The Japanese raccoon dog known as tanuki in Japanese, is a subspecies of the Asian raccoon dog. Researchers have suggested that they be considered a separate species, N. viverrinus, or that raccoon dogs of Japan could be further divisible into separate subspecies as N. p. procyonoides and N. p. albus, but both views are controversial. As the tanuki, the animal has been significant in Japanese folklore since ancient times; the legendary tanuki is reputed to be mischievous and jolly, a master of disguise and shapeshifting, but somewhat gullible and absentminded. It is a common theme in Japanese art statuary. "Tanuki" is mistakenly translated into English as "badger" or "raccoon", two unrelated types of animals with superficially similar appearances. Traditionally, different areas of Japan had different names for raccoon dogs as animals, which would be used to denote different animals in other parts of the country, including badgers and wild cats; the "real" raccoon is called araiguma in Japanese, badger is anaguma or mujina.
The Japanese raccoon dog is nocturnal, but they are known to be active during daylight. They vocalize with groans that have pitches resembling those of domesticated cats. Like cats, the Japanese raccoon dog arches its back. Social groups are limited to a breeding pair, but individual Japanese raccoon dogs may stay in a group of non-paired individuals until they find a mate; the species is predominantly monogamous. The breeding period for the species is synchronized between females and males and lasts between February and April. A litter is born after a gestation period of 9 weeks; the parents look after their pups at a den for around a month, for another month after the pups leave the den. Japanese raccoon dogs live for 7–8 years in the wild, have reached the age of 13 in captivity; the Japanese raccoon dog is sometimes classified as its own distinct species due to unique chromosomal and morphological characteristics absent in mainland raccoon dogs. The Japanese raccoon dog has a smaller stomach and shorter fur of lesser insulation value than mainland raccoon dogs.
Genetic analysis has confirmed unique sequences of mtDNA, classifying the Japanese raccoon dog as a distinct isolation species, based on evidence of eight Robertsonian translocations. The International Union for Conservation of Nature Canid Group's Canid Biology and Conservation Conference in September 2001 rejected the classification of the Japanese raccoon dog as a separate species, but its status is still disputed, based on its elastic genome; the karyotype of Japanese raccoon dogs is different from that of the mainland raccoon dogs. Though it is unknown whether mainland raccoon dogs and Japanese raccoon dogs can produce fertile offspring, it is assumed that the chromosomal differences between them would have deleterious effects on the fertility of the potential offspring and this would be indicative of speciation. Aggregators on mammal taxonomy are inconsistent: Like the IUCN, Mammal Species of the World considers the Japanese raccoon dog to be a subspecies whereas the American Association of Mammologists include N. viverrinus as a valid species in their Mammal Diversity Database.
The raccoon dogs from Hokkaido are sometimes recognized as a different subspecies from the mainland tanuki as Nyctereutes procyonoides albus. This taxon is synonymized with N. p. viverrinus in Mammal Species of the World, but comparative morphometric analysis supports recognizing the Hokkaido population as a distinct subspecific unit. The IUCN places the raccoon dog at "least concern" status due to the animal's wide distribution in Japan and abundant population, including as an introduced species throughout northeastern Europe. In many European countries, it is legal to hunt raccoon dogs, as they are considered a harmful and invasive species. In Japan the species is hunted to prevent them from damaging crops; the animal is a common victim of vehicle accidents, with conservative estimates of up to 370,000 Japanese raccoon dogs being killed by vehicles each year in Japan. This species is exhibited in zoological parks. For example, only two zoos accredited by the American Zoo and Aquarium Association – Zoo Atlanta in Atlanta and the Red River Zoo in Fargo, North Dakota – exhibit this species in the United States.
