The onion known as the bulb onion or common onion, is a vegetable, the most cultivated species of the genus Allium. Its close relatives include the garlic, leek and Chinese onion; this genus contains several other species variously referred to as onions and cultivated for food, such as the Japanese bunching onion, the tree onion, the Canada onion. The name "wild onion" is applied to a number of Allium species, but A. cepa is known from cultivation. Its ancestral wild original form is not known, although escapes from cultivation have become established in some regions; the onion is most a biennial or a perennial plant, but is treated as an annual and harvested in its first growing season. The onion plant has a fan of hollow, bluish-green leaves and its bulb at the base of the plant begins to swell when a certain day-length is reached; the bulbs are composed of shortened, underground stems surrounded by fleshy modified scale that envelop a central bud at the tip of the stem. In the autumn, the foliage dies down and the outer layers of the bulb become dry and brittle.
The crop is harvested and dried and the onions are ready for use or storage. The crop is prone to attack by a number of pests and diseases the onion fly, the onion eelworm, various fungi cause rotting; some varieties of A. cepa, such as shallots and potato onions, produce multiple bulbs. Onions are used around the world; as a food item, they are served cooked, as a vegetable or part of a prepared savoury dish, but can be eaten raw or used to make pickles or chutneys. They are pungent when contain certain chemical substances which irritate the eyes; the onion plant known as the bulb onion or common onion, is the most cultivated species of the genus Allium. It was first described by Carl Linnaeus in his 1753 work Species Plantarum. A number of synonyms have appeared in its taxonomic history: Allium cepa var. aggregatum – G. Don Allium cepa var. bulbiferum – Regel Allium cepa var. cepa – Linnaeus Allium cepa var. multiplicans – L. H. Bailey Allium cepa var. proliferum – Regel Allium cepa var. solaninum – Alef Allium cepa var. viviparum – Mansf.
A. Cepa is known from cultivation, but related wild species occur in Central Asia; the most related species include A. vavilovii and A. asarense from Iran. However and Hopf state that "there are doubts whether the A. vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop."The vast majority of cultivars of A. cepa belong to the "common onion group" and are referred to as "onions". The Aggregatum group of cultivars includes both shallots and potato onions; the genus Allium contains a number of other species variously referred to as onions and cultivated for food, such as the Japanese bunching onion, Egyptian onion, Canada onion. Cepa is accepted as Latin for "onion" and has an affinity with Ancient Greek: κάπια and Albanian: qepë and is ancestral to Aromanian: tseapã, Catalan: ceba, Occitan: ceba, Spanish: cebolla, Romanian: ceapă; the English word chive is derived from the Old French cive, which derived from cepa. The onion plant has been selectively bred in cultivation for at least 7,000 years.
It is a biennial plant, but is grown as an annual. Modern varieties grow to a height of 15 to 45 cm; the leaves are yellowish - to bluish green and grow alternately in a fan-shaped swathe. They are fleshy and cylindrical, with one flattened side, they are at their broadest about a quarter of the way up, beyond which they taper towards a blunt tip. The base of each leaf is a flattened white sheath that grows out of a basal disc. From the underside of the disc, a bundle of fibrous roots extends for a short way into the soil; as the onion matures, food reserves begin to accumulate in the leaf bases and the bulb of the onion swells. In the autumn, the leaves die back and the outer scales of the bulb become dry and brittle, so the crop is normally harvested. If left in the soil over winter, the growing point in the middle of the bulb begins to develop in the spring. New leaves appear and a long, hollow stem expands, topped by a bract protecting a developing inflorescence; the inflorescence takes the form of a globular umbel of white flowers with parts in sixes.
