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Japanese folklore

Japanese folklore encompasses the informally learned folk traditions of Japan and the Japanese people as expressed in its oral traditions and material culture. In Japanese, the term minkan denshō is used to describe folklore; the academic study of folklore is known as minzokugaku. Folklorists employ the term minzoku shiryō or "folklore material" to refer to the objects and arts they study. Men dressed as namahage, wearing ogre-like masks and traditional straw capes make rounds of homes, in an annual ritual of the Oga Peninsula area of the Northeast region; these ogre-men masquerade as kami looking to instill fear in the children who are lazily idling around the fire. This is a colorful example of folk practice still kept alive. A parallel custom is the secretive Akamata-Kuromata ritual of the Yaeyama Islands, Okinawa which does not allow itself to be photographed. Many, though fewer households maintain a kamidana or a small Shinto altar shelf; the Shinto version of the kitchen god is the Kamado kami, the syncretic Buddhist version is the Kōjin, a deity of the hearth enshrined in the kitchen.

Japanese popular cults or kō are sometimes devoted to particular deities and buddhas, e.g. the angry Fudō Myōō or the healer Yakushi Nyorai. But many cults centered around paying respects to sacred sites such as the Ise Mount Fuji. Pilgrimage to these meccas declined after the Edo period, but the Shikoku Pilgrimage of the eighty-eight temple sites has become fashionable. Popular media and cottage industries now extoll a number of shrines and sacred natural sites as power spots. There is a long list of practices performed to expel evil, e.g. sounding the drums. In some areas it is common to place a small mound of salt outside the house. Salt-scattering is considered purifying. A stock routine in period or contemporary drama involves a master of the house telling his wife to scatter salt after an undesirable visitor has just left. Contrarily, lighting sparks with flint. No one now engages in the silent vigil required by the Kōshin cult, but it might be noted that this cult has been associated with the iconic three See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil monkeys.

There are certain vestiges of geomancy introduced into Japan from China through Onmyōdō. The word kimon, "ogre's gate", colloquially refers to anything that a person may have constant ill luck with, but in the original sense designates the northeasterly direction, considered to be unlucky or dangerously inviting of ill-intended spirits. There is a Japanese version of Feng Shui known as kasō or "house physiognomy". Connected is the Yin-yang path or Onmyōdō, its concepts such as katatagae known as kataimi, practiced by nobles in the Heian period. A known taboo advises against sleeping with your head faced north, though it is doubtful if anyone now heeds this prohibition; as in most developed nations, it is difficult to find living storytellers of oral tradition. But there is a wealth of folktales collected through the ages; the name mukashi-banashi has been applied to the common folktale, since they open with the formula "Mukashi...". They close with some set phrase like "dotto harai"; these tales had been told in their local dialects, which may be difficult to understand to outsiders, both because of intonation and pronunciation differences and vocabulary.

Many folktales collected from the field are "translations" into standard Japanese. Classic folktales such as Momotarō, which most Japanese today are familiarized through pictured children's storybooks, manga, or other popularizations, can be traced to picture-books printed in the Edo period, though their prototypical stories may go back much further; the versions retold by children's story author Sazanami Iwaya had a strong hand in establishing the forms known today. Two creatures are known for their abilities to transform into humans or other beings and objects, the kitsune and tanuki, they occur in folktales of humorous nature. Marriages between humans and non-humans comprise a major motif in Japanese folklore. Japanese heterotype examples such as the crane story describes a sustained period of married life between the interspecies couple, in contrast to Western examples like Frog Prince or the Leda myth where the supernatural encounter is brief. An unusual pairing occurs in the story of the Hamaguri nyōbo, which exist in both a politer written version and in a more rustic and vulgar oral tale.

The gender is reversed in the tale of Tanishi chōja. A number of folktales were adapted for stage performance by playwright Junji Kinoshita, notably Yūzuru, based on the folktale Tsuru no Ongaeshi or "a crane who repaid its gratitude". In the American television series called The Yokai King, starring by Shin Koyamada, the characters are based on the Japanese folklore creatures. A great deal of interest gravitates towards Japanese monsters taken f


Spychowo pronounced is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Świętajno, within Szczytno County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, in northern Poland. It lies 10 kilometres north-east of Świętajno, 25 km east of Szczytno, 60 km east of the regional capital Olsztyn; the village has a population of 1,100. In mid 13th century the Teutonic Order, following the medieval conquest of Old Prussia, built a fortification at the place of an Old Prussian settlement; the village was a favorite hunting post of the Prussian Kings and, after the Nazi rise to power, Hermann Göring. Before 1945 it was known as Puppen. After World War II the village was renamed Pupy, changed to Spychowo in 1960. On September 23, 1979 the local Protestant church was charged whilst liturgy and forcefully taken over by Catholics


Aposthia is a rare congenital condition in humans, in which the foreskin of the penis is missing. Toward the end of the nineteenth century, E. S. Talbot claimed that aposthia among Jews was evidence for the now-discredited Lamarckian theory of evolution. In his work The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication, Charles Darwin mentioned cases of "born circumcised" babies as "conclusive evidence" for the now-discredited blending inheritance, it is that the cases he described were hypospadias, a condition in which the urinary meatus is on the underside of the penis. The Midrash of Ki-Tetze claims. Other sources that Jacob, his son Gad and King David were born aposthic; the book Abot De-Rabbi Natan contains a list of persons from the Israelite Scriptures that were "born circumcised": Adam, Noah, Jacob, Moses, the wicked Balaam, David and Zerubbabel. Jewish law requires males born without a foreskin or who lost their foreskin through means other than a formal circumcision ceremony to have a drop of blood let from the penis at the point where the foreskin would have been attached.

