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Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598)

The Japanese invasions of Korea comprised two separate yet linked operations: an initial invasion in 1592, a brief truce in 1596, a second invasion in 1597. The conflict ended in 1598 with the withdrawal of the Japanese forces from the Korean Peninsula after a military stalemate in Korea's southern coastal provinces.. The invasions were launched by Toyotomi Hideyoshi with the intent of conquering the Korean Peninsula and China, which were ruled by the Joseon and Ming dynasty. Japan succeeded in occupying large portions of the Korean Peninsula, but the contribution of reinforcements by the Ming, as well as the disruption of Japanese supply fleets along the western and southern coasts by the Joseon Navy forced a withdrawal of Japanese forces from Pyongyang and the northern provinces to the south, in Busan and nearby southern regions. Afterwards, with guerrilla warfare waged against the Japanese by righteous armies and supply difficulties hampering both sides, neither the Japanese nor the combined Ming and Joseon forces were able to mount a successful offensive or gain any additional territory, resulting in a military stalemate.

The first phase of the invasion lasted from 1592 until 1596, was followed by unsuccessful peace negotiations between Japan and the Ming between 1596 and 1597. In 1597, Japan renewed its offensive by invading Korea a second time; the pattern of the second invasion mirrored that of the first. The Japanese had initial successes on land, capturing several cities and fortresses, only to be halted and forced to withdraw to the southern coastal regions of the peninsula; the pursuing Ming and Joseon forces, were unable to dislodge the Japanese from their remaining fortresses and entrenched positions in the southern coastal areas, where both sides again became locked in a ten-month long military stalemate. With Hideyoshi's death in 1598, limited progress on land, continued disruption of supply lines by the Joseon navy, the Japanese forces in Korea were ordered to withdraw back to Japan by the new governing Council of Five Elders. Final peace negotiations between the parties followed afterwards and continued for several years resulting in the normalization of relations.

In Korean, the first invasion is called the "Japanese Disturbance of Imjin". The second invasion is called the "Second War of Jeong-yu". Collectively, the invasions are referred to as the Imjin War. In Chinese, the wars are referred to as the "Wanli Korean Campaign", after the reigning Chinese emperor, or the "Renchen War to Defend the Nation", where renchen is the Chinese reading of imjin. In Japanese, the war is called Bunroku no eki. Bunroku referring to the Japanese era name of Emperor Go-Yōzei, spanning the period from 1592 to 1596; the second invasion is called "Keichō no eki". During the Edo period, the war was called "Kara iri", because Japan's ultimate purpose at the commencement of the invasion was the conquest of Ming China, although with the reality that the conflict was confined to the Korean Peninsula for the duration of the war, the armies of Toyotomi Hideyoshi would alter their immediate objectives during the course of the campaign. In 1592, with an army of 158,000 troops, Toyotomi Hideyoshi launched what would end up being the first of two invasions of Korea, with the intent of conquering Joseon Korea and Ming-dynasty China.

The Japanese forces saw overwhelming success on land, capturing both Hanseong, the capital of Korea, Pyongyang, completing the occupation of large portions of the Korean Peninsula in three months. The Japanese forces, well trained and experienced after the numerous battles and conflicts of the Sengoku period held the field in most land engagements; this success on land, was constrained by the naval campaigns of the Korean navy which would continue to raid Japanese supply fleets in its coastal waters, hampering the Japanese advances as supply lines were disrupted along the Western Korean coast and Japanese naval reinforcements were repelled. These trends, with some exceptions on both sides, held true throughout much of the conflict. Under the rule of the Wanli Emperor, Ming China interpreted the Japanese invasions as a challenge and threat to the Imperial Chinese tributary system; the Ming's interest was to keep the war confined to the Korean peninsula and out of its own territory. In the engagements that followed, the majority of the Joseon army was focused on defending the northern provinces from Japanese offensives, while supporting Ming army campaigns to recapture territory occupied by the Japanese.

