Awata no Mahito
Awata no Mahito was a Japanese noble of the late Asuka period and early Nara period. The Awata family to which Mahito was born was descended from the Wani clan and Kasuga clan and based in Yamashiro Province. In 681, Mahito was conferred the rank of shōkin-ge, corresponding to the lower junior fifth rank under the Ritsuryō court rank system. With the establishment of the yakusa no kabane system in 684, he gained the title of Ason. In 689, he became vice-director of the dazaifu, he developed experience entertaining guests of honor from other countries. He took part in the planning of the Taihō Code alongside Prince Osakabe and Fujiwara no Fuhito, in 701 was promoted to head of the Ministry of Popular Affairs. Mahito was appointed as chief diplomat on a mission to Tang China, receiving a ceremonial sword settō from Emperor Tenmu as a symbol of his command; this was the first example of such a sword being bestowed, the action would be repeated for other emissaries to Tang and for important generals.
In mid-702 he was promoted to sangi, a month departed for China, accompanied by Yamanoue no Okura and the monk Dōji and bearing the Taihō Code. This was the first full Japanese diplomatic mission to China since the two met in conflict at the Battle of Baekgang. In addition to restoring normal relations, the mission allowed for the continued maintenance of Ritsuryō, offered an opportunity to inform China of Japan's name change from Yamato to Nihon. Arriving in Chang'an the next year, the envoys had an audience with Empress Consort Wu; the Chinese evaluated Mahito as a poised and elegant man, well-read and learned in the Chinese classics, he received a temporary position in the government from the Empress. In 704, the mission returned to Japan, along with some Japanese, captives since the Battle of Baekgang. Mahito was rewarded with land in Yamato Province, he was promptly promoted to chūnagon to put the knowledge he gained in China to use in the planning of the Keiun Reform of Ritsuryō. He held further positions, including as director of the Dazaifu, before being promoted to the senior third rank in 715, dying in 719.
Aoki, Kazuo. "粟田真人". 国史大辞典. Yoshikawa Kōbunkan. Umemura, Takashi. "粟田真人". 日本史大事典 1. Heibonsha. ISBN 4582131018. Mori, Kimiyuki. 遣唐使の光芒 東アジアの歴史の使者. Kadokawa Sensho. ISBN 978-4047034686
Hakata Bay is a bay in the northwestern part of Fukuoka city, on the Japanese island of Kyūshū. It faces the Tsushima Strait, features beaches and a port, though parts of the bay have been reclaimed in the expansion of the city of Fukuoka; the bay is most famous for the Mongol invasions of Japan of 1274 and 1281 which took place nearby. The Bay is defined by shoal Umi-no-nakamichi and tombolo Shika-no-shima to the north, Genkai-jima to the northwest, the Itoshima Peninsula to the west. Five wards of Fukuoka city border on the bay, sometimes labeled "Fukuoka Bay" on maps. Sometimes, the bay is divided into Hakata and Imazu Bays, though for simplicity's sake, the term "Hakata Bay" is used as a catch-all to refer to all three; the bay is 10 km from north to south, 20 km from east to west, covering an area of 133 km². The coastline stretches 128 km; the mouth of the bay is only 7.7 km wide, shielding it to a great extent from the waves of the Strait. The bay is only 10 metres deep on average, 23 m at its deepest point, though the tides bring a two-metre change in the water level.
Set routes are used, through the bay, to protect ships' drafts. Land reclamation began to be undertaken before the Meiji period, continued into the post-war period. Since 1945, 1167 square kilometres of land have been reclaimed from the bay to improve or reinforce the effective functioning of the port. In 1994, an artificial island was begun to be created and called "Island City"; some particular petrified trees in the area are said to have been the masts of ships used in Empress Jingū's third century invasion of Korea. Veins of mica and pegmatite under the bay, part of a geologic fault, are under governmental protection. Much of the area is included in the Genkai National Park, efforts are made to maintain and preserve the natural features and environment both in the bay and on its islands. Though much of the shoreline is natural, some parts in and around the port itself, are artificial and developed upon. A number of small islands are contained either around it. Hashima Island City Mishima Noko-no-shima Shika-no-shima Ugu-shima Hō-jima The bay and its surrounding settlements were active and significant locations as early as the 3rd century and the Kofun period.