The seeds are glossy triangular in cross section. The average pH of an onion is around 5.5 Because the wild onion is extinct and ancient records of using onions span western and eastern Asia, the geographic origin of the onion is uncertain, with domestication worldwide. Food uses of onions date back thousands of years in China and Persia. Traces of onions recovered from Bronze Age settlements in China suggest that onions were used as far back as 5000 BCE, not only for their flavour, but the bulb's durability in storage and transport. Ancient Egyptians revered the onion bulb, viewing its spherical shape and concentric rings as symbols of eternal life. Onions were used in Egyptian burials, as evidenced by onion traces found in the eye sockets of Ramesses IV. Pliny the Elder of the first century CE wrote about the use of onions and cabbage in Pompeii, he documented Roman beliefs about the onion's ability to improve ocular ailments, aid in sleep, heal everything from oral sores and toothaches to dog bites and dysentery.
Korean cuisine is the customary cooking traditions and practices of the culinary arts of Korea. Korean cuisine has evolved through centuries of political change. Originating from ancient agricultural and nomadic traditions in Korea and southern Manchuria, Korean cuisine has evolved through a complex interaction of the natural environment and different cultural trends. Korean cuisine is based on rice and meats. Traditional Korean meals are named for the number of side dishes that accompany steam-cooked short-grain rice. Kimchi is served at nearly every meal. Used ingredients include sesame oil, soy sauce, garlic, pepper flakes and napa cabbage. Ingredients and dishes vary by province. Many regional dishes have become national, dishes that were once regional have proliferated in different variations across the country. Korean royal court cuisine once brought all of the unique regional specialties together for the royal family. Foods are regulated by Korean cultural etiquette. Grains have been one of the most important staples of the Korean diet.
Early myths of the foundations of various kingdoms in Korea center on grains. One foundation myth relates to Jumong, who received barley seeds from two doves sent by his mother after establishing the kingdom of Goguryeo, yet another myth speaks of the three founding deities of Jeju Island, who were to be wed to the three princesses of Tamna. During the pre-modern era, grains such as barley and millet were the main staples and were supplemented by wheat and buckwheat. Rice is not an indigenous crop to Korea, millet was the preferred grain before rice was cultivated. Rice became the grain of choice during the Three Kingdoms period in the Silla and Baekje Kingdoms in the southern regions of the peninsula. Rice was such an important commodity in Silla; the Sino-Korean word for "tax" is a compound character. The preference for rice escalated into the Joseon period, when new methods of cultivation and new varieties emerged that would help increase production; as rice was prohibitively expensive when it first came to Korea, the grain was mixed with other grains to "stretch" the rice.
White rice, rice with the bran removed, has been the preferred form of rice since its introduction into the cuisine. The most traditional method of cooking the rice has been to cook it in an iron pot called a sot or musoe sot; this method of rice cookery dates back to at least the Goryeo period, these pots have been found in tombs from the Silla period. The sot is still used today. Rice is used to make a number of items, outside of the traditional bowl of plain white rice, it is ground into a flour and used to make rice cakes called tteok in over two hundred varieties. It is cooked down into a congee or gruel and mixed with other grains, meat, or seafood. Koreans produce a number of rice wines, both in filtered and unfiltered versions. Legumes have been significant crops in Korean history and cuisine, according to the earliest preserved legumes found in archaeological sites in Korea; the excavation at Okbang site, South Gyeongsang province indicates soybeans were cultivated as a food crop circa 1000–900 BCE.
They are made into tofu, while soybean sprouts are sauteed as a vegetable and whole soybeans are seasoned and served as a side dish. They are made into soy milk, used as the base for the noodle dish called kongguksu. A byproduct of soy milk production is biji or kong-biji, used to thicken stews and porridges. Soybeans may be one of the beans in kongbap, boiled together with several types of beans and other grains, they are the primary ingredient in the production of fermented condiments collectively referred to as jang, such as soybean pastes and cheonggukjang, a soy sauce called ganjang, chili pepper paste or gochujang and others. Mung beans are used in Korean cuisine, where they are called nokdu. Mung bean sprouts, called sukju namul, are served as a side dish and sautéed with sesame oil and salt. Ground mung beans are used to make a porridge called nokdujuk, eaten as a nutritional supplement and digestive aid for ill patients. A popular snack, bindaetteok, is made with fresh mung bean sprouts.