It was the combination of these Ming-led land campaigns and Joseon-led naval warfare that forced the Japanese army to withdraw from Pyongyang to the south, where the Japanese continued to occupy Hanseong and the southern regions with the exception of the southwestern Jeolla Province. The pursuing Ming and Joseon armies attempted to advance further into the south, but were halted by the Japanese army at the Battle of Byeokjegwan. Subsequently, the Japanese armies launched a counterattack in an attempt to reoccupy the northern provinces but were repelled by the defending Joseon army at Haengju fortress. Additionally, Joseon's civilian-led righteous armies waged guerrilla warfare against the Japanese forces in the south, which weakened the Japanese hold in the cities they occupied. Afterwards, with supply difficulties hampering both sides

Allied Schools (United Kingdom)

The Allied Schools constitute an association of independent schools in England. Known as the Church of England Trust, it was established in 1923 when the Revd. Percy Warrington, vicar of Monkton Combe founded Canford School in Dorset, Stowe School in Buckinghamshire; the organisation grew to a girls' school in Kenya. The trustees of the schools were all trustees of the Martyrs' Memorial and Church of England Trust; when the schools ran into severe financial difficulties during the Great Depression, they were rescued by mortgages from the Legal and General Assurance Society, but under a new management scheme in 1934 the Martyrs' Trust was permitted to nominate only one sixth of the governors of schools. The loans were repaid in 1980, when a revised scheme of management was agreed, creating the Allied Schools Council; the association offers two levels of membership – Associate, Full. Associate members get support from the organisation's head office in Banbury, Oxfordshire in return for an annual fee.

In this way the organisation offers an insurance policy against difficult times, as well as administrative support. They act as a network between schools for the purpose of sharing information and ideas. Full members get the same benefits, as well as support. Current members are: Canford School, Dorset Stowe School, Buckinghamshire Harrogate Ladies' College, Yorkshire Westonbirt School, Gloucestershire Wrekin College, Shropshire The organisation is run by a Council, independently chaired and members include the chairmen of full member schools

Soviet Top League

The Soviet Top League, known after 1970 as the Higher League served as the top division of Soviet Union football from 1936 until 1991. The professional top level of football competition among clubs was established in 1936 on proposition of Nikolai Starostin and was approved by the All-Union Council of Physical Culture, it was called as Group A and after the World War II as the First Group. In 1950 after another reform of football in the Soviet Union, the First Group was replaced with Class A. By 1970 the Class A had expanded to three tiers with the top tier known as the Higher Group which in 1971 was renamed into the Higher League, it was one of the best football leagues in Europe, ranking second among the UEFA members in 1988-1989 seasons. Three of its representatives reached the finals of the European club tournaments on four occasions: FC Dynamo Kyiv, FC Dinamo Tbilisi, FC Dynamo Moscow. In the same way that the international community considers Russia to be the political successor state to the Soviet Union, UEFA considers the Russian Premier League to have succeeded the Soviet Top League.

The league was established on the initiative of head of Nikolai Starostin. Starostin proposed to create eight professional club teams in six Soviet cities and hold two championship tournaments per calendar year. With minor corrections, the Soviet Council on Physical Culture accepted the Starostin's proposal creating a league of "demonstration teams of master" which were sponsored by sport societies and factories. Nikolai Starostin de facto became a godfather of the Soviet championships. Numerous mass events took place to promote the newly established competition, among which there was an introduction of football exhibition game as part of the Moscow Physical Culture Day parade, invitation of football team from Basque region, on the side supported by Soviet Union in the Spanish Civil War and others. In 1936 the first secretary of Komsomol Kosarev came up with an idea of playing an actual football game at the Red Square as part of the Physical Culture Day parade. Stalin never attended any sports events.

The 1936 Physical Culture Day parade was directed by Russian theatre director Valentin Pluchek. For the football game, a giant green felt carpet was sewn by Spartak athletes and laid down on the Red Square's cobblestones. A night before the parade, the rug was stitched together in sections, rolled up and stored in a vestibule of the GUM department store located at the square. Following the 1936 Red Square game, it became a tradition before the World War II and part of the Physical Culture Day parade event. In the late 1930s Spartak was giving out thousands of tickets per game to members of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party. Among serious football fans was Lavrentiy Beria who proposed to have one team from each of union republics in the league. In July 1937 a conflict erupted following a successful tour to the Soviet Union of a football team from Basque region during which the main governing body of sports in the country, the All-Union Council of Physical Culture, was accused by the party and Komsomol for failing the sports policy.

Spartak's leadership and Starostin in particular were accused of corruption and implementing "bourgeoisie methods" in Soviet sport. The most prominent clubs of the league were FC Dynamo Kyiv, FC Spartak Moscow, FC Dynamo Moscow; the most popular clubs besides the above-mentioned were PFC CSKA Moscow, FC Ararat Yerevan, FC Dinamo Tbilisi. The first team that won 10 championships was Dynamo Moscow in 1963, followed by Spartak in 1979. Dinamo Tbilisi became famous for finishing third but never winning the title, the first title they won in 1964. Perceived as Russian by people from other countries, the league was multinational with other republics in the USSR being represented. Eleven clubs spent over 30 seasons in the league with just under half of them from Moscow. Dynamo Moscow and Dynamo Kyiv were the only clubs. Among other prominent Russian clubs were SKA Rostov/Donu, Zenit Leningrad, Krylia Sovietov Kuibyshev. Ukraine was often represented by Shakhtar Donetsk and by Dnipro Dnipropetrovsk who were strong in the 1980s.

