New Guinea campaign
The New Guinea campaign of the Pacific War lasted from January 1942 until the end of the war in August 1945. During the initial phase in early 1942, the Empire of Japan invaded the Australian-administered territories of the New Guinea Mandate and Papua and overran western New Guinea, a part of the Netherlands East Indies. During the second phase, lasting from late 1942 until the Japanese surrender, the Allies—consisting of Australian and US forces—cleared the Japanese first from Papua the Mandate and from the Dutch colony; the campaign resulted in heavy losses for the Empire of Japan. As in most Pacific War campaigns and starvation claimed more Japanese lives than enemy action. Most Japanese troops never came into contact with Allied forces, were instead cut off and subjected to an effective blockade by the US Navy. Garrisons were besieged and denied shipments of food and medical supplies, as a result, some claim that 97% of Japanese deaths in this campaign were from non-combat causes. According to John Laffin, the campaign "was arguably the most arduous fought by any Allied troops during World War II".
The struggle for New Guinea began with the capture by the Japanese of the city of Rabaul at the northeastern tip of New Britain Island in January 1942. Rabaul overlooks Simpson Harbor, a considerable natural anchorage, was ideal for the construction of airfields. Over the next year, the Japanese built up the area into naval base; the Japanese 8th Area Army, under General Hitoshi Imamura at Rabaul, was responsible for both the New Guinea and Solomon Islands campaigns. The Japanese 18th Army, under Lieutenant General Hatazō Adachi, was responsible for Japanese operations on mainland New Guinea; the colonial capital of Port Moresby on the south coast of Papua was the strategic key for the Japanese in this area of operations. Capturing it would both neutralize the Allies' principal forward base and serve as a springboard for a possible invasion of Australia. For the same reasons, General Douglas MacArthur, Supreme Commander Allied Forces South West Pacific Area was determined to hold it. MacArthur was further determined to conquer all of New Guinea in his progress toward the eventual recapture of the Philippines.
General Headquarters Southwest Pacific Area Operational Instruction No.7 of 25 May 1942, issued by Commander-Allied-Forces, General Douglas MacArthur, placed all Australian and US Army, Air Force and Navy Forces in the Port Moresby Area under the control of New Guinea Force. Due north of Port Moresby, on the northeast coast of Papua, are the Huon Peninsula; the Japanese entered Lae and Salamaua, two locations on Huon Gulf, unopposed in early March 1942. MacArthur would have liked to deny this area to the Japanese, but he had neither sufficient air nor naval forces to undertake a counterlanding; the Japanese at Rabaul and other bases on New Britain would have overwhelmed any such effort. The only Allied response was a bombing raid of Lae and Salamaua by aircraft flying over the Owen Stanley Range from the carriers USS Lexington and USS Yorktown, leading the Japanese to reinforce these sites. Operation Mo was the designation given by the Japanese to their initial plan to take possession of Port Moresby.
Their operation plan decreed a five-pronged attack: one task force to establish a seaplane base at Tulagi in the lower Solomons, one to establish a seaplane base in the Louisiade Archipelago off the eastern tip of New Guinea, one of transports to land troops near Port Moresby, one with a light carrier to cover the landing, one with two fleet carriers to sink the Allied forces sent in response. In the resulting 4–8 May 1942 Battle of the Coral Sea, the Allies suffered higher losses in ships, but achieved a crucial strategic victory by turning the Japanese landing force back, thereby removing the threat to Port Moresby, at least for the time being. After this failure, the Japanese decided on a longer term, two-pronged assault for their next attempt on Port Moresby. Forward positions would first be established at Milne Bay, located in the forked eastern end of the Papuan peninsula, at Buna, a village on the northeast coast of Papua about halfway between Huon Gulf and Milne Bay. Simultaneous operations from these two locations, one amphibious and one overland, would converge on the target city.