Starch extracted from ground mung beans is used to make transparent cellophane noodles. The noodles are the main ingredients for japchae and sundae, are a subsidiary ingredient for soups and stews; the starch can be used to make jelly-like foods, such as nokdumuk and hwangpomuk. The muk have a bland flavor, so are served seasoned with soy sauce, sesame oil and crumbled seaweed or other seasonings such as tangpyeongchae. Cultivation of azuki beans dates back to ancient times according to an excavation from Odong-ri, North Hamgyong Province, assumed to be that of Mumun period. Azuki beans are eaten as patbap, a bowl of rice mixed with the beans, or as a filling and covering for tteok and breads. A porridge made with azuki beans, called patjuk, is eaten during the winter season. On Dongjinal, a Korean traditional holiday which falls on December 22
Sesame oil is an edible vegetable oil derived from sesame seeds. Besides being used as a cooking oil in South India, it is used as a flavour enhancer in Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian cuisines, it has a distinctive nutty taste. The oil is used for cooking, is one of the earliest-known crop-based oils. Worldwide mass modern production is limited due to the inefficient manual harvesting process required to extract the oil. Sesame oil is composed of the following fatty acids: linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid and others in small amounts. Sesame was cultivated more than 5000 years ago as a drought-tolerant crop and was able to grow where other crops failed. Sesame seeds were one of the first crops processed for oil as well as one of the earliest condiments. Sesame was the main oil crop, it was exported to Mesopotamia around 2500 BC. Sesame seeds are protected by a capsule which only bursts when the seeds are ripe; this is called dehiscence. The dehiscence time tends to vary, so farmers cut plants by hand and place them together in an upright position to continue ripening until all the capsules have opened.
The discovery of an indehiscent mutant by Langham in 1943 began the work towards development of a high-yielding, dehiscence-resistant variety. Although researchers have made significant progress in sesame breeding, harvest losses due to dehiscence continue to limit domestic US production. Sesame seeds are produced in developing countries, a factor that has played a role in limiting the creation of large-scale automated oil extraction and processing techniques. Sesame oil can be extracted by a number of methods, depending on the materials and equipment available. Tanzania remains the largest producer of sesame oil and dominates the global consumption of this product; the African and Asian regions constitute the fastest developing sesame oil markets. The steady growth in demand being observed here is in line with rising household income figures and urbanization, as well as an increase in the use of sesame oil for food products and Asian dishes. In developing countries, sesame oil is extracted with less-expensive and manually intensive techniques such as hot water flotation, bridge presses, ram presses, the ghani process, or by using a small-scale expeller.
In developed countries sesame oil is extracted using an expeller press, larger-scale oil extraction machines, or by pressing followed by chemical solvent extraction. Sesame oil can be extracted under low-temperature conditions using an expeller press in a process called cold pressing; this extraction method is popular among raw food adherents because it avoids exposing the oil to chemical solvents or high temperatures during extraction. While some manufacturers will further refine sesame oil through solvent extraction and bleaching in order to improve its cosmetic aspects, sesame oil derived from quality seeds possesses a pleasant taste and does not require further purification before it can be consumed. Many consumers prefer unrefined sesame oil due to their belief that the refining process removes important nutrients. Flavour, traditionally an important attribute was best in oils produced from mild crushing. Sesame oil is one of the more stable natural oils, but can still benefit from refrigeration and limited exposure to light and high temperatures during extraction and storage in order to minimize nutrient loss through oxidation and rancidity.