The Hangzhou Zoo in China and the River Safari in Singapore have Japanese raccoon dogs. In the UK, Chew Valley Animal Park near Bristol in the south west of England has a breeding pair. While tanuki are prominent in Japanese folklore and proverbs, they were not always distinguished from other animals with a similar appearance. In local dialects and mujina can refer to raccoon dogs or badgers. An animal known as tanuki in one region may be known as mujina in another region. In the modern Tokyo standard dialect, tanuki refers to raccoon dogs and anaguma refers to badgers; the tanuki has a long history in Japanese folklore. Bake-danuki are a kind o
Oral gospel traditions, cultural information passed on from one generation to the next by word of mouth, were the first stage in the formation of the written gospels. These oral traditions included different types of stories about Jesus. For example, people told anecdotes about Jesus debating with his opponents; the traditions included sayings attributed to Jesus, such as parables and teachings on various subjects which, along with other sayings, formed the oral gospel tradition. Biblical scholars use a variety of critical methodologies known as biblical criticism, they apply source criticism to identify the written sources beneath the canonical gospels. Scholars understood that these written sources must have had a prehistory as oral tellings, but the nature of oral transmission seemed to rule out the possibility of recovering them. However, in the early 20th century the German scholar Hermann Gunkel demonstrated a new critical method, form criticism, which he believed could discover traces of oral tradition in written texts.
Gunkel specialized in Old Testament studies, but other scholars soon adopted and adapted his methods to the study of the New Testament. The essence of form criticism is the identification of the Sitz im Leben, "situation in life", which gave rise to a particular written passage; when form critics discuss oral traditions about Jesus, they theorize about the particular social situation in which different accounts of Jesus were told. For New Testament scholars, this focus remains the Second Temple period, it needs be remembered. A modern consensus exists. According to scholar Bart D. Ehrman, Jesus was so firmly rooted in his own time and place as a first-century Palestinian Jew – with his ancient Jewish comprehension of the world, God – that he does not translate into a modern idiom. Ehrman stresses, he was brought up in a Jewish culture, accepted Jewish ways and became a Jewish teacher, like other Jewish teachers of his time, debated the Law of Moses orally. Early Christians sustained these teachings of Jesus orally.
Rabbis or teachers in every generation were raised and trained to deliver this oral tradition accurately. It inspired opinion; the distinction is one of authority: where the earthly Jesus has spoken on a subject, that word is to be regarded as an instruction or command. The accuracy of the oral gospel tradition was insured by the community designating certain learned individuals to bear the main responsibility for retaining the gospel message of Jesus; the prominence of teachers in the earliest communities such as the Jerusalem Church is best explained by the communities' reliance on them as repositories of oral tradition. One of the most striking features to emerge from recent study is the "amazing consistency" of the history of the tradition "which gave birth to the NT". A review of Richard Bauckham's book Jesus and the Eyewitnesses: The Gospels as Eyewitness Testimony states "The common wisdom in the academy is that stories and sayings of Jesus circulated for decades, undergoing countless retellings and embellishments before being set down in writing."
You are familiar with the old birthday party game "telephone." A group of kids sits in a circle, the first tells a brief story to the one sitting next to her, who tells it to the next, to the next, so on, until it comes back full circle to the one who started it. Invariably, the story has changed so much in the process of retelling that everyone gets a good laugh. Imagine this same activity taking place, not in a solitary living room with ten kids on one afternoon, but over the expanse of the Roman Empire, with thousands of participants—from different backgrounds, with different concerns, in different contexts—some of whom have to translate the stories into different languages. Modern scholars have concluded that the Canonical Gospels went through four stages in their formation: The first stage was oral, included various stories about Jesus such as healing the sick, or debating with opponents, as well as parables and teachings. In the second stage, the oral traditions began to be written down in collections, while the oral traditions continued to circulate In the third stage, early Christians began combining the written collections and oral traditions into what might be called "proto-gospels" – hence Luke's reference to the existence of "many" earlier narratives about Jesus In the fourth stage, the authors of our four Gospels drew on these proto-gospels and still-circulating oral traditions to produce the gospels of Matthew, Mark and John.