Buna was taken as the Allies had no military presence there. The Japanese occupied the village with an initial force of 1,500 on 21 July and by 22 August had 11,430 men under arms at Buna. Began the grueling Kokoda Track campaign, a brutal experience for both the Japanese and Australian troops involved. On 17 September, the Japanese had reached the village of Ioribaiwa, just 30 kilometres from the Allied airdrome at Port Moresby; the Australians began their counterdrive on 26 September." "...the Japanese retreat down the Kokoda Trail had turned into a rout. Thousands perished from disease, thus was the overland threat to Port Moresby permanently removed. Since Port Moresby was the only port supporting operations in Papua, its defence was critical to the campaign; the air defences consisted of P-40 fighters. RAAF radar could not provide sufficient w
Battle of the Malacca Strait
The Battle of the Malacca Strait, sometimes called the Sinking of Haguro, in Japanese sources as the Battle off Penang, was a naval battle that resulted from the British search and destroy operation in May 1945, called Operation Dukedom, that resulted in the sinking of the Japanese cruiser Haguro. Haguro had been operating as a supply ship for Japanese garrisons in the Dutch East Indies and the Bay of Bengal since 1 May 1945. On 9 May, Haguro left Singapore, escorted by the destroyer Kamikaze, to re-supply the Port Blair garrison on the Andaman Islands and to evacuate the troops in Port Blair back to Singapore; the Royal Navy was alerted to this by a decrypted Japanese naval signal, subsequently confirmed by a sighting by the submarines HMS Statesman and Subtle. Force 61 of the Eastern Fleet set sail on 10 May from Trincomalee, Ceylon to intercept the Japanese flotilla; the Japanese were unwilling to risk any battle and, on receipt of an air reconnaissance warning, they returned to Singapore.
On 14 May and Kamikaze tried again and left Singapore. The next day, they were spotted by aircraft from Force 61; the subsequent bombing attack by Grumman Avenger IIs of 851 Naval Air Squadron caused only minor damage to Haguro, for the loss of an aircraft whose crew was taken prisoner by the Japanese. Information was relayed to the Japanese that two British destroyer squadrons had been sighted heading towards them. Again, they reversed course to return to the Malacca Strait; this change had been anticipated and the 26th Destroyer Flotilla, commanded by Captain Manley Laurence Power steamed to intercept. In heavy rain squalls with lightning, Venus made radar contact at 34 nmi; the British destroyers arranged themselves in a crescent cordon and allowed the Japanese ships to sail into the trap. At 01:05, parallel to Haguro as she raced past the north-westernmost ship in Power's force, found herself in a perfect attacking position, but the Torpedo Control Officer aboard Venus had made the wrong angle settings on her eight tubes, the opportunity was lost and Venus heeled hard over to port to clear the target area but still maintain the encirclement.
Haguro, altered course away to comb the tracks. In so doing, she turned deeper into the trap. Saumarez and Verulam were now well positioned to make their attacks. Haguro appeared fine off Saumarez's port bow at a range of 6,000 yards, each ship closing at 30 knots. At the same time, the Japanese destroyer Kamikaze appeared off the starboard bow, crossing from starboard to port, only 3,000 yards away and on a collision course. Saumarez's second salvo from her two forward, radar-controlled 4.7in guns struck Kamikaze and 40mm Bofors shells from the British ship's aft twin-mounting ripped the 320ft length of the Japanese destroyer as Saumarez heeled to starboard. Haguro now fired her first broadside of four 5in guns at Saumarez. Tremendous waterspouts thrown up alongside swamped the British flotilla leader's upper decks as Haguro was seen three miles away in the light of both sides' star-shells. At 01:11, just as she was about to fire torpedoes, Saumarez was hit; the top of her funnel disappeared over the side and a 5in shell penetrated No. 1 Boiler Room, severed a steam main and lodged inside the boiler.