After the league's reorganization number of Ukrainian-based clubs grew and in the last seasons before the breakup of the USSR, Ukraine was equally represented with the Russian clubs. Among the Soviet sports societies most successful were Dynamo and Army clubs, both of which were associated with state enforcing agencies. Over the years the league changed, however from the 1970s its competition structure solidified with 16 participants, except from 1979 through 1985 when the number of participants was extended to 18; because of the dissolution of the Soviet Union the structure of the league became unstable as more and more clubs lost interest in continuing to participate in the league. Attempts to reorganize the league took place, however all of them were not successful; until the 1960s the main title contenders in the league were the Moscow clubs of Spartak and Dynamo whose dominance was disrupted for only a brief period after World War II by CSKA Moscow, nicknamed'The team of lieutenants'. The 1960s saw the emergence of a new Soviet football elite in Dynamo Kyiv.

While Moscow's automakers did not manage to grow into perennial challengers, the team from the Ukrainian capital became an unofficial feeder for the Soviet national team, replacing Dynamo Moscow. Dynamo Kyiv's success as a Ukrainian club was supplemented in the 1980s with the appearance of Dnipro Dnipropetrovsk led by its striker

Daniel W. Mills

Daniel Webster Mills was a U. S. Representative from Illinois. Born near Waynesville, Mills attended the common schools of Rayesville and the Waynesville High School, he moved to Corwin, Ohio, in 1859 and engaged in the mercantile, grain-shipping, pork-packing businesses. During the Civil War served in the Union Army as captain of Company D, One Hundred and Eightieth Regiment, Ohio Volunteers, until the close of the war, he moved to Illinois. He engaged in lake shipping 1866-1869, in the real estate business, he served as warden of the Cook County Hospital 1877-1881. He served as an aldermen on the Chicago city council from 1889-1893. Mills was elected as a Republican to the Fifty-fifth Congress, he was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1898 to the Fifty-sixth Congress. He resumed the real estate business, he died in Chicago, Illinois, on December 16, 1904. He was interred in Graceland Cemetery. United States Congress. "Daniel W. Mills". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress; this article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website

Thorn EMI Computer Software

Thorn EMI Computer Software was a British video games software house set up in the early 1980s as part of the now-defunct British conglomerate Thorn EMI. They released a number of games in the early 1980s for the Atari 8-bit family, for the ZX Spectrum, Commodore 64 and Commodore Vic 20 computers. In 1984, the Thorn EMI name was dropped in favour of Creative Sparks as the company were unhappy with their image in the video games market. A budget label, was created in early 1985 to publish titles at £2.50. In 1985, Creative Sparks and the distribution company, Creative Sparks Distribution gained independence from Thorn EMI after a management buyout. In July 1987, six months after buying software company Mikro-Gen for a "substantial" sum, Creative Sparks went into receivership with debts estimated at up to £1.5million. The back catalogue of the company was acquired by Tynesoft, Alternative Software and Maynard International; the former management at CSD went on to form Software Publishing Associates, owners of the Crysys and Pirate Software labels.

On the Thorn EMI label River Rescue Orc Attack Gold Rush Tower of Evil Volcanic Planet Road Raceron the Creative Sparks label Black Hawk Danger Mouse In Double Trouble Danger Mouse In The Black Forest Chateau Delta Wing Special Delivery Stagecoach Tower of Evil Danger Mouse in Making Whoopee Snodgitson the Sparklers label Desert Burner Quack Shot St Crippens

Fernando Alarcón

Fernando Rubén Alarcón is an Argentine professional footballer who plays as a defender for Primera B Nacional side Temperley. Alarcón moved into the Rosario Central first-team in May 2015, when he was an unused substitute for a Copa Argentina tie with Deportivo Riestra. Alarcón joined Deportivo Roca on loan on 8 July 2016, but returned to Argentine Primera División side Rosario Central that month for personal reasons, he subsequently was loaned to fellow Primera División team Talleres in August. Despite remaining for the entire 2016–17 season, he failed to make an appearance for Talleres. Back with Rosario Central in June 2017, he again left on loan in July to Villa Dálmine of Primera B Nacional, he scored his first career goal versus Los Andes on 28 October 2017. Villa Dálmine extended his loan in June 2018; as of 29 June 2018. Fernando Alarcón at Soccerway