Many historical figures of great significance passed through or lived in Hakata, many major events occurred there. The ruins of Fukuoka Castle lie along the bay, an active port has existed there for many centuries; the area is said to have been recognized by China as early as 57 CE. Emperor Guangwu of Han is believed to have bestowed a Golden Seal to the local leaders, acknowledging their authority over the area called Na no kuni. Emissaries from the Chinese kingdom of Cao Wei arrived in the 3rd century, Empress Jingū is said to have launched her invasion of Korea from this port. By the 7th century, Hakata was the port through which official missions to T'ang China were sent and received. Following the defeat of Yamato and Baekche in the battle of Hakusukinoe in 663, fears arose of invasions from Silla and China, areas around the bay were fortified; the first mention of the area in the Nihon Shoki corresponds to this time period. Kūkai was one of many famous people. In 806, he founded Tōchō-ji Temple nearby.
Sugawara no Michizane, after having been ambassador to China, holding a number of other high posts at Court in Kyoto, was demoted to a post in Hakata in 901. Fujiwara no Sumitomo, having opposed Taira no Masakado's rebellion in 939, fled to Hakata two years where he was captured and killed; as the closest major bay and port to mainland Asia in Japan, Hakata has played a major role in diplomacy and trade with Korea and China throughout much of history. This made it, however, a key point of attack for attempts to invade the Japanese islands. In the Toi Invasion of 1019, Jurchens seized several nearby islands, using them as bases from which to raid and attack Hakata. Mongol emissaries first arrived in 1268, all the samurai armies of Kyūshū was mobilized in anticipation of the first of the Mongol invasions of Japan, which came six years later. Kublai Khan's forces seized Tsushima and Iki Island before landing on the shores of Hakata Bay on November 19; the invaders were repelled, extensive fortification efforts were undertaken in the ensuing years.
The second invasion arrived in 1281, was repelled. Though referred to in Japanese as the battles of Bun'ei and Kōan, both of these invasion attempts are referred to in English sources as the "Battle of Hakata Bay." In April 1336, at Tadara-no-hama on the bay, Ashikaga Takauji led a force against the Kikuchi clan, allies of Go-Daigo, led by Kikuchi Taketoshi. Victorious, Takauji "at one stroke the Ashikaga leader became master of Kyushi." Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier arrived in Hakata in 1550. Kyūshū would be the center of Christianity in Japan for several decades, as a number of daimyō and their subjects converted. Toyotomi Hideyoshi invaded the island in 1587, banished the missionaries, outlawing Christianity as a threat to his power. Through the Edo period, Hakata handled only for domestic trade, as international trade or
Emperor Daizong of Tang
Emperor Daizong of Tang, personal name Li Yu, né Li Chu, was an emperor of the Chinese Tang Dynasty. Emperor Daizong was the eldest son of Emperor Suzong – the first Emperor of the Tang dynasty to succeed as the eldest child, during the Anshi Rebellion, he served as a general of Tang and Huige joint operations that recaptured the capital Chang'an and the eastern capital Luoyang from the rebel state of Yan, the Anshi Rebellion was put down early in his own reign, in 763. However, the Tang state was plagued by warlords such as Tian Chengsi, Li Baochen, Liang Chongyi who governed their realms as independent states while only pledging nominal loyalty to the emperor; this would prove disastrous for future generations as subsequent Tang emperors would be unable to remove or control these warlords and the central government's power was thus eroded and diminished. The power of the warlords would not prevent the Tang western territories from being overrun by Tibetan invasions and lost to the Tibetan Empire, which managed to capture Chang'an in 763 for a short period before being expelled.