Storage in amber-colored bottles can help to minimize light exposure. Sesame oil is a polyunsaturated semi-drying oil. Commercial sesame oil varies in colour from light to deep reddish yellow depending on the colour of the seed processed and the method of milling. Provided the oil is milled from well-cleaned seed, it can be refined and bleached to yield a light-coloured limpid oil. Sesame oil is rich in oleic and linoleic acids, which together account for 85% of the total fatty acids. Sesame oil has a high percentage of unsaponifiable matter in India and in some other European countries, it is obligatory to add sesame oil to margarine and to hydrogenated vegetable fats which are used as adulterants for butter or ghee. The market for sesame oil is located in Asia and the Middle East where the use of domestically produced sesame oil has been a tradition for centuries. About 65 percent of the annual US sesame crop is processed into oil and 35 percent is used in food. There are many variations in the colour of sesame oil: cold-pressed sesame oil is pale yellow, while Indian sesame oil is golden, East Asian sesame oils are a dark brown colour.
This dark colour and flavour are derived from roasted/toasted sesame seeds. Cold pressed sesame oil has a different flavour than the toasted oil, since it is produced directly from raw, rather than toasted, seeds. Sesame oil is traded in any of the forms described above: Cold-pressed sesame oil is available in Western health shops. Unroasted sesame oil is used for cooking in South India, the Middle East, halal markets and East Asian countries; the only essential nutrient having significant content in sesame oil is vitamin K, providing 17% of the Daily Value per 100 grams consumed supplying 884 calories. For fats, sesame oil is equal in monounsaturated fat and polyunsaturated fat, together accounting for 80% of the total fat content; the remaining oil content is the saturated fat, palmitic acid (about 9% of total, USDA table
Bamboo shoots or bamboo sprouts are the edible shoots of many bamboo species including Bambusa vulgaris and Phyllostachys edulis. They broths, they are sold in various processed shapes, are available in fresh and canned versions. Raw bamboo shoots contain cyanogenic glycosides, natural toxins contained in cassava; the toxins must be destroyed by thorough cooking and for this reason fresh bamboo shoots are boiled before being used in other ways. The toxins are destroyed in the canning process. Shoots of several species of bamboo are harvested for consumption: Phyllostachys edulis produces large shoots up to 2.5 kilos. The shoots of this species are called different names depending on. Winter shoots are smaller in size, up to 1 kg in weigh per harvested shoot; the flesh is commercially quite important. "Hairy" shoots are larger in size, but due to their toughness and bitter taste, they are used to make dried bamboo shoots. They are harvested between May in Taiwan. Phyllostachys bambusoides produces shoots that are long with firm flesh.
Consumed fresh, they are made into dried bamboo shoots. Dendrocalamus latiflorus produces shoots that are large with flesh, fibrous and hard; as such, they are suitable for canning and drying. Bambusa oldhamii produces valuable shoots that are large with fragrant flesh, they are sold fresh and in season between late spring and early fall. Their availability depends on local climate; these shoot are available in cans when not in season. Bambusa odashimae is considered similar to B. oldhamii, but prized due to its crisp flesh similar to Asian pears. It is produced in Taitung and Hualien and consumed fresh. Fargesia spathacea produces flavourful long, tender sprouts that can be eaten fresh or canned. Bambusa blumeana produces inferior shoots with a coarse and looser textures than other bamboo shoots and are eaten when others are not in season in Taiwan. Bamboo shoot tips are called zhú sǔn jiān or sǔn jiān in Chinese, although they are referred to as just sǔn; this sounds similar in Korean juk sun, a used form, although the native word daenamu ssak is present.
In Vietnamese, bamboo shoots are called măng and in Japanese. Chakma people from the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh call it Bajchur and it is their traditional food. Bamboo shoot tips are called Myit in Myanmar. In Cambodia, they are called Tumpeang, it is called a traditional food for Bagisu tribe from Eastern Uganda. In certain parts of Japan and Taiwan, shoots from the giant timber bamboo Bambusa oldhamii are harvested in spring or early summer. Young shoots from this species are sought after due to their crisp texture and sweet taste. Older shoots, have an acrid flavor and should be sliced thin and boiled in a large volume of water several times; the sliced bamboo is edible after boiling. B. oldhamii is more known as a noninvasive landscaping bamboo. Pickled bamboo, used as a condiment, may be made from the pith of the young shoots. In Nepal, they are used in dishes. A popular dish is tama, with potato and beans. An old popular song in Nepali mentions tama as "my mother loves vegetable of recipe containing potato and tama".
