The Nerbudda incident was the execution of 197 personnel of the British transport ship Nerbudda and brig Ann in Taiwan on 10 August 1842 during the First Opium War. An additional 87 prisoners died from ill-treatment in captivity. In September 1841, the Nerbudda became shipwrecked off northern Taiwan near Keelung. In March 1842, the Ann became shipwrecked at Da'an harbour. Survivors from both ships—primarily Indian camp followers and lascars—were captured and marched south to the capital of Taiwan Prefecture, where they were imprisoned before being beheaded. Out of the nearly 300 castaways who landed or attempted to land in Taiwan, only 11 survived captivity and execution; the Daoguang Emperor ordered the execution on 14 May 1842, after the Chinese defeat in Zhejiang. In expanding their trading activities in East Asia, the British East India Company viewed Taiwan as a viable trading post with rich resource potential; the Company lobbied the British government to grant a trade monopoly by first occupying the island.
In 1840, British national William Huttmann wrote to Foreign Secretary Lord Palmerston that given the strategic and commercial value of the island and the Qing dynasty's benign rule over it, a British warship with less than 1,500 troops could occupy its eastern coast while developing trade. During the First Opium War, British men-of-war patrolled the Pescadores. In early September 1841, the transport ship, it had 274 personnel consisting of 243 Indians, 29 Europeans, two men from Manila. A severe gale dismasted the ship, which drifted towards the northern coast of Taiwan and struck a reef. All the Europeans, accompanied by three Indians and the two Manila men, left the Nerbudda in a row boat, leaving behind 240 Indians; the ship, supplied with provisions, lay in smooth water in Keelung bay for five days, during which they prepared rafts. In attempting to land, some drowned in the surf, others were killed by plunderers on shore, the rest were captured by local authorities who separated them into small parties and marched them to the prefectural capital Taiwan.
About 150 are thought to have made it on shore. Meanwhile, those in the row boat proceeded along the eastern coast of Taiwan. After being adrift for several days, they were descried by the trading schooner Black Swan and taken to Hong Kong; the Manchu Brigade General Dahonga and the Han taotai Yao Ying filed a disingenuous report to the Daoguang Emperor, claiming to have sunk the ship from the Keelung fort while defending against a naval attack on 30 September, with 32 enemies killed and 133 captured. In response, the emperor sent rewards to both commanders. However, the battle never occurred and the people they claimed to have slaughtered were the shipwrecked survivors. Only two ended up being sent to Xiamen after the executions the following year. In March 1842, the brig Ann set sail from Chusan to Macao, it had 57 personnel consisting of 34 Indian natives, 14 European or American natives, five Chinese, four Portuguese or Malays. Most were lascars. Strong winds drifted the ship on shore and the ebb tide caused it to run aground near Da'an harbour.
The crew commandeered a Chinese junk in an attempt to set out to sea, but a gale disrupted the plan, were soon captured by armed Chinese. Dahonga and Yao Ying again sent a disingenuous report, claiming that fishing vessels destroyed the ship in self-defence. Only nine survivors were spared in the executions in August 1842. In 1843, a list of the names of the 57 crewmen and their fate was published in The Chinese Repository: 43 beheaded 2 died in prison 2 died in the wreck 1 escaped 8 set free to Xiamen 1 Chinese retained as an interpreter Between 19–27 October 1841, the British sloop Nimrod sailed to Keelung and offered 100 dollars for every Nerbudda survivor, but after finding out they were sent south for imprisonment, Captain Joseph Pearse ordered the bombardment of the harbour and destroyed 27 sets of cannon before returning to Hong Kong. On 8 October 1842, Commander William Nevill of the Serpent left Xiamen for Taiwan. Captain Henry Ducie Chads of the Cambrian ordered him to inquire about the survivors of both ships "under a Flag of Truce".