Mark and Luke are known as the Synoptic Gospels because they have such a high degree of interdependence. Modern scholars agree that Mark was the first of the gospels to be written; the author does not seem to have used extensive written sources, but rather to have woven together small collections and individual traditions into a coherent presentation. It is though not universally, agreed that the authors of Matthew and Luke used as sources the gospel of Mark and a collection of sayings called the Q source; these two together account for the bulk of each of Matthew and Luke, with the remainder made up of smaller amounts of source material unique to each, called the M source for Matthew and the L source for Luke, which may have been a mix of written and oral material. Most scholars believe that the
Paul Dye Jr. known as Pete Dye, was an American golf course designer and a member of a family of course designers. He was married to amateur champion Alice Dye. Dye was born in Urbana, the son of Paul F. "Pink" and Elizabeth Dye. A few years before Dye's birth, his father became involved with golf and built a nine-hole course on family land in Champaign County called the "Urbana Country Club." As a youngster, he played that course. While attending Urbana High School, he won the Ohio state high school golf championship, medaled in the state amateur golf championship, all before entering the U. S. Army at age 18 in 1944 during World War II. Dye first moved to Delray Beach, Florida with his parents in 1933 and established his own winter residence there. With his brother Andy, he had attended the Asheville School, a boarding school in North Carolina at Asheville. Dye entered the Airborne School at Fort Benning in Georgia to be a paratrooper in the 82nd Airborne Division, but the war ended while he was in training.
He was stationed at Fort Bragg in North Carolina where he served the rest of his hitch as greenskeeper on the base golf course. Dye explained, "I played the golf course at Pinehurst No. 2 for six solid months, I got to know Mr. Donald Ross... had built the Fort Bragg golf course. He would come over and watch us play golf, most of the time the captain and colonel hauled me over there, they didn't know who Mr. Ross was, but the other fellow walking with him was JC Penney, they all knew him." After his discharge, Dye relocated to Florida and enrolled at Rollins College in Winter Park, northeast of Orlando, where he met his wife, Alice Holliday O'Neal. They were married in early 1950, had two sons, Perry and P. B.. They moved to Indiana to her hometown of Indianapolis, Dye sold insurance. Within a few years, he distinguished himself as a million dollar salesman, was successful in amateur golf. Dye won the Indiana amateur championship in 1958, following runner-up finishes in 1954 and 1955. At age 31, he qualified for the U.
S. Open in 1957 at Inverness Club in Toledo, but shot 152 to miss the cut by two strokes, as did Arnold Palmer. Dye made the decision to become a golf course designer in his mid-30s. Alice became partner in the new venture. In 1961, the couple talked to noted golf architect Bill Diddle, who lived nearby, he warned them about the economic uncertainty of the profession. The first design from Dye and his wife was the nine-hole El Dorado course south of Indianapolis, which crossed a creek thirteen times; those nine holes are now incorporated into the Royal Oak course at Dye's Walk Country Club. Their first 18-hole course was created during 1962 in Indianapolis and named Heather Hills, now known as Maple Creek Golf & Country Club. Dye designed the Radrick Farms Golf Course for the University of Michigan in 1962, but the course did not open until 1965. At the time, he was using the design style of Trent Jones, but after seeing the work of Alister MacKenzie, who designed the 1931 Michigan course, Dye decided to incorporate features from two greens into his next project.
Dye made a thorough study of its classic courses. The Scottish use of pot bunkers, bulkheads constructed of wood, diminutive greens influenced his subsequent designs. Dye's first well-known course was Crooked Stick Golf Club in Carmel, north of Indianapolis, begun in 1964, it hosted the PGA Championship in 1991, won by ninth alternate John Daly. In 1967, he designed The Golf Club near Columbus, where he solicited input from 27-year-old Jack Nicklaus, an area local who won his seventh major that year; the two worked together to design the acclaimed Harbour Town Golf Links in South Carolina, opened in 1969, the site of an annual PGA Tour event since. Nicklaus credits Dye with significant influence on his own approach to golf course design. In 1969, Dye designed his first course in Florida called Delray Dunes. In 1970, he designed Martingham Golf Course in St. Michaels, now known as Harbourtowne Resort; the owners of the project went bankrupt and Dye went unpaid. In 2015, the property was purchased by Richard D. Cohen who has entered into an agreement with Dye to update and redesign the course.