Emperor Daizong was credited for removing the corrupt eunuch Li Fuguo, who had placed him on the throne, from power, but the rest of Emperor Daizong's reign would see dominance by such individuals as the eunuchs Cheng Yuanzhen and Yu Chao'en, as well as the chancellor Yuan Zai. It is worth noting that Emperor Daizong became the first Tang emperor to succeed to the throne as a result of maneuvers by eunuchs. Emperor Daizong was himself said to be overly devout in Buddhism. Li Jun the Prince of Zhong under his father Emperor Xuanzong, his mother was Li Jun's concubine Consort Wu. He was the oldest of Emperor Xuanzong's over 100 grandsons. In 740, by which time Li Jun was crown prince, Li Chu was created the Prince of Guangping; that year, his mother Consort Wu died. In his youth, he was said to be kind and filially pious, was studious in the Classic of Rites and the I Ching, he was much favored by his grandfather. Emperor Xuanzong chose for him, as his wife and princess, Lady Cui the daughter of the Lady of Han, a sister of Emperor Xuanzong's favorite concubine Consort Yang Yuhuan.
In 755, the general An Lushan rebelled at Fanyang, by summer 756, the forces of his new state of Yan were approaching the Tang capital Chang'an, forcing Emperor Xuanzong to flee to Chengdu. When Emperor Xuanzong's train reached Mawei Station, angry soldiers, blaming the rebellion on the chancellor Yang Guozhong, killed Yang Guozhong and his family members and forced Emperor Xuanzong to kill Consort Yang. Subsequently, the people in the Mawei region tried to persuade Emperor Xuanzong not to continue on to Chengdu—believing that Chang'an could be recaptured. Emperor Xuanzong asked Li Heng to try to comfort the people. Once Li Heng left Emperor Xuanzong's presence, however, Li Heng's trusted eunuch Li Fuguo, Li Chu's brother Li Tan the Prince of Jianning, Li Chu, persuaded Li Heng not to follow Emperor Xuanzong to Chengdu—arguing that with the physical barriers between Chang'an and Jiannan Circuit, that once they had left the region, Chang'an could no longer be captured. Li Heng had Li Chu report this to Emperor Xuanzong.
Emperor Xuanzong agreed with he himself continued on to Jiannan. Li Heng, escorted by a small number of guard soldiers commanded by Li Tan headed to the border city of Lingwu. With the army at Lingwu pressuring him to take imperial title, Li Heng declared. After Emperor Suzong assumed imperial title, he considered making Li Tan the supreme commander of the armed forces, but his advisor Li Mi pointed out that Li Chu was older and that naming Li Tan the supreme commander would cause confusion as to who would be his heir. Emperor Daizong made Li Chu the supreme commander instead. Subsequently, Li Chu and Li Mi were entrusted with the keys of the makeshift palace, one would always be on duty to be ready to receive important military reports. In 757, Emperor Suzong considered creating Li Chu crown prince, but Li Mi and Li Chu, pointing out that it would be inappropriate to do so before Chang'an were recaptured, advised him otherwise. Subsequently, Emperor Suzong's court was itself filled with internal struggles, with Li Fuguo aligned with Emperor Suzong's favorite concubine Consort Zhang, in opposition to Li Chu, Li Tan, Li Mi.