By that time, the British were aware that the captives were executed. Nevill brought a letter from Chads addressed to the Taiwanese governor, requesting the release of the survivors, but reported that his reception was uncourteous and his letter not accepted, they were told. On 12 October, they returned to Xiamen; when the Serpent arrived in Anping, she found 25 survivors of the 26 crew of the transport ship Herculaneum, Captain Stroyan, which left Singapore on 6 September 1842, carrying coals from Calcutta to the British steamers in Chusan, been thought lost. Unlike the Nerbudda and Ann survivors, Captain Stroyan and his crew were well-treated, albeit because they knew the fate of many of the other wreck victims, in constant fear of their lives, it is possible, depending on the credibility of contemporary newspaper reports, that the Taiwanese authorities spared the European survivors, focusing their executions on the Indian crew. The contemporary reports of the rescue of the Herculaneum crew refer to 197 total survivors of the Nerbudda and Ann, 30 having died, 157 having been executed, including eight Britons, one of whom was Robert Gully, the son of prize fighter and MP John Gully, the 10 survivors who were sent to Xiamen.
The Serpent arrived in Xiamen with the Herculaneum survi
The Ryukyu Islands known as the Nansei Islands or the Ryukyu Arc, are a chain of Japanese islands that stretch southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan: the Ōsumi, Amami and Sakishima Islands, with Yonaguni the westernmost. The larger are high islands and the smaller coral; the largest is Okinawa Island. The climate of the islands ranges from humid subtropical climate in the north to tropical rainforest climate in the south. Precipitation is high, is affected by the rainy season and typhoons. Except the outlying Daitō Islands, the island chain has two major geologic boundaries, the Tokara Strait between the Tokara and Amami Islands, the Kerama Gap between the Okinawa and Miyako Islands; the islands beyond the Tokara Strait are characterized by their coral reefs. The Ōsumi and Tokara Islands, the northernmost of the islands, fall under the cultural sphere of the Kyushu region of Japan; the Amami, Okinawa and Yaeyama Islands have a native population collectively called the Ryukyuan people, named for the former Ryukyu Kingdom that ruled them.
The varied Ryukyuan languages are traditionally spoken on these islands, the major islands have their own distinct languages. In modern times, the Japanese language is the primary language of the islands, with the Okinawan Japanese dialect prevalently spoken; the outlying Daitō Islands were uninhabited until the Meiji period, when their development was started by people from the Izu Islands south of Tokyo, with the people there speaking the Hachijō language. Administratively, the islands are divided into Kagoshima Prefecture in the north and Okinawa Prefecture in the south, with the divide between the Amami and Okinawa Islands, with the Daitō Islands part of Okinawa Prefecture; the northern islands are collectively called the Satsunan Islands, while the southern part of the chain are called the Ryukyu Islands in Chinese. The Ryukyus are divided into two or three primary groups: either administratively, with the Northern Ryukyus being the islands in Kagoshima Prefecture and the Southern Ryukyus being the islands in Okinawa Prefecture, or geologically, with the islands north of the Tokara Strait being the Northern Ryukyus, those between the Tokara Strait and Kerama Gap being the Central Ryukyus, those south of the Kerama Gap being the Southern Ryukyus.
Following are the grouping and names used by the Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department of the Japan Coast Guard. The islands are listed from north to south. Nansei Islands Satsunan Islands Ōsumi Islands with: Tanegashima, Kuchinoerabu, Mageshima in the North-Eastern Group, Takeshima, Iōjima, Kuroshima in the North-Western Group. Tokara Islands: Kuchinoshima, Gajajima, Akusekijima, Kodakarajima, Takarajima Amami Islands: Amami Ōshima, Kakeromajima, Ukeshima, Okinoerabujima, Yoronjima Ryukyu Islands Okinawa Islands: Okinawa Island, Iheya, Aguni, Ie, Iwo Tori Shima Kerama Islands: Tokashiki, Aka, Geruma Sakishima Islands Miyako Islands: Miyakojima, Ikema, Ōgami, Shimoji, Minna, Tarama Yaeyama Islands: Iriomote, Taketomi, Kuroshima, Hatoma, Hateruma, Yonaguni Senkaku Islands: Uotsurijima, Kuba Jima, Taisho Jima, Kita Kojima, Minami Kojima Daitō Islands: Kita Daitō, Minami Daitō, Oki DaitōThe Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, another government organization, responsible for standardization of place names, disagrees with the Japan Coast Guard over some names and their extent, but the two are working on standardization.