Five men were scalded, two of whom died, but as with the 8in shell hits, this shell failed to explode at such close range and was thrown overboard. At 01:15, Haguro was hit by three torpedoes from Verulam; as Saumarez limped northward from the immediate battle area, a violent explosion created confusion. Power thought it was Kamikaze blowing up and men on Virago and Vigilant thought it was Saumarez, but it was two torpedoes colliding. Venus hit Haguro with one torpedo at 01:25, Virago stopped Haguro with two more torpedo hits two minutes later; the Japanese cruiser sank at 02:06 after receiving another torpedo from Vigilant, two more from Venus, nearly an hour of gunfire from the 26th Flotilla. Saumarez's main aerial and a funnel top had been an 8 in shell nicked the forecastle. Two men were killed and three burned in the boiler room when a 5 in shell severed the main steam pipe. There was no damage to the remainder of the 26th Flotilla. Kamikaze was damaged, but escaped, returning the next day to rescue survivors.
About 320 survived, but over 900 died, including the Japanese commanders, Vice-Admiral Hashimoto and Rear-Admiral Sugiura. This was one of the last major surface gun and torpedo actions of World War II. Lord Louis Mountbatten, himself a distinguished destroyer captain, described it in his Report to the Combined Chiefs of Staff as'an outstanding example of a night attack by destroyers.' In 2010 a diving expedition surveyed the wreck in detail. Several years circa 2014, the wreck was reported destroyed by illegal salvagers
Battle of Wake Island
The Battle of Wake Island began with the attack on Pearl Harbor naval/air bases in Hawaii and ended on 23 December 1941, with the surrender of the American forces to the Empire of Japan. It was fought on and around the atoll formed by Wake Island and its minor islets of Peale and Wilkes Islands by the air and naval forces of the Japanese Empire against those of the United States, with Marines playing a prominent role on both sides; the island was held by the Japanese for the duration of the Pacific War theater of World War II. In January 1941, the United States Navy constructed a military base on the atoll. On 19 August, the first permanent military garrison, understrength elements of the 1st Marine Defense Battalion, totaling 450 officers and men, were stationed on the island, under Major James P. S. Devereux, USMC of Baltimore; the defense battalion was supplemented by Marine Corps fighter plane squadron VMF-211, consisting of 12 F4F-3 Wildcat fighters, commanded by marine aviator Major Paul A. Putnam, USMC.
Present on the island were 68 U. S. Navy personnel and about 1,221 civilian workers for the Morrison-Knudsen Civil Engineering Company. Forty-five Chamorro men were employed by Pan American Airways at the company's facilities on Wake Island, one of the stops on the Pan Am Clipper trans-Pacific amphibious air service initiated in 1935; the Marines were armed with six 5-inch /51 cal pieces, originating from the old battleship USS Texas. On 28 November, naval aviator Commander Winfield S. Cunningham, USN reported to Wake to assume overall command of U. S. forces on the island. He had 10 days to assess his men before war broke out. On 8 December, just hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor, 36 Japanese Mitsubishi G3M3 medium bombers flown from bases on the Marshall Islands attacked Wake Island, destroying eight of the 12 F4F-3 Wildcats on the ground; the remaining four Wildcats were in the air patrolling, but because of poor visibility, failed to see the attacking Japanese bombers. These Wildcats shot down two bombers on the following day.
All of the Marine garrison's defensive emplacements were left intact by the raid, which targeted the aircraft. Of the 55 Marine aviation personnel, 23 were killed and 11 were wounded. Following this attack, the Pan Am employees were evacuated, along with the passengers of the "Philippine Clipper," a passing Martin 130 amphibious flying boat that had survived the attack unscathed; the Chamorro working men were left behind. Two more air raids followed; the main camp was targeted on 9 December, destroying the civilian hospital and the Pan Am air facility. The next day, enemy bombers focused on outlying Wilkes Island. Following the raid on 9 December, the guns had been relocated in case the Japanese had photographed the positions. Wooden replicas were erected in their place, the Japanese bombers attacked the decoy positions. A lucky strike on a civilian dynamite supply set off a chain reaction and destroyed the munitions for the guns on Wilkes. Early on the morning of 11 December, the garrison, with the support of the four remaining Wildcats, repelled the first Japanese landing attempt by the South Seas Force, which included the light cruisers Yubari, Tenryū, Tatsuta.
