Japanese poetry

Japanese poetry is poetry of typical of Japan, or written, spoken, or chanted in the Japanese language, which includes Old Japanese, Early Middle Japanese, Late Middle Japanese, Modern Japanese, as well as poetry in Japan, written in the Chinese language or ryūka from the Okinawa Islands: it is possible to make a more accurate distinction between Japanese poetry written in Japan or by Japanese people in other languages versus that written in the Japanese language by speaking of Japanese-language poetry. Much of the literary record of Japanese poetry begins when Japanese poets encountered Chinese poetry during the Tang dynasty. Under the influence of the Chinese poets of this era Japanese began to compose poetry in Chinese kanshi), it took several hundred years to digest the foreign impact and make it an integral part of Japanese culture and to merge this kanshi poetry into a Japanese language literary tradition, later to develop the diversity of unique poetic forms of native poetry, such as waka and other more Japanese poetic specialties.

For example, in the Tale of Genji both kanshi and waka are mentioned. The history of Japanese poetry goes from an early semi-historical/mythological phase, through the early Old Japanese literature inclusions, just before the Nara period, the Nara period itself, the Heian period, the Kamakura period, so on, up through the poetically important Edo period and modern times. Since the middle of the 19th century, the major forms of Japanese poetry have been tanka and shi or western-style poetry. Today, the main forms of Japanese poetry include both experimental poetry and poetry that seeks to revive traditional ways. Poets writing in tanka and shi may write poetry other than in their specific chosen form, although some active poets are eager to collaborate with poets in other genres; the history of Japanese poetry involves both the evolution of Japanese as a language, the evolution of Japanese poetic forms, the collection of poetry into anthologies, many by imperial patronage and others by the "schools" or the disciples of famous poets.

The study of Japanese poetry is complicated by the social context within which it occurred, in part because of large scale political and religious factors such as clan politics or Buddhism, but because the collaborative aspect which has typified Japanese poetry. Much of Japanese poetry features short verse forms collaborative, which are compiled into longer collections, or else are interspersed within the prose of longer works. Older forms of Japanese poetry include kanshi, which shows a strong influence from Chinese literature and culture. Kanshi means "Han poetry" and it is the Japanese term for Chinese poetry in general as well as the poetry written in Chinese by Japanese poets. Kanshi from the early Heian period exists in the Kaifūsō anthology, compiled in 751. Waka is a type of poetry in classical Japanese literature. Waka are composed in Japanese, are contrasted with poetry composed by Japanese poets in Classical Chinese, which are known as kanshi. Thus, waka has the general meaning of "poetry in Japanese", as opposed to the kanshi "poetry in Chinese".

The Man'yōshū anthology preserves from the eighth century 265 chōka, 4,207 tanka, one tan-renga, one bussokusekika, four kanshi, 22 Chinese prose passages. However, by the time of the tenth-century Kokinshū anthology, waka had become the standard term used for short poems of the tanka form, until more recent times. Tanka are poems written in Japanese with five lines having a 5–7–5–7–7 metre; the tanka form has shown some modern revival in popularity. As stated, it used to be called waka. Much traditional Japanese poetry was written as the result of a process of two or more poets contributing verses to a larger piece, such as in the case of the renga form; the "honored guest" composing a few beginning lines in the form of the hokku. This initial sally was followed by a stanza composed by the "host." This process could continue, sometimes with many stanzas composed by numerous other "guests", until the final conclusion. Other collaborative forms of Japanese poetry evolved, such as the renku form.

In other cases, the poetry collaborations were more competitive, such as with uta-awase gatherings, in which Heian period poets composed waka poems on set themes, with a judge deciding the winner. Haiku are a short, 3-line verse form, which have achieved significant global popularity, the haiku form has been adapted from Japanese into other languages. Typical of the haiku form is the metrical pattern of 3 lines with a distribution of 5, 7, 5 on within those lines. Other features include the juxtaposition of two images or ideas with a kireji between them, a kigo, or seasonal reference dr

2013 Calder Cup playoffs

The 2013 Calder Cup playoffs of the American Hockey League began on April 26, 2013, with the same playoff format, introduced in 2012. The sixteen teams that qualified, eight from each conference, played a best-of-five series in the conference quarterfinals, the playoffs continued with best-of-seven series for the conference semifinals, conference finals and Calder Cup finals; the Grand Rapids Griffins defeated the Syracuse Crunch in six games to win the Calder Cup for the first time in Grand Rapids' franchise history. After the 2012–13 AHL regular season, 16 teams qualified for the playoffs; the top eight teams from each conference qualifies for the playoffs. Providence Bruins – 105 points Portland Pirates – 87 points Manchester Monarchs – 81 points Springfield Falcons – 99 points Syracuse Crunch – 97 points Binghamton Senators – 96 points Wilkes-Barre/Scranton Penguins – 88 points Hershey Bears – 81 points Toronto Marlies – 96 points Rochester Americans – 90 points Grand Rapids Griffins – 92 points Milwaukee Admirals – 89 points Texas Stars – 97 points Charlotte Checkers – 92 points Oklahoma City Barons – 91 points Houston Aeros – 90 points During the first three rounds home ice is determined by seeding number, not position on the bracket.