They agreed on February 2010, to use Amami-guntō for the Amami Islands. The English and Japanese uses of the term "Ryukyu" differ. In English, the term Ryukyu may apply to the entire chain of islands, while in Japanese Ryukyu refers only to the islands that were part of the Ryūkyū Kingdom after 1624. Nansei-shotō is the official name for the whole island chain in Japanese. Japan has used the name on nautical charts since 1907. Based on the Japanese charts, the international chart series uses Nansei Shoto. Nansei means "southwest", the direction of the island chain from mainland Japan; some humanities scholars prefer the uncommon term Ryūkyū-ko for the entire island chain. In geology, the Ryukyu Arc includes subsurface structures such as the Okinawa Trough and extends to Kyushu. During the American occupation of Amami, the Japanese government objected to them being included under the name "Ryukyu" in English, because they worried that this might mean that the return of the Amami Islands to Japanese control would be delayed until the return of Okinawa.
However, the American occupational government on Amami continued to be called the "Provisional Government for th
Charles Le Gendre
Charles William or Guillaum Joseph Émile Le Gendre was a French-born American officer and diplomat who served as advisor to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Empire of Japan from 1872 to 1875 and as advisor to Emperor Gojong of the Korean Empire from 1890 to 1899. Le Gendre was born in France, he was the son of Jean-François Legendre-Héral, a noteworthy painter and professor at the École de Beaux-Arts. Le Gendre was educated at the Royal College of Reims, but he graduated from the University of Paris. At the age of 24, he married Clara Victoria Mulock in Brussels, she was the daughter of a well-known New York lawyer and soon after their marriage Le Gendre moved to the United States and became a naturalized citizen. With the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861, Le Gendre helped recruit the 51st New York Volunteer Infantry. Le Gendre participated in combat in North Carolina and was present at the capture of Roanoke Island in 1862. However, he was badly wounded at the Battle of New Bern, North Carolina, on March 14, 1862.
He received a citation for his courage. Despite his injuries, Le Gendre continued with the Army and was promoted to lieutenant colonel on September 20, 1862. In 1863, he was attached to the IX Corps, he was promoted to colonel on March 14, 1863, assumed command of the 51st Regiment under IX Corps and participated in the siege and capture of Vicksburg. At the Battle of the Wilderness in Virginia on May 6, 1864, while serving under General Ulysses S. Grant, Le Gendre was again injured, this time shot in the face with the bullet taking off his nose and left eye. Although still hospitalized in Annapolis, Maryland, he helped organize the city's defenses against the last Confederate raid on the city, he was transferred to New York, where he helped recruit for the IX Corps. He was honorably discharged on October 4, 1864, was further given the brevet rank of brigadier general on March 13, 1865. On July 13, 1866, Le Gendre was appointed to be American consul at Xiamen in the Fujian Province of the Qing Empire.
He left New York for Liverpool in July 1866 and traveled overland through Europe and Asia arriving in Xiamen in December 1866. As consul, Le Gendre was in control of five of the Treaty Ports open to foreign commerce in China: Xiamen, Taiwan and Kaohsiung, he worked to suppress the illegal trade in indentured laborers. Following the wreck of an American ship Rover on Taiwan Island on March 12, 1867, the subsequent massacre of the surviving crew by Taiwanese aborigines, Le Gendre traveled to Fuzhou to persuade the governor generals of Fujian and Zhejiang to put pressure on the Chinese authorities in Taiwan to resolve the issue. Instead of taking action, the governor general of Fujian gave Le Gendre permission to go to Taiwan himself, writing a letter of introduction that asked the prefect of Taiwan cooperate. Le Gendre commissioned the United States steamer Ashuelot in order to visit the scene of the wreck and to try to get officials in Taiwan to act. Both this and the subsequent American punitive expedition under Rear Adm. Henry Bell were failures.