The US Marines fired at the invasion fleet with their six 5-inch coast-defense guns. Major Devereux, the Marine commander under Cunningham, ordered the gunners to hold their fire until the enemy moved within range of the coastal defenses. "Battery L", on Peale islet, sank Hayate at a distance of 4,000 yd with at least two direct hits to her magazines, causing her to explode and sink within two minutes, in full view of the defenders on shore. Battery A claimed to have hit Yubari several times, but her action report makes no mention of any damage; the four Wildcats succeeded in sinking the destroyer Kisaragi by dropping a bomb on her stern where the depth charges were stored. Both Japanese destroyers were lost with nearly all hands, with Hayate becoming the first Japanese surface warship to be sunk in the war; the Japanese recorded 407 casualties during the first attempt. The Japanese force withdrew without landing, suffering their first setback of the war against the Americans. After the initial raid was fought off, American news media reported that, when queried about reinforcement and resupply, Commander Cunningham was reported to have quipped, "Send us more Japs!"
In fact, Cunningham sent a long list of critical equipment—including gunsights, spare parts, fire-control radar—to his immediate superior: Commandant, 14th Naval District. But the siege and frequent Japanese air attacks on the Wake garrison continued, without resupply for the Americans; the initial resistance offered by the garrison prompted the Japanese Navy to detach the aircraft carriers Sōryū and Hiryū from the force that had attacked Pearl Harbor to support the second landing attempt. The projected US relief attem
French Indochina known as the Indochinese Union after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia. A grouping of the three Vietnamese regions of Tonkin and Cochinchina with Cambodia was formed in 1887. Laos was added in 1893 and the leased Chinese territory of Guangzhouwan in 1898; the capital was moved from Saigon to Hanoi in 1902 and again to Da Lat in 1939. In 1945 it was moved back to Hanoi. After the Fall of France during World War II, the colony was administered by the Vichy government and was under Japanese occupation until March 1945, when the Japanese overthrew the colonial regime. After the Japanese surrender, the Viet Minh, a communist organization led by Hồ Chí Minh, declared Vietnamese independence, but France subsequently took back control of French Indochina. An all-out independence war, known as the First Indochina War, broke out in late 1946 between French and Viet Minh forces. In order to create a political alternative to the Viet Minh, the State of Vietnam, led by former Emperor Bảo Đại, was proclaimed in 1949.
On 9 November 1953 the Kingdom of Cambodia proclaimed its independence. Following the Geneva Accord of 1954, the French evacuated Vietnam and French Indochina came to an end. French–Vietnamese relations started during the early 17th century with the arrival of the Jesuit missionary Alexandre de Rhodes. Around this time, Vietnam had only just begun its "Push to the South"—"Nam Tiến", the occupation of the Mekong Delta, a territory being part of the Khmer Empire and to a lesser extent, the kingdom of Champa which they had defeated in 1471. European involvement in Vietnam was confined to trade during the 18th century, as the remarkably successful work of the Jesuit missionaries continued. In 1787, Pierre Pigneau de Behaine, a French Catholic priest, petitioned the French government and organised French military volunteers to aid Nguyễn Ánh in retaking lands his family lost to the Tây Sơn. Pigneau died in Vietnam but his troops fought on until 1802 in the French assistance to Nguyễn Ánh; the French colonial empire was involved in Vietnam in the 19th century.