Some varieties of bamboo shoots grown in the Sikkim Himalayas of India are Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, Dendrocalamus sikkimensis and Bambusa tulda locally known as choya bans, bhalu bans and karati bans. These are edible; these bamboo shoots are collected and boiled in water with turmeric powder for 10–15 minutes to remove the bitter taste of the bamboo after which the tama is ready for consumption. Tama is sold in local markets during the months of June to September when young bamboo shoots sprout. In Assam, bamboo shoots are part of the traditional cuisine, they are called khorisa and bah gaj in Assamese and "hen-up" among Karbi people in Assam In Karnataka, the bamboo shoots are used as a special dish during the monsoons in Malnad region. It goes by the name kanile or'kalale in the local language; the shoots are sliced and soaked in water for two to three days, after which the water is drained and replenished each day to extricate and remove toxins. It is used as a pickle, it is consumed as a delicacy by all communities in the region.
In the Diyun region of Arunachal Pradesh, the Chakma people call them bashchuri. The fermented version is called medukkeye, is served fried with pork; the bamboo shoots can be fermented and stored with vinegar. In Jharkhand, the bambo shoots used as vegetable. Young stored shoots known as Karil and Shandhna respectively. In the western part of Odisha, they are known as Karadi and are used in traditional curries such as Ambila, pithou bhaja and pickle. In monsoon, it can be abundantly found in Bamboo forest of Karlapat wildlife sanctuary and prepared in homes using mustard paste, they can be stored for months in an air tight container. They are dried in sun increasing their shelf life and these dried shoots are called Hendua; the dried shoots are used in curries of roasted fish, called Poda Macha. In Nagaland, bamboo shoots are both cooked and eaten as a fresh food item or fermented for a variety of culinary uses. Fermented bamboo shoot is known as bas tenga. Cooking por
Korea is a region in East Asia. Since 1948, it has been divided between two distinct sovereign states: South Korea. Korea consists of the Korean Peninsula, Jeju Island, several minor islands near the peninsula. Korea is bordered by China to the northwest, Russia to the northeast, neighbours Japan to the east by the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan. During the first half of the 1st millennium, Korea was divided between the three competing states of Baekje and Silla, together known as the "Three Kingdoms of Korea". In the second half of the 1st millennium and Goguryeo were conquered by Silla, leading to the "Unified Silla" period. Meanwhile, Balhae formed in the north following the collapse of Goguryeo. Unified Silla collapsed into three separate states due to civil war, ushering in the Later Three Kingdoms. Toward the end of the 1st millennium Goryeo, a revival of Goguryeo, defeated the two other states and unified the Korean Peninsula as one single state. Around the same time, Balhae collapsed and its last crown prince fled south to Goryeo.
Goryeo, whose name developed into the modern exonym "Korea", was a cultured state that created the world's first metal movable type in 1234. However, multiple invasions by the Mongol Empire during the 13th century weakened the nation, which agreed to become a vassal state after decades of fighting. Following military resistance under King Gongmin which ended Mongol political influence in Goryeo, severe political strife followed, Goryeo fell to a coup led by General Yi Seong-gye, who established Joseon in 1392; the first 200 years of Joseon were marked by relative peace. During this period, the Korean alphabet was created by Sejong the Great in the 15th century and there was increasing influence of Confucianism. During the part of the dynasty, Korea's isolationist policy earned it the Western nickname of the "Hermit Kingdom". By the late 19th century, the country became the object of imperial design by the Empire of Japan. After the First Sino-Japanese War, despite the Korean Empire's effort to modernize, it was annexed by Japan in 1910 and ruled by Imperial Japan until the end of World War II in August 1945.
