistan Bangladesh Maldives All times are Sri Lanka Time – UTC+05:30 2 goals Hassan Adhuham Assadhulla Abdulla1 goal Saeed Ahmed Ahmed Imaaz Eranda Prasad Touhidul Alam Rilwan Waheed1 own goal Moosa Yaamin

List of the busiest airports

The definition of world's busiest airport has been specified by the Airports Council International in Montreal, Canada. The ACI defines and measures the following three types of airport traffic: Passenger traffic: total passengers emplaned and deplaned, passengers in transit counted once Cargo traffic: loaded and unloaded freight and mail, by mass Traffic movements: landings and take-offs of aircraft The following airports make claims based on objective volume measures that are defined above: Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport, Georgia, United StatesMost passengers annually Most aircraft movements annually Dubai International Airport, United Arab EmiratesMost international passengers annually Hong Kong International Airport, Hong Kong SARMost cargo traffic by weight annually Airports of London combined, United KingdomMost passengers annually in all city airports combined Midway International Airport, Illinois, United StatesIn the late 1940s, Chicago Midway was the busiest airport in the United States by total aircraft operations – i.e. including every training aircraft practicing take-offs and landings.

New York LaGuardia had the most airline operations and passengers until the early 1950s, when Chicago Midway became the busiest airport in the United States by any criterion. Before World War II, Chicago Midway was the origin or destination of one in four U. S. airline flights, although a 1939 Official Aviation Guide shows more airline flights scheduled at Newark than at Chicago. Memphis International Airport, Tennessee, United StatesAs the home of Fedex Express, Memphis had the largest cargo operations worldwide from 1993 to 2009, it remains the busiest cargo airport in the Western Hemisphere. List of airports List of busiest airports by passenger traffic Airports Council International website. A representative industry body for the airport industry that provides air travel statistics