For its part, the Nguyễn dynasty saw Catholic missionaries as a political threat. In 1858, the brief period of unification under the Nguyễn dynasty ended with a successful attack on Da Nang by French Admiral Charles Rigault de Genouilly under the orders of Napoleon III. Diplomat Charles de Montigny's mission having failed, Genouilly's mission was to stop attempts to expel Catholic missionaries, his orders were to stop the persecution of missionaries and assure the unimpeded propagation of the faith. In September 1858, fourteen French gunships, 3,000 men and 300 Filipino troops provided by the Spanish attacked the port of Tourane, causing significant damage and occupying the city. After a few months, Rigault had to leave the city due to supply illnesses. Sailing south, de Genouilly captured the poorly defended city of Saigon on 18 February 1859. On 13 April 1862, the Vietnamese government was forced to cede the three provinces of Biên Hòa, Gia Định and Định Tường to France. De Genouilly was criticised for his actions and was replaced by Admiral Page in November 1859, with instructions to obtain a treaty protecting the Catholic faith in Vietnam, but refrain from territorial gains.
French policy four years saw a reversal, with the French continuing to accumulate territory. In 1862, France obtained concessions from Emperor Tự Đức, ceding three treaty ports in Annam and Tonkin, all of Cochinchina, the latter being formally declared a French territory in 1864. In 1867 the provinces of Châu Đốc, Hà Tiên and Vĩnh Long were added to French-controlled territory. In 1863, the Cambodian king Norodom had requested the establishment of a French protectorate over his country. In 1867, Siam renounced suzerainty over Cambodia and recognised the 1863 French protectorate on Cambodia, in exchange for the control of Battambang and Siem Reap provinces which became part of Thailand.. France obtained control over northern Vietnam following its victory over China in the Sino-French War. French Indochina was formed on 17 October 1887 from Annam, Tonkin and the Kingdom of Cambodia; the federation lasted until 21 July 1954. In the four protectorates, the French formally left the local rulers in power, who were the Emperors of Vietnam, Kings of Cambodia, Kings of Luang Prabang, but in fact gathered all powers in their hands, the local rulers acting only as figureheads.
French troops landed in Vietnam in 1858 and by the mid-1880s they had established a firm grip over the northern region. From 1885 to 1895, Phan Đình Phùng led a rebellion against France. Nationalist sentiments intensified in Vietnam during and after World War I, but all the uprisings and tentative efforts failed to obtain sufficient concessio
Second Sino-Japanese War
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945. It began with the Marco Polo Bridge Incident in 1937 in which a dispute between Japanese and Chinese troops escalated into a battle; some sources in the modern People's Republic of China date the beginning of the war to the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931. China fought Japan with aid from the United States. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, the war merged with other conflicts of World War II as a major sector known as the China Burma India Theater; some scholars consider the start of the full-scale Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937 to have been the beginning of World War II. The Second Sino-Japanese War was the largest Asian war in the 20th century, it accounted for the majority of civilian and military casualties in the Pacific War, with between 10 and 25 million Chinese civilians and over 4 million Chinese and Japanese military personnel dying from war-related violence and other causes.
The war was the result of a decades-long Japanese imperialist policy to expand its influence politically and militarily in order to secure access to raw material reserves and labor. The period after World War I brought about increasing stress on the Japanese polity. Leftists sought universal suffrage and greater rights for workers. Increasing textile production from Chinese mills was adversely affecting Japanese production; the Great Depression brought about a large slowdown in exports. All of this contributed to militant nationalism, culminating in the rise to power of a militarist fascist faction; this faction was led at its height by the Hideki Tojo cabinet of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association under edict from Emperor Hirohito. In 1931, the Mukden Incident helped spark the Japanese invasion of Manchuria; the Chinese were defeated and Japan created a new puppet state, Manchukuo. This view has been adopted by the PRC government. From 1931 to 1937, China and Japan continued to skirmish in small, localized engagements, so-called "incidents".
The Japanese scored major victories, capturing both Shanghai and the Chinese capital of Nanjing in 1937. After failing to stop the Japanese in the Battle of Wuhan, the Chinese central government was relocated to Chongqing in the Chinese interior. By 1939, after Chinese victories in Changsha and Guangxi, with Japan's lines of communications stretched deep into the Chinese interior, the war reached a stalemate; the Japanese were unable to defeat the Chinese communist forces in Shaanxi, which waged a campaign of sabotage and guerrilla warfare against the invaders. While Japan ruled the large cities, they lacked sufficient manpower to control China's vast countryside. During this time, Chinese communist forces launched a counter offensive in Central China while Chinese nationalist forces launched a large scale winter offensive. On December 7, 1941, the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, the following day the United States declared war on Japan; the United States began to aid China by airlifting material over the Himalayas after the Allied defeat in Burma that closed the Burma Road.