The new owner agreed to pay the funds. In 1986, Dye designed a course in the Italian province of Brescia, near Lake Iseo, the Franciacorta Golf Club, recognized today as wine golf course. Dye is considered to be one of the most influential course architects in the world, his designs are known for distinctive features, including small greens and the use of railroad ties to hold bunkers. His design for the Brickyard Crossing golf course at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway utilized the dismantled outer retaining wall from the race track, he is known for designing the "world's most terrifying tee shot," the par-3 17th hole of the Stadium Course at TPC at Sawgrass in Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida. Known as the "Island Green," it gained wide notice 38 years ago in 1982, during the first Players Championship at the new course. Dye's designs have been credited with returning medium length par fours to golf. Many of the best young golf architects have "pushed dirt" for Pete, including Bill Coore, Tom Doak, John Harbottle, Butch Laporte, Tim Liddy, Scott Poole, David Postlewaite, Lee Schmidt, Keith Sparkman, Jim Urbina, Bobby Weed, Rod W
Astronium is a genus of flowering plants in the cashew family, Anacardiaceae. Species include: Astronium balansae — curupach, pae ferro, urundahy Astronium concinnum Astronium conzattii Astronium fraxinifolium — kingwood, tigerwood, arroeira-do-campo, chibatã, gonçalo alves Astronium gardneri Astronium glaziovii Astronium graveolens — glassywood, copaiva, gateado Astronium lecointei — miracoatiara, almendro macho, guasanero Astronium mirandae Astronium nelson-rosae Astronium obliquum Astronium ulei Astronium urundeuva — urunday, cuchi, sotocele Fossils of an Astronium sp. have been described from the fossil flora of Kızılcahamam district in Turkey, of early Pliocene age. Pell, S. K.. D.. J.. A.. "Anacardiaceae". In Kubitzki, Klaus. Sapindales, Myrtaceae. Flowering Plants. Eudicots, The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. 10. Springer-Verlag. Pp. 7–50. ISBN 9783642143977. Santin, D. A.. H. F.. "Restabelecimento e revisão taxonômica do gênero Myracrodruon Freire Allemão". Revista Brasileira de Botânica.
The "Katholische junge Gemeinde" is a major German Catholic youth organization. KjG has a democratic structure and local groups throughout Germany in Catholic parishes, with a total of about 80,000 members; the KjG is a member of the Catholic umbrella of youth organizations and the German umbrella of Catholic youth organizations, BDKJ. See also: Overview of the history of KjG on the homepage of KjG 1896: The "Katholische Jungmännerverband" is founded, it is the predecessor organization of the "Katholische Jungmännergemeinschaft". 1915: The national organization of "Katholische Jungfrauenvereine Deutschlands", the predecessor organization of "Katholische Frauenjugendgemeinschaft", is founded. 1938: Catholic youth organizations were forbidden in Germany by the Nazi regime. 1947: The "Katholische Jungmännergemeinschaft" is founded. 1954: The "Katholische Frauenjugendgemeinschaft" is founded. 1970: The "Katholische Jungmännergemeinschaft" and the "Katholische Frauenjugendgemeinschaft" merge to the "Katholische junge Gemeinde".
1979: The federal assembly of KjG decides that KjG shall advocate for a nuclear power phase-out. 1995: KjG adopts the "Altenberg Declaration". In the declaration KjG emphasizes the importance of spiritual assistants being part of the leadership in KjG and that they need to be elected democratically by the members of KjG. 2001/2002: KjG calls in their campaign "enjoy the difference" for more tolerance. In particular, the campaign emphasizes that no human being shall be discriminated due to their origin, race, possession, or other superficial criteria and takes a strong stand against xenophobia. 2005: KjG organized with Fimcap a centre for international exchange during the 20th World Youth Day in Cologne named "feel the spirit" and visited by more than 20,000 pilgrims. 2010: KjG hosted the General Assembly of Fimcap in Munich. 2012: The diocesan branch of KjG in the archdiocese of Munich and Freising hosted the Fimcap EuroCourse 2012. 2013: More than 100 groups of KjG took part with projects in the 72 hours campaign, the biggest social campaign of young people in Germany.