In 1945, the Soviet Union and the United States agreed on the surrender of Japanese forces in Korea in the aftermath of World War II, leaving Korea partitioned along the 38th parallel. The North was under Soviet occupation and the South under U. S. occupation. These circumstances soon became the basis for the division of Korea by the two superpowers, exacerbated by their inability to agree on the terms of Korean independence; the Communist-inspired government in the North received backing from the Soviet Union in opposition to the pro-Western government in the South, leading to Korea's division into two political entities: North Korea, South Korea. Tensions between the two resulted in the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950. With involvement by foreign troops, the war ended in a stalemate in 1953, but without a formalized peace treaty; this status contributes to the high tensions. Both governments of the two Koreas claim to be the sole legitimate government of the region. "Korea" is the modern spelling of "Corea", a name attested in English as early as 1614.
Korea was transliterated as Cauli in The Travels of Marco Polo, of the Chinese 高麗. This was the Hanja for the Korean kingdom of Goryeo, which ruled most of the Korean peninsula during Marco Polo's time. Korea's introduction to the West resulted from trade and contact with merchants from Arabic lands, with some records dating back as far as the 9th century. Goryeo's name was a continuation of Goguryeo the northernmost of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, known as Goryeo beginning in the 5th century; the original name was a combination of the adjective go with the name of a local Yemaek tribe, whose original name is thought to have been either *Guru or *Gauri. With expanding British and American trade following the opening of Korea in the late 19th century, the spelling "Korea" appeared and grew in popularity; the name Korea is now used in English contexts by both North and South Korea. In South Korea, Korea as a whole is referred to as Hanguk; the name references Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula.
Although written in Hanja as 韓, 幹, or 刊, this Han has no relation to the Chinese place names or peoples who used those characters but was a phonetic transcription of a native Korean word that seems to have had the meaning "big" or "great" in reference to leaders. It has been tentatively linked with the title khan used by the nomads of Central Asia. In North Korea, China and Japan, Korea as a whole is referred to as. "Great Joseon" was the name of the kingdom ruled by the Joseon dynasty from 1393 until their declaration of the short-lived Great Korean Empire in 1897. King Taejo had named them for the earlier Kojoseon, who ruled northern Korea from its legendary prehistory until their conquest in 108 BC by China's Han Empire; this go is the Hanja 古 and
The shiitake is an edible mushroom native to East Asia, cultivated and consumed in many Asian countries. It is considered a medicinal mushroom in some forms of traditional medicine; the fungus was first described scientifically as Agaricus edodes by Miles Joseph Berkeley in 1877. It was placed in the genus Lentinula by David Pegler in 1976; the fungus has acquired an extensive synonymy in its taxonomic history: Agaricus edodes Berk. Armillaria edodes Sacc. Mastoleucomyces edodes Kuntze Cortinellus edodes S. Ito & S. Imai Lentinus edodes Singer Collybia shiitake J. Schröt. Lepiota shiitake Nobuj. Tanaka Cortinellus shiitake Henn. Tricholoma shiitake Lloyd Lentinus shiitake Singer Lentinus tonkinensis Pat. Lentinus mellianus Lohwag The mushroom's Japanese name shiitake is composed of shii, for the tree Castanopsis cuspidata that provides the dead logs on which it is cultivated, take; the specific epithet edodes is the Latin word for "edible". It is commonly called "sawtooth oak mushroom", "black forest mushroom", "black mushroom", "golden oak mushroom", or "oakwood mushroom".