In the Finals the team with the better regular season record has home ice. Note 1: All times are in Eastern Time. Note 2: Game times in italics signify games to be played only if necessary. Note 3: Home team is listed first; the Penguins became the third team in AHL history, along with the 1960 Rochester Americans and 1989 Adirondack Red Wings to come back from a 0–3 series deficit and win a best of seven playoff series, the first team to win Game 7 on the road. The game scheduled for May 31 was postponed to June 1 because of dangerous weather conditions around the Cox Convention Center; these are the top ten skaters based on points. If there is a tie in points, goals take precedence over assists. GP = Games played; the table is sorted by goals against average, with the criterion for inclusion in bold. GP = Games played.

Petronėlė Gerlikienė

Petronėlė Gerlikienė, née Kromelyte, was a Lithuanian painter and textile folk artist. She worked in a farm in Samogitia. Gerlikiene began creating large-scale tapestries in 1972, paintings in 1976 and began participating in exhibitions in 1974. Petronele Gerlikiene's art has won recognition and numerous prizes in Lithuania and abroad. Petronele Gerlikiene entered the Lithuanian art scene at quite a venerable age after she retired and was living with her son's family in Vilnius, she started embroidering tapestries of a large scale. She was fascinated with big trees and used it as a motif for her first tapestries An Oak, A Rowan, A Maple Tree and A Red Tree. About her textile artwork and Woman Petronele said: “I need to have a translucent yellow background in order to embroider Paradise. Paradise is above the houses and only the thin branches of trees covered in blossoms and fruit support Adam and Eve. Adam is worry-free, his soft and relaxed body, with marked Adam's apple, seems to sway weightlessly in the air.

With his hands on the stomach, he moves his toes enjoying Paradise. Eve by his side is interpreted differently, as a contrast to Adam, she is full of anxiety: Her skirt is so bouffant... The woman must always be more beautiful than the man, she holds a bouquet of forget-me-nots.” Eve’s body is tense, she is focused and ready--she knows what awaits her". She was encouraged by her daughter-in-law, who brought pieces of cardboard and paint from her son's studio. Petronele was amazed that she could paint so and effortlessly, she always had a formed idea of the painting, its composition, combinations of colours in her head. She painted fast, hurrying as if in oblivion, without sketches, dabbing paint directly from the tube, mixing the colours right on the cardboard or canvas. First, with a dry brush, with its stem, Petronele would outline the place of the main character, she only used a palette for putting paint tubes on it. Like this, in one fell swoop, she created her first painting, Under the Maple, Under the Green One…: “This is after the song “under the maple, under the green one, there’s a young lad lying…” and, of course, a young girl is handing her heart to him.

The girl’s heart is always bigger than the boy’s." The next day she demanded a large piece of cardboard – she intended to draw The Ship – Noah’s Ark. Petronele began placing people aboard. First of all, she drew Noah and his seven daughters animals and birds, a couple of each. Noah and his daughters are rowing. Noah turns and watches his eldest daughter in the stern, because his wife is old and she only sits by the chest with her cane. "In this way, the human race has survived..." Petronele Gerlikiene’s most mature and strongest works, The Sorrowful One, A Mother, The Virgin, Benefaction are broad-brush works and poignant. Each work has a diversity of colours, a freedom of composition, a powerful sense of wholeness; the emotional expressiveness and inner strength allows the comparison of her paintings to works of professional painters. Moreover, Gerlikiene’s works surpass those made by professionals in terms of originality of the vision, uniqueness of interpretation, humour. Petronele's most characteristic way of expression is colour.

One of the most painterly yet most laconic pictures is The Sorrowful One, she uses only three colours: red and white. Her intuitive feeling for colour dictates her unusual and unexpected colour combinations. Petronele's world is dominated by people. Figures are depicted in motion and communicating with each other and the beholder, her creative world encompasses whole human life with all its aspects, but most important subjects are woman’s fate and man's and woman’s relationship. These “eternal” subjects interpreted with understanding and humour, men are ridiculed like in the picture Picking Cherries: calm, smiling woman pulls a man by the hand into a lake. “If a man is afraid, he can grab hold of a calf’s tail out of fear.” Petronele loved to paint love dramas and psychologically complicated situations. She was positive. "Petronele Gerlikiene", LTS, 2005 Petronele Gerlikiene was illiterate. As a child she had no possibility of going to school she felt there was no need for it. In seven intensely creative years, Petronele has created 11 large-scale tapestries and more than 60 paintings.

1977 Winner of the 1st prize for paintings and textile artwork, A National Exhibition of Folk Art, Vilnius Exhibition Palace, Lithuania. 1977 Winner of the 2nd prize, An Exhibition of Folk Painters and Craftsmen of the Soviet Union, Moscow. Picking Cherries, 1977 A Difficult Year, 1977 A Mother, 1978 Tapestry The Song Festival, 1976 Tapestry Sweep the Yard on a Saturday... 1976 Tapestry A Red Tree, 1977 The Sorrowful One, 1978 "Petronele Gerlikiene". LTS, 2005. Compilers: Jurgita Gerlikaite and Darijus Gerlikas. Text: Jurgita Gerlikaite. Biography, album. Modern Art Center M. K. Čiurlionis National Museum of Art Lithuanian Art Museum Opening of P. Gerlikiene's first personal exhibition, The City Planning Institute, 1977 - Vimeo Petronele Gerlikiene's fan community on Facebook