Upon return to south China, Le Gendre managed to persuade the governor general in Fuzhou to send a military force to southern Taiwan. The force smaller than the 400 to 500 soldiers Le Gendre recommended, was dispatched on July 25, 1867. Le Gendre had requested a gunboat from Rear Adm. Bell, denied but managed to commission a private warship, the Volunteer, he embarked for Taiwan on September 4, 1867, telling his superiors that he was going purely as a spectator. Le Gendre assumed de facto command of the mission, which entailed a long and difficult march deep into the mountainous interior of southern Taiwan. Le Gendre negotiated a treaty guaranteeing the safety of shipwrecked American and European sailors with the chief of the aboriginal tribes in the area. On September 6, 1871, a Ryukyuan ship was wrecked off the coast of Taiwan and its surviving crew massacred in a situation similar to that of the Rover. On February 29, 1872, Le Gendre left for Taiwan to attempt to have his treaty extended to cover Japanese sailors as well.
The mission was unsuccessful, caused a falling out between Le Gendre and the US minister to Beijing. In December 1872, while traveling from Xiamen back to the United States, Le Gendre stopped off in Japan and was hired by Japanese Foreign Minister Soejima Taneomi as an advisor in both foreign affair and military affairs, becoming the first foreigner employed in a high-ranking post by the Meiji government. Le Gendre participated in the December 1872 diplomatic mission by Soejima to Beijing. After meeting with only partial success in negotiations, Le Gendre helped organize Japan's Taiwan Expedition of 1874, which he intended to accompany. However, Le Gendre was unexpectedly imprisoned for a brief time at Shanghai on the orders of the United States Consul-General for deserting the service, thus never made it to Taiwan. In 1875, the Japanese government awarded him the Order of the Rising Sun and Silver Star, which represents the second highest of eight classes associated with the award; this represented the first time.
Le Gendre retired that same year. Le Gendre remained in Japan until 1890, working in a private capacity as an advisor to Ōkuma Shigenobu. In March 1890 he left Japan to become an adviser to King Gojong of Korea
Gustave Émile Boissonade de Fontarabie was a French legal scholar, responsible for drafting much of Japan's civil code during the Meiji Era, honored as one of the founders of modern Japan's legal system. Boissonade was born in Vincennes in 1825 to the famous scholar Jean François Boissonade de Fontarabie, he was a brilliant law student, received his doctorate of law with honours from the University of Paris in 1853. He was in charge of law courses at Paris University until 1864, was assistant law professor at the University of Grenoble until 1867. In 1873 he was invited to lecture on constitutional and criminal law to some Japanese visitors to Paris, received an invitation to work in Japan by the Japanese Ministry of Justice as one of several foreign legal scholars needed to assist with the drafting of Japan's legal codes and in the renegotiation of the unequal treaties. Boissonade remained in Japan for more than 21 years, from 1873 to 1895, worked as an instructor in the Law School of the Ministry of Justice.
He worked with Ume Kenjirō and Hozumi Nobushige in drafting much of Japan's criminal and civil law. He was an expert in international law, was legal advisor to the government in the Taiwan Expedition of 1874, he was named a consultant to the Genrōin in 1875. He opposed Inoue Kaoru's 1887 proposal to allow non-Japanese judges, cautioned against too rapid movement towards revision of the unequal treaties, he was awarded the Order of the Rising Sun in 1876 and was thus one of the few foreigners so honored at that time. Today, he is honored as one of the founders of Hosei University; the "Boissonade Tower", the Ichigaya campus of Hosei University halfway between Ichigaya and Iidabashi stations in central Tokyo, a 26-story building completed in 2000, was named after him. He lived in Antibes, where his tomb is located. Franco-Japanese relations Hosei University Boissonade Institute of Modern Law and Politics Boissonade tower, large picture in Japanese, Biographical article
Imperial Japanese Navy
The Imperial Japanese Navy was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1868 until 1945, when it was dissolved following Japan's surrender in World War II. The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force was formed after the dissolution of the IJN; the Imperial Japanese Navy was the third largest navy in the world by 1920, behind the Royal Navy and the United States Navy. It was supported by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service for aircraft and airstrike operation from the fleet, it was the primary opponent of the Western Allies in the Pacific War. The origins of the Imperial Japanese Navy go back to early interactions with nations on the Asian continent, beginning in the early medieval period and reaching a peak of activity during the 16th and 17th centuries at a time of cultural exchange with European powers during the Age of Discovery. After two centuries of stagnation during the country's ensuing seclusion policy under the shōgun of the Edo period, Japan's navy was comparatively backward when the country was forced open to trade by American intervention in 1854.