Shiitake grow in groups on the decaying wood of deciduous trees shii, oak, beech, poplar, ironwood and chinquapin. Its natural distribution includes moist climates in southeast Asia; the earliest written record of shiitake cultivation is seen in the Records of Longquan County compiled by He Zhan in 1209 during the Southern Song dynasty. The 185-word description of shiitake cultivation from that literature was crossed-referenced many times and adapted in a book by a Japanese horticulturist Satō Chūryō in 1796, the first book on shiitake cultivation in Japan; the Japanese cultivated the mushroom by cutting shii trees with axes and placing the logs by trees that were growing shiitake or contained shiitake spores. Before 1982, the Japan Islands' variety of these mushrooms could only be grown in traditional locations using ancient methods. A 1982 report on the budding and growth of the Japanese variety revealed opportunities for commercial cultivation in the United States. Shiitake are now cultivated all over the world, contribute about 25% of total yearly production of mushrooms.
Commercially, shiitake mushrooms are grown in conditions similar to their natural environment on either artificial substrate or hardwood logs, such as oak. In a 100 gram amount, raw shiitake mushrooms provide 34 calories and are 90% water, 7% carbohydrates, 2% protein and less than 1% fat. Raw shiitake mushrooms are rich sources of B vitamins and contain moderate levels of some dietary minerals; when dried to about 10% water, the contents of numerous nutrients increase substantially. Like all mushrooms, shiitakes produce vitamin D2 upon exposure of their internal ergosterol to ultraviolet B rays from sunlight or broadband UVB fluorescent tubes. Fresh and dried shiitake have many uses in the cuisines of East Asia. In Japan, they are served in miso soup, used as the basis for a kind of vegetarian dashi, as an ingredient in many steamed and simmered dishes. In Chinese cuisine, they are sautéed in vegetarian dishes such as Buddha's delight. One type of high-grade shiitake is called donko in Japanese and dōnggū in Chinese "winter mushroom".
Another high-grade of mushroom is called huāgū in Chinese "flower mushroom", which has a flower-like cracking pattern on the mushroom's upper surface. Both of these are produced at lower temperatures. Basic research is ongoing to assess whether consumption of shiitake mushrooms affects disease properties, although no effect has been proven with sufficient human research to date. Consumption of raw or cooked shiitake mushrooms may cause an allergic reaction called "shiitake dermatitis", including an erythematous, micro-papular, streaky pruriginous rash that occurs all over the body including face and scalp, appearing about 24 hours after consumption worsening by sun exposure and disappearing after 3 to 21 days; this effect – caused by the polysaccharide, lentinan – is more common in Asia but may be growing in occurrence in Europe as shiitake consumption increases. Thorough cooking may eliminate the allergenicity. There is research investigating the use of shiitake mushrooms in production of organic fertilizer and compost from hardwood.
Lentinula Stamets, P.. Growing Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms. Berkeley, California: Ten Speed Press. ISBN 978-1-58008-175-7. BooksShen, J. et al. "An Evidence-based Perspective of Lentinus Edodes for Cancer Patients", in: Evidence-based Anticancer Materia Medica. 2011. Springer. ISBN 978-94-007-0525-8 Tsuji, Shizuo. Japanese Cooking: A Simple Art. New York: Kodansha International/USA. Journal articlesLindequist, U.. H. J.. D.. "The pharmacological potential of mushrooms". Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2: 285–99. Doi:10.1093/ecam/neh107. PMC 1193547. PMID 16136207. Dried shiitake and oyster mushrooms as good sources of nutrients
The sweet potato is a dicotyledonous plant that belongs to the bindweed or morning glory family, Convolvulaceae. Its large, sweet-tasting, tuberous roots are a root vegetable; the young leaves and shoots are sometimes eaten as greens. The sweet potato is only distantly related to the potato and does not belong to the nightshade family, but both families belong to the same taxonomic order, the Solanales; the plant is a herbaceous perennial vine, bearing alternate heart-shaped or palmately lobed leaves and medium-sized sympetalous flowers. The edible tuberous root is long and tapered, with a smooth skin whose color ranges between yellow, red, brown and beige, its flesh ranges from beige through white, pink, yellow and purple. Sweet potato cultivars with white or pale yellow flesh are less sweet and moist than those with red, pink or orange flesh. Ipomoea batatas is native to the tropical regions in the Americas. Of the 50 genera and more than 1,000 species of Convolvulaceae, I. batatas is the only crop plant of major importance—some others are used locally, but many are poisonous.