2014: In the year of the European elections 2014 KjG organized the nationwide project "YOUrope - Strippenzieher*innen für eine jugendgerechte EU". The aim of the project was to encourage young people to think about youth rights and to show them possible ways to participate in political processes. KjG had a significant influence on the development of contemporary worship music in Germany; the patron of KjG is Thomas More. The motto of KjG is "I never thought of consenting to a matter, if it would defy my morals." This quote is attributed to Thomas More. The emblem of KjG is called "Seelenbohrer". Translated from German this means "soul drill", it was designed in 1967 by Alfred Klever, a designer based in the vicinity of Cologne, during a course on screen printing in Altenberg. It represents the motto of the joint Pentecostal meeting of KJG and KFG, the predecessor organizations of KjG, in Münster in 1968: "Zur Antwort bereit!". At this national meeting the meaning of the emblem was explained as follows: "The dot in the center represents Christ, the Good News and the life.
The bar moving around the dot symbolizes the humans who, inspired by the center, try to tackle problems and find and give answers. The arrow represents dynamic. Acting based on the solid ground of the Gospel means at the same time to move on and to pursue goals." Another ironic interpretation of the emblem is that it represents "beating around the bush missing the goal and than move away quickly". The 80,000 members are organized in various local groups spread all over Germany. Most local groups are based at a parish. However, local groups can be located at other places such as schools; each local group has a team of voluntary group leaders which prepare activities like e.g. weekly meetings or camps for children, adolescents and/or young adults. Furthermore, each local group has a board of two or more chairpeople coordinating the local group; the chairpeople are elected by the regular assembly of all members of the local group. All members regardless of their age are eligible to vote. Jens Spahn Reinhard Frank Homepage of KjG
Trever Keith is an American musician and record label owner from Victorville, CA. He is the founding member of the So-Cal punk group Face to Face and has been the singer and guitarist of the band since their inception in 1991. Keith is the owner and founder of the independent record labels Lady Luck Records, Antagonist Records and Folsom Records. Outside of his work with Face to Face, Keith was a part of the remix and mash-up duo The Legion of Doom and alternative rock group Viva Death. Additionally, in February 2008 he released. After graduating high school in 1987, Keith formed a metal band with friends Matt Riddle, Matthew Altmire, Rick Altmire; the band was named Victoria Manor. The band recorded a three-song demo. After several years the band members parted ways and Keith and Riddle formed a new band called Zero Tolerance with drummer Rob Kurth and guitarist Mark Haake. Zero Tolerance drew upon Keith's new wave influences but like Victoria Manor last just a short period of time. After Zero Tolerance disbanded in early 1991, Keith formed Face to Face with bassist Matt Riddle and drummer Rob Kurth.
Cited as a seminal California punk group, Face to Face has released nine full-length albums in their nearly 25-year history. In 2004 Face to Face disbanded to allow the band members the opportunity to focus on other projects. During this time, the band released a CD/DVD compilation, Shoot the Moon, on Keith's label, Antagonist Records; the DVD features a career retrospective documentary'Punk Rock Eats Its Own - A Film About Face to Face' along with the band's final performance from their'Only Goodbye Tour' at the House Of Blues in Los Angeles, CA on September 19, 2004. On January 29, 2008, Keith announced via Face to Face's official website that the band had reunited, for a number of shows in the US. On April 5, 2008, the band performed together for the first time in four years at The Bamboozle Left festival in Orange County, CA. Since the band has continued to perform numerous live shows since and has recorded 3 more records. In 1999 Keith produced the album Blindside by the band Peel fronted by former Ridel High singer Kevin Ridel.
After face to face's initial break up in 2004, Keith retreated out of the limelight to focus on several music projects including, his debut solo record, his record label Antagonist Records, formed the remix / mash-up duo The Legion of Doom with creative partner Chad Blinman. Keith contributed to the Once Percent Panic album as member of the band Viva Death along with face to face bassist Scott Shiflett. Keith was a guest vocalist on "People Like You Are Why People Like Me Exist" by Say Anything. In February 2008, Keith released his debut solo album Melancholics Anonymous on his own label Antagonist Records; the album was released digitally via his official website, where it was available to purchase for the price of $5, available to stream in full for free. The CD version was limited to 1000 hand-signed & numbered copies, available only during his solo tour in 2008 and Warped Tour 2010. Keith has recorded and produced several records, most notably for Vagrant Records bands No Motiv and Moneen.
Keith has produced records for Viva Death, Death On Wednesday, Jughead's Revenge and Seconds To Go