The Talmud records a discussion of whether the importance of this letting of blood supersedes Shabbat, on which only a boy, born the previous Shabbat can be circumcised. If a regular circumcision is delayed, there is no disagreement that this may not be performed on Shabbat. However, in the case of aposthia, there are two schools of thought. R. Elazar Hakappar said that the school of Shamai and Hillel do not differ as to a boy, born without a foreskin. Both agree; the school of Shamai, contends that this may be done on the Sabbath, while the other holds that the Sabbath must not be desecrated on that account. David Levy, former Israeli Foreign Minister and member of Knesset, was born aposthic. Arye Avneri's authorized 1983 biography of Levy notes this: When David Levy was born... his mother Sima noticed at once that he was different from other baby boys. He had been born circumcised, for the foreskin was missing; the rabbis in Rabat proclaimed that this foretold that Levy would grow up to be a "leader of Israel" though the State was not founded until Levy was 11, in 1948.

This proclamation was not prophetic of the founding of Israel, for "Israel" is a term that can be used to refer to "the Jewish people". Some traditions in Islam say. Lazarus Long, principal protagonist in several of Robert Heinlein's novels, was born aposthic. Aposthia in Dorland's Medical Dictionary Shulchan Aruch, Code of Jewish Law, Yoreh Deah § 263 Law 4. Amin-Ud-Din, M. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 13: 280–6. PMID 17684849

Illinois Route 122

Illinois Route 122 is a 31.53-mile-long east–west highway in the U. S. state of Illinois. Its western terminus is at a junction with IL 29 west of Delavan, it runs east to a junction with IL 9 in McLean County west of Bloomington. Illinois Route 122 begins at Illinois Route 29, 5 miles west of Delavan; the highway travels east through Delavan. Five miles east of Delavan, the highway makes a 3-mile northbound concurrency with Interstate 155. After its concurrency with Interstate 155, the highway travels east, passing along the north sides of Hopedale and Stanford. East of Stanford, the highway travels due north for 4 miles; the highway continues east for less than one mile to its eastern terminus at Illinois Route 9. This route serves the villages of Hopedale and Minier, it serves the McLean County village of Stanford. SBI Route 122 ran from Havana at the Illinois River to Bloomington on what was Illinois Route 9, Illinois 122, Illinois Route 29 and U. S. Route 136. By 1937, the routing of Illinois 122 had been settled

Matt Moran (American football)

Matthew R. Moran is a former American football offensive tackle in the National Football League for the Kansas City Chiefs, he played college football at the University of Stanford. Moran attended Servite High School, he accepted a football scholarship from the University of Stanford. As a freshman, he was named the starter at left tackle, as part of an offensive line that protected quarterback John Elway; as a sophomore, he was moved to left guard. He started 43 out of 44 games in his college career. Moran was selected by the Dallas Cowboys in the 6th round of the 1985 NFL Draft, he was selected by the Oakland Invaders in the 1985 USFL Territorial Draft. He was waived in September. In 1986, he was signed as a free agent by the Washington Redskins, he was released on August 26. On October 7, 1986, he was signed as a free agent by the Kansas City Chiefs to play offensive tackle, he was on the active roster for 2 games until his release on October 21. In 2000, he was hired as an assistant football coach at Sacred Heart Preparatory, where he has worked for over 15 years

Kurt Geiger

Kurt Geiger is an upmarket British footwear and accessories retailer. Kurt Geiger has over 70 stores, over 170 concessions within department stores, including Harrods and Selfridges. Kurt Geiger owns three brands Kurt Geiger London, KG Kurt Geiger and Carvela Kurt Geiger, created by its own in-house team; the Kurt Geiger headquarters is located off Britton Street, London. The building dating from the 1970s, was remodelled in 2009 by Archer Architects and is finished in a distinctive red, described as Pompean Red; the company is named after its Austrian founder, who opened its first shop in London's fashion capital on Bond Street in 1963, it has been based in London since. In 1995 Kurt Geiger introduced a men’s collection designed in London with distinctly British edge. More items from the collection have been worn by actors from Benedict Cumberbatch to Daniel Radcliffe, Channing Tatum and John Boyega. After a management buyout in 2008, it was sold by Graphite Capital to the U. S.-based brand management company The Jones Group in 2011.

In 2014, the Jones Group was acquired by Sycamore Partners, who spun off Kurt Geiger into its own company. In December 2015, London-based private equity firm Cinven acquired Kurt Geiger from its previous owner, New York-based private equity firm Sycamore Partners, for £245 million