The genus Ipomoea that contains the sweet potato includes several garden flowers called morning glories, though that term is not extended to Ipomoea batatas. Some cultivars of Ipomoea batatas are grown as ornamental plants under the name tuberous morning glory, used in a horticultural context; the sweet potato is called a "yam" in parts of North America, but is botanically distinct from the botanical yams. Although the soft, orange sweet potato is called a "yam" in parts of North America, the sweet potato is distinct from the botanical yams, native to Africa and Asia and belongs to the monocot family Dioscoreaceae. To add to the confusion, a different crop plant, the oca, is called a "yam" in many parts of Polynesia, including New Zealand. Although the sweet potato is not related botanically to the common potato, they have a shared etymology; the first Europeans to taste sweet potatoes were members of Christopher Columbus's expedition in 1492. Explorers found many cultivars under an assortment of local names, but the name which stayed was the indigenous Taino name of batata.
The Spanish combined this with the Quechua word for potato, papa, to create the word patata for the common potato. In Argentina, Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic the sweet potato is called batata. In Mexico, Chile, Central America, the Philippines, the sweet potato is known as camote, derived from the Nahuatl word camotli. In Peru, the Quechua name for a type of sweet potato is kumar, strikingly similar to the Polynesian name kumara and its regional Oceanic cognates, which has led some scholars to suspect an instance of pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact. In New Zealand, the original Māori varieties bore elongated tubers with white skin and a whitish flesh. Kumara is popular as a roasted food served with sour cream and sweet chili sauce. In Australia, shops will label purple cultivars as "purple sweet potato" to denote the difference to the other cultivars. About 95% of Australia's production is of the orange cultivar named'Beauregard' from North America, known as "sweet potato". A reddish-purple cultivar,'Northern Star', is 4% of production and is sold as "kumara".
The origin and domestication of sweet potato occurred in either South America. In Central America, domesticated sweet potatoes were present at least 5,000 years ago, with the origin of I. batatas between the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico and the mouth of the Orinoco River in Venezuela. The cultigen was most spread by local people to the Caribbean and South America by 2500 BCE; the sweet potato was grown in Polynesia before western exploration as the Ipomoea batatas, spread by vine cuttings rather than by seeds. Sweet potato has been radiocarbon-dated in the Cook Islands to 1400 CE. A common hypothesis is that a vine cutting was brought to central Polynesia by Polynesians who had traveled to South America and back, spread from there across Polynesia to Easter Island and New Zealand. Divergence time estimates suggest that sweet potatoes might have been present in Polynesia thousands of years before humans arrived there, although other reports dispute this. In response to a major crop failure, sweet potatoes were introduced to Fujian province of China in about 1594 from Luzon.
The growing of sweet potatoes was encouraged by the Governor Chin Hsüeh-tseng. The sweet potato was introduced to Japan, in the early 1600s. Sweet potatoes became a staple in Japan because they were important in preventing famine when rice harvests were poor. Sweet potatoes were planted in Shōgun Tokugawa Yoshimune's private garden, it was introduced to Korea in 1764. The sweet potato arrived in Europe with the Columbian exchange, it is recorded, for example, in Elinor Fettiplace's Receipt Book, compiled in England in 1604. The genome of cultivated sweet potatoes contains sequences of DNA from Agrobacterium, with genes expressed by the plants. Transgenes were observed both in related wild relatives of the sweet potato, in more distantly related wild species. Studies indicated that the sweet potato genome evolved over millennia, with eventual domestication of the crop taking advantage of natural genetic modific