In 1944 Japan launched Operation Ichi-Go, that conquered Henan and Changsha. However, this failed to bring about the surrender of Chinese forces. In 1945, the Chinese Expeditionary Force resumed its advance in Burma and completed the Ledo Road linking India to China. At the same time, China launched large counteroffensives in South China and retook West Hunan and Guangxi. Despite continuing to occupy part of China's territory, Japan surrendered on September 2, 1945, to Allied forces following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Soviet invasion of Japanese-held Manchuria; the remaining Japanese occupation forces formally surrendered on September 9, 1945, with the following International Military Tribunal for the Far East convened on April 29, 1946. At the outcome of the Cairo Conference of November 22–26, 1943, the Allies of World War II decided to restrain and punish the aggression of Japan by restoring all the territories that Japan annexed from China, including Manchuria, Taiwan/Formosa, the Pescadores, to China, to expel Japan from the Korean Peninsula.
China was recognized as one of the Big Four of the Allies during the war and became one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. In China, the war is most known as the "War of Resistance against Japan", shortened to the "Resistance against Japan" or the "War of Resistance", it was called the "Eight Years' War of Resistance", but in 2017 the Chinese Ministry of Education issued a directive stating that textbooks were to refer to the war as the "Fourteen Years' War of Resistance", reflecting a focus on the broader conflict with Japan going back to 1931. It is referred to as part of the "Global Anti-Fascist War", how World War II is perceived by the Communist Party of China and the PRC government. In Japan, the name "Japan–China War" is most used because of its perceived objectivity; when the invasion of China proper began in earnest in July 1937 near Beijing, the government of Japan used "The North China Incident", with the outbreak of the Battle of Shanghai the following month, it was changed to "The China Incident"
South West Pacific theatre of World War II
The South West Pacific theatre, during World War II, was a major theatre of the war between the Allies and the Axis. It included the Philippines, the Dutch East Indies, Borneo and its mandate Territory of New Guinea and the western part of the Solomon Islands; this area was defined by the Allied powers' South West Pacific Area command. In the South West Pacific theatre, Japanese forces fought against the forces of the United States and Australia. New Zealand, the Netherlands, the Philippines, United Kingdom, other Allied nations contributed forces; the South Pacific became a major theatre of the war following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941. US warplans called for a counteroffensive across the Central Pacific, but this was disrupted by the loss of battleships at Pearl Harbor. During the First South Pacific Campaign, US forces sought to establish a defensive perimeter against additional Japanese attacks; this was followed by the Second South Pacific Campaign. The U. S. General Douglas MacArthur had been in command of the American forces in the Philippines in what was to become the South West Pacific theatre, but was part of a larger theatre that encompassed the South West Pacific, the Southeast Asian mainland and the North of Australia, under the short lived American-British-Dutch-Australian Command.
Shortly after the collapse of ABDACOM, supreme command of the South West Pacific theatre passed to MacArthur, appointed Supreme Allied Commander South West Pacific Area on 30 March 1942. In the other major theatre in the Pacific region, known as the Pacific Ocean theatre, Allied forces were commanded by US Admiral Chester Nimitz. Both MacArthur and Nimitz were overseen by the US Joint Chiefs and the Western Allies Combined Chiefs of Staff. Most Japanese forces in the theatre were part of the Southern Expeditionary Army, formed on November 6, 1941, under General Hisaichi Terauchi; the Nanpo gun was responsible for Imperial Japanese Army ground and air units in Southeast Asia and the South Pacific. The Combined Fleet of the Imperial Japanese Navy was responsible for all Japanese warships, naval aviation units and marine infantry units; as the Japanese military did not formally utilize joint/combined staff at the operational level, the command structures/geographical areas of operations of the Nanpo gun and Rengō Kantai overlapped each other and those of the Allies.