This led to the Meiji Restoration. Accompanying the re-ascendance of the Emperor came a period of frantic modernization and industrialization; the navy had several successes, sometimes against much more powerful enemies such as in the Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War, before being destroyed in World War II. Japan has a long history of naval interaction with the Asian continent, involving transportation of troops between Korea and Japan, starting at least with the beginning of the Kofun period in the 3rd century. Following the attempts at Mongol invasions of Japan by Kubilai Khan in 1274 and 1281, Japanese wakō became active in plundering the coast of China. Japan undertook major naval building efforts in the 16th century, during the Warring States period, when feudal rulers vying for supremacy built vast coastal navies of several hundred ships. Around that time Japan may have developed one of the first ironclad warships when Oda Nobunaga, a daimyō, had six iron-covered Oatakebune made in 1576.
In 1588 Toyotomi Hideyoshi issued a ban on Wakō piracy. Japan built her first large ocean-going warships in the beginning of the 17th century, following contacts with the Western nations during the Nanban trade period. In 1613, the daimyō of Sendai, in agreement with the Tokugawa Bakufu, built Date Maru, a 500-ton galleon-type ship that transported the Japanese embassy of Hasekura Tsunenaga to the Americas, which continued to Europe. From 1604 the Bakufu commissioned about 350 Red seal ships armed and incorporating some Western technologies for Southeast Asian trade. For more than 200 years, beginning in the 1640s, the Japanese policy of seclusion forbade contacts with the outside world and prohibited the construction of ocean-going ships on pain of death. Contacts were maintained, with the Dutch through the port of Nagasaki, the Chinese through Nagasaki and the Ryukyus and Korea through intermediaries with Tsushima; the study of Western sciences, called "rangaku" through the Dutch enclave of Dejima in Nagasaki led to the transfer of knowledge related to the Western technological and scientific revolution which allowed Japan to remain aware of naval sciences, such as cartography and mechanical sciences.
Seclusion, led to loss of any naval and maritime traditions the nation possessed. Apart from Dutch trade ships no other Western vessels were allowed to enter Japanese ports. A notable exception was during the Napoleonic wars. Frictions with foreign ships, started from the beginning of the 19th century; the Nagasaki Harbour Incident involving HMS Phaeton in 1808, other subsequent incidents in the following decades, led the shogunate to enact an Edict to Repel Foreign Vessels. Western ships, which were increasing their presence around Japan due to whaling and the trade with China, began to challenge the seclusion policy; the Morrison Incident in 1837 and news of China's defeat during the Opium War led the shogunate to repeal the law to execute foreigners, instead to adopt the Order for the Provision of Firewood and Water. The shogunate began to strengthen the nation's coastal defenses. Many Japanese realized that traditional ways would not be sufficient to repel further intrusions, western knowledge was utilized through the Dutch at Dejima to reinforce Japan's capability to repel the foreigners.