In early 757, after Li Tan accused Li Fuguo and Consort Zhang of corruption, Li Fuguo and Empress Zhang in turn falsely accused him of trying to assassinate Li Chu in order to become the heir. Emperor Suzong, in anger, ordered Li Tan to commit suicide, which drew fear from Li Mi. Li Chu considered assassinating Li Fuguo and Consort Zhang, but at Li Mi's urging, stopped his plans to do so. In fall 757, troops from Huige, whose Bayanchur Khan Yaoluoge Moyanchuo had answered Emperor Suzong's request for help, arrived under the command of Yaoluoge Moyanchuo's son; when Li Chu met the Huige prince, he offered. The prince was pleased and honored Li Chu as an older brother. Thereafter, the joint Tang and Huige troops proceeded toward Chang'an and, after defeating Yan forces at Xiangji Temple, near Chang'an, recaptured Chang'an. Emperor Suzong had promised that Huige forces would be allowed to pillage Chang'an, but
Sugawara no Michizane
Sugawara no Michizane known as Kan Shōjō or Kanke, was a scholar and politician of the Heian Period of Japan. He is regarded as an excellent poet in Kanshi poetry, is today revered in Shinto as the god of learning, Tenman-Tenjin, he was born into a family of scholars, who bore the hereditary title of Ason which predated the Ritsuryō System and its ranking of members of the Court. His grandfather, Sugawara no Kiyotomo, served the court, teaching history in the national school for future bureaucrats and attained the third rank, his father, Sugawara no Koreyoshi, began a private school in his mansion and taught students who prepared for the entrance examination to the national school or who had ambitions to be officers of the court, including his own son Michizane. Michizane passed the entrance examination, entered Daigaku, as the national academy was called at the time. After graduation he began his career in the court as a scholar as a prestigious senior sixth rank upper in 870, his rank coincided with his role as a minor official in the Court bureaucracy under the Ministry of Civil Affairs.
By 874 Michizane had reached the fifth rank, served under the Ministry of War before being transferred to a more desirable role in the Ministry of Popular Affairs. His training and skill with Classical Chinese language and literature afforded him many opportunities to draft edicts and correspondences for officials in the Court in addition to his menial duties. Records show at this time he composed three petitions for Fujiwara no Yoshifusa as well as the Emperor. Michizane took part in receiving delegations from the Kingdom of Parhae, where Michizane's skill with Chinese again proved useful in diplomatic exchanges and poetry exchange. In 877, he was assigned to the Ministry of the Ceremonial, which allowed him to manage educational and intellectual matters more than before. In addition to his offices at the court he ran the school the Kanke Rōka. In 877, he was promoted to professor of literature at the academy, Later, he was appointed Doctorate of Literature the highest professorial office at Daigaku.
This office was considered to be the highest honor. In 886, Sugawara was appointed to be governor of Sanuki Province. Modern research shows that many bureaucrats in the Court, if they lacked sufficient clout, were assigned at least one term in a remote province, Michizane was no exception. During his four-year tenure in the province, Michizane's informal poetry increased, up to 26% of his poetry still extant was composed in this narrow time. Among his duties, based on limited records, was to tour the province, recommend outstanding individuals to the Court, to punish as needed. In 887, Michizane had to petition the Buddhas and the Shinto kami to help relieve a drought at the time. Records of the time imply. While serving as governor, a political conflict arose between Emperor Uda and Fujiwara no Mototsune called the Akō Incident in 888 over Mototsune's unclear role in the Court after Emperor Uda's ascension. Michizane, defending the court scholars sent a letter of censure to Mototsune, gained the favor of Emperor Uda.
With his term as governor completed in 890, Michizane returned to the Court in Kyoto. In Emperor Uda's struggles to restore power to the Imperial Family, away from the Fujiwara, a number of officials from non-Fujiwara families were promoted to key positions, including Imperial offshoots in the Minamoto family and Sugawara no Michizane. In a rapid series of promotions beginning in 891, Michizane rose to the senior third rank in 897. According to one document signed by Michizane in 894, he held the following posts in the Court: Ambassador to the Tang Dynasty. Consultant Assistant Investigator of the Records of Outgoing Officials Junior Fourth Rank Lower Major Controller of the Left Supernumerary Senior Assistant Minister of Ceremonial Assistant Master of the Crown Prince's Household He was appointed ambassador to China in the 890s, but instead came out in support of abolition of the imperial embassies to China in 894, theoretically in consideration for the decline of the Tang Dynasty. A potential ulterior motive may have lain in Michizane's complete ignorance of spoken Chinese.