Battle of the Philippines Battle of Bataan Battle of Corregidor Dutch East Indies campaign, 1941–42 Battle of Badung Strait 19–20 February 1942 Battle of the Java Sea 27 February 1942 Battle of Sunda Strait 28 February – 1 March 1942 Second Battle of the Java Sea 1 March 1942 Solomon Islands campaign 1943–45 New Georgia Campaign, June–August 1943 Battle of Kula Gulf 6 July 1943 Battle of Kolombangara 13 July 1943 Battle of Vella Gulf 6–7 August 1943 Naval Battle of Vella Lavella 6–7 October 1943 Battle of Empress Augusta Bay 2 November 1943 Battle of Cape St. George 25 November 1943 New Guinea campaign, 1942–45 Battle of Rabaul, January–February 1942 Invasion of Salamaua–Lae, March 1942 Battle of the Coral Sea 4–8 May 1942 Invasion of Buna-Gona, July 1942 Kokoda Track campaign, July–November 1942 Battle of Goodenough Island, October 1942 Battle of Buna-Gona, November 1942 – January 1943 Battle of Wau, January 1943 Battle of the Bismarck Sea 2 March 1943 Operation Chronicle 1943 Landing at Nassau Bay 1943 Salamaua-Lae campaign, April–September 1943 Finisterre Range campaign, September 1943 – April 1944 Huon Peninsula campaign, September 1943 – March 1944 Bougainville Campaign, November 1943 – August 1945 New Britain campaign 26 December 1943 Admiralty Islands campaign 29 February 1944 Invasion of Hollandia 22 April 1944 Battle of Biak 27 May 1944 Battle of Noemfoor 2 July 1944 Battle of Morotai 15 September 1944 Aitape-Wewak campaign November 1944 Battle of Timor 1942–43 Philippines campaign Battle of Leyte, October–December 1944 Battle of Leyte Gulf, 23-26 October 1944 Battle of Mindoro, December 1944 Battle of Lingayen Gulf, January 1945 Battle of Luzon, January–August 1945 Battle of Manila, February–March 1945 Battle of Corregidor, February 1945 Invasion of Palawan, February–April 1945 Battle of the Visayas, March–July 1945 Battle of Mindanao, March–August 1945 Battle of Maguindanao, January–September 1945 Borneo campaign, 1945 Battle of Tarakan, May–June 1945 Battle of North Borneo, June–August 1945 Battle of Balikpapan, July 1945 American-British-Dutch-Australian Command Cressman, Robert J..
The Official Chronology of the U. S. Navy in World War II. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-149-1. Dull, Paul S.. A Battle History of the Imperial Japanese Navy. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. Potter, E. B.. Sea Power. Prentice-Hall. Silverstone, Paul H.. U. S. Warships of World War II. Doubleday and Company. Sulzberger, C. L.. The American Heritage Picture History of World War II. Crown Publishers. Drea, Edward J.. In the Service of the Emperor: Essays on the Imperial Japanese Army. Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-1708-0. Eichelberger, Robert. Our Jungle Road to Tokyo. New York: Battery Press. ISBN 0-89839-132-6. Griffith, Thomas E. Jr.. MacArthur's Airman: General George C. Kenney and the War in the Southwest Pacific. Lawrence, Kansas, U. S. A.: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-0909-1. Krueger, Walter. From Down Under to Nippon: Story of the 6th Army in World War II. Zenger. ISBN 0-89201-046-0. United State
American Theater (World War II)
The American Theater describes a series of minor areas of operations during World War II within mainland North America and South America. This was due to both North and South America's geographical separation from the central theaters of conflict in Europe, the Pacific, Asia. Thus, any full-scale threat by the Axis Powers to invade the continental United States or other areas within mainland North and South Americas was considered negligible, allowing for American resources to be deployed in overseas theaters; this article includes attacks on continental territory, extending 200 miles into the ocean, today under the sovereignty of Canada, the United States and several other smaller states. The best known events in North America during World War II were the Aleutian Islands Campaign, the Battle of the St. Lawrence, the attacks on Newfoundland; the first naval battle during the war was fought on December 13, 1939, off the Atlantic coast of South America. The German "pocket battleship" Admiral Graf Spee encountered one of the British naval units searching for her.