Numerous attempts to open Japan ended in failure, in part to Japanese resistance, until the early 1850s. During 1853 and 1854, American warships under the command of Commodore Matthew Perry entered Edo Bay and made demonstrations of force requesting trade negotiations. After two hundred years of seclusion, the 1854 Convention of Kanagawa led to the opening of Japan to international trade and interaction; this was soon followed by treaties with other powers. As soon as Japan opened up to foreign influences, the Tokugawa shogunate recognized the vulnerability of the country from the sea and initiated an active policy of assimilation and adoption of Western naval technologies. In 1855, with Dutch assistance, the shogunate acquired its first steam warship, Kankō Maru, began using it for training, establishing a Naval Training Center at Nagasaki. Samurai such as the future Admiral Enomoto Takeaki were sent by the shogunate to study in the Netherlands for several years. In 1859 the
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
During the American Civil War, the Union Army referred to the United States Army, the land force that fought to preserve the Union of the collective states. Known as the Federal Army, it proved essential to the preservation of the United States of America as a working, viable republic; the Union Army was made up of the permanent regular army of the United States, but further fortified and strengthened by the many temporary units of dedicated volunteers as well as including those who were drafted in to service as conscripts. To this end, the Union Army fought and triumphed over the efforts of the Confederate States Army in the American Civil War. Over the course of the war, 2,128,948 men enlisted in the Union Army, including 178,895 colored troops. Of these soldiers, 596,670 were wounded or went missing; the initial call-up was for just three months, after which many of these men chose to reenlist for an additional three years. When the American Civil War began in April 1861, there were only 16,367 men in the U.
S. Army, including 1,108 commissioned officers. 20% of these officers, most of them Southerners, choosing to tie their lives and fortunes to the Army of the Confederacy. In addition 200 West Point graduates who had left the Army, including Ulysses S. Grant, William Tecumseh Sherman, Braxton Bragg, would return to service at the outbreak of the war; this group's loyalties were far more divided, with 92 donning Confederate gray and 102 putting on the blue of the Union Army. The U. S. Army consisted of ten regiments of infantry, four of artillery, two of cavalry, two of dragoons, three of mounted infantry; the regiments were scattered widely. Of the 197 companies in the army, 179 occupied 79 isolated posts in the West, the remaining 18 manned garrisons east of the Mississippi River along the Canada–United States border and on the Atlantic coast. With the Southern slave states declaring secession from the Union, with this drastic shortage of men in the army, President Abraham Lincoln called on the states to raise a force of 75,000 men for three months to put down this subversive insurrection.
Lincoln's call forced the border states to choose sides, four seceded, making the Confederacy eleven states strong. It turned out that the war itself proved to be much longer and far more extensive in scope and scale than anyone on either side, Union North or Confederate South, expected or imagined at the outset on the date of July 22, 1861; that was the day that Congress approved and authorized subsidy to allow and support a volunteer army of up to 500,000 men to the cause. The call for volunteers was met by patriotic Northerners and immigrants who enlisted for a steady income and meals. Over 10,000 Germans in New York and Pennsylvania responded to Lincoln's call, the French were quick to volunteer; as more men were needed, the number of volunteers fell and both money bounties and forced conscription had to be turned to. Between April 1861 and April 1865, at least 2,128,948 men served in the Union Army, of whom the majority were volunteers, it is a misconception that the South held an advantage because of the large percentage of professional officers who resigned to join the Confederate army.
At the start of the war, there were 824 graduates of the U. S. Military Academy on the active list. Of the 900 West Point graduates who were civilians, 400 returned to the Union Army and 99 to the Confederate. Therefore, the ratio of Union to Confederate professional officers was 642 to 283; the South did have the advantage of other military colleges, such as The Citadel and Virginia Military Institute, but they produced fewer officers. Though officers were able to resign, enlisted soldiers did not have this right. While the total number of those is unknown, only 26 enlisted men and non-commissioned officers of the regular army are known to have left the army to join the Confederate army when the war began; the Union Army was composed of numerous organizations, which were organized geographically. Military division A collection of Departments reporting to one commander. Military Divisions were similar to the more modern term Theater. Department An organization that covered a defined region, including responsibilities for the Federal installations therein and for the field armies within their borders.
Those named for states referred to Southern states, occupied. It was more common to name departments for regions. District A subdivision of a Department