Michizane, as the nominated ambassador to China, would have been presented with a potential loss of face had he been forced to depend on an interpreter. Within the abdication of Emperor Uda, Michizane's position became vulnerable. In 901, through the political maneuverings of his rival, Fujiwara no Tokihira, Michizane was demoted from his aristocratic rank of junior second to a minor official post at Dazaifu, in Kyūshū's Chikuzen Province, died in exile. After Michizane's death and drought spread and sons of Emperor Daigo died in succession; the Imperial Palace's Great Audience Hall was struck by lightning, the city experienced weeks of rainstorms and floods. Attributing this to the angry spirit of the exiled Sugawara, the imperial court built a Shinto shrine called Kitano Tenman-gū in Kyoto, dedicated it to him, they posthumously restored his title and office, struck from the record any mention of his exile. This was not enough, 70 years Sugawara was deified as Tenjin-sama, or kami of scholarship.
Today many Shinto shrines in Japan are dedicated to him. Emperor Uda stopped the
Satsuma Province was an old province of Japan, now the western half of Kagoshima Prefecture on the island of Kyūshū. Its abbreviation is Sasshū. Satsuma's provincial capital was Satsumasendai. During the Sengoku period, Satsuma was a fief of the Shimazu daimyō, who ruled much of southern Kyūshū from their castle at Kagoshima city, they were the initial patrons of Satsuma ware, widely exported to the West. In 1871, with the abolition of feudal domains and the establishment of prefectures after the Meiji Restoration, the provinces of Satsuma and Ōsumi were combined to establish Kagoshima Prefecture. Satsuma was one of the main provinces that rose in opposition to the Tokugawa shogunate in the mid 19th century; because of this, the oligarchy that came into power after the Meiji Restoration of 1868 had a strong representation from the Satsuma province, with leaders such as Ōkubo Toshimichi and Saigō Takamori taking up key government positions. Satsuma is well known for its production of sweet potatoes, known in Japan as 薩摩芋.
On the other hand, Satsuma mandarins do not originate from Satsuma but were imported into the West through this province in the Meiji era. Kagoshima Prefecture Ata District - merged into Hioki District on March 29, 1896 Ei District - merged into Ibusuki District on March 29, 1896 Hioki District - absorbed Ata District on March 29, 1896. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
Abe no Nakamaro
Abe no Nakamaro, whose Chinese name was Chao Heng, was a Japanese scholar and waka poet of the Nara period. He served as the Tang jiedushi of Annam, he was a descendant of Prince Hikofutsuoshi Makoto, the son of Emperor Kōgen and first son of Abe no Funamori. As a young man he was admired for having outstanding academic skills. In 717-718, he was part of the Japanese mission to Tang China along with Kibi no Makibi and Genbō, they returned to Japan. In China, he passed the civil-service examination. Around 725, he took an administrative position and was promoted in Luoyang in 728 and 731. Around 733 he received Tajihi Hironari. In 734 he tried to return to Japan but the ship to take him back sank not long into the journey, forcing him to remain in China for several more years. In 752, he tried again to return, with the mission to China led by Fujiwara no Kiyokawa, but the ship he was traveling in was wrecked and ran aground off the coast of Vietnam, but he managed to return to Chang'an in 755; when the An Lushan Rebellion started that year, it was unsafe to return to Japan and Nakamaro abandoned his hopes of returning to his homeland.
He took several government offices and rose to the position of Governor-General of Annam between 761 and 767, residing in Hanoi. He returned to Chang'an and was planning his return to Japan when he died in 770, he was a close friend of the Chinese poets Li Bai and Wang Wei, Zhao Hua, Bao Xin, Chu Guangxi. From his literary work he is most famous for a poem filled with intense longing for his home in Nara. One of his poems was included in the anthology Hyakunin Isshu and in the Kokin Wakashū. Abe's place in Japanese cultural history is confirmed in Hokusai's Hyakunin Isshu series of ukiyo-e woodblock prints. Japanese missions to Imperial China Japanese missions to Tang China McMillan, Peter. One Hundred Poets, One Poem Each: A Translation of the Ogura Hyakunin Isshu. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231143998. Media related to Abe no Nakamaro at Wikimedia Commons