Composed of three Royal Navy cruisers, HMS Exeter and Achilles, the unit was patrolling off the River Plate estuary of Argentina and Uruguay. In a bloody engagement, Admiral Graf Spee repulsed the British attacks. Captain Hans Langsdorff brought his damaged ship to shelter in neutral Uruguay for repairs. However, British intelligence deceived Langsdorff into believing that a much superior British force had now gathered to wait for him, he scuttled his ship at Montevideo to save his crew's lives before committing suicide. German combat losses were 28 wounded. Two Royal Navy cruisers had been damaged. U-boat operations in the region began in autumn 1940. After negotiations with Brazilian Foreign Minister Osvaldo Aranha, the U. S. introduced its Air Force along Brazil's coast in the second half of 1941. Germany and Italy subsequently extended their submarine attacks to include Brazilian ships wherever they were, from April 1942 were found in Brazilian waters. On 22 May 1942, the first Brazilian attack was carried out by Brazilian Air Force aircraft on the Italian submarine Barbarigo.
After a series of attacks on merchant vessels off the Brazilian coast by U-507, Brazil entered the war on 22 August 1942, offering an important addition to the Allied strategic position in the South Atlantic. Although the Brazilian Navy was small, it had modern minelayers suitable for coastal convoy escort and aircraft which needed only small modifications to become suitable for maritime patrol. During its three years of war in Caribbean and South Atlantic, alone and in conjunction with the U. S. Brazil escorted 3,167 ships in 614 convoys, totalling 16,500,000 tons, with losses of 0.1%. Brazil saw three of 486 men killed in action. American and Brazilian air and naval forces worked together until the end of the Battle. One example was the sinking of U-199 in July 1943, by a coordinated action of Brazilian and American aircraft. Only in Brazilian waters, eleven other Axis submarines were known sunk between January and September 1943—the Italian Archimede and ten German boats: U-128, U-161, U-164, U-507, U-513, U-590, U-591, U-598, U-604, U-662.
By fall 1943, the decreasing number of Allied shipping losses in South Atlantic coincided with the increasing elimination of Axis submarines operating there. From the battle in the region was lost for Germans with the most of remaining submarines in the region receiving official order of withdrawal only in August of the following year, with the last Allied merchant ship sunk by a U-boat there, on 10 March 1945. Before the war, a large Nazi spy ring was found operating in the United States; the Duquesne Spy Ring is still the largest espionage case in United States history that ended in convictions. The 33 German agents who formed the Duquesne spy ring were placed in key jobs in the United States to get information that could be used in the event of war and to carry out acts of sabotage. One man used his position to get information from his customers; the ring was led by Captain Fritz Joubert Duquesne, a South African Boer who spied for Germany in both World Wars and is best known as "The man who killed Kitchener" after he was awarded the Iron Cross for his key role in the sabotage and sinking of HMS Hampshire in 1916.
William G. Sebold, a double agent for the United States, was a major factor in the FBI's successful resolution of this case. For nearly two years, Sebold ran a secret radio station in New York for the ring. Sebold provided the FBI with information on what Germany was sending to its spies in the United States while allowing the FBI to control the information, being transmitted to Germany. On June 29, 1941, six months before the U. S. declared war, the FBI acted. All 33 spies were arrested, found or plead guilty, sentenced to serve a total of over 300 years in prison. After declaring war on the United States following the attack on Pearl Harbor, Adolf Hitler ordered the remaining German saboteurs to wreak havoc on America; the responsibility for carrying this out was given to German Intelligence. In the spr