Recycling codes are used to identify the material from which an item is made, to facilitate easier recycling or other reprocessing. Having a recycling code, the chasing arrows logo or a resin code on an item is not an automatic indicator that a material is recyclable but rather an explanation of what the item is; such symbols have been defined for batteries, biomatter/organic material, metals and plastics. Various countries have adopted different codes. For example, the table below shows the polymer resin codes for a country. In the United States there are fewer, as ABS is grouped in with others in group 7. Other countries have a more granular recycling code system. For example, China's polymer identification system has seven different classifications of plastic, five different symbols for post-consumer paths, 140 identification codes; the lack of codes in some countries has encouraged those who can fabricate their own plastic products, such as RepRap and other prosumer 3-D printer users, to adopt a voluntary recycling code based on the more comprehensive Chinese system.
The Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of China has defined material codes for different types of plastics in the document GB16288,2008. Resin identification code Japanese recycling symbols Waste hierarchy Waste management Food safe symbol Bag It Christie Engineering Standard – Packaging Labeling and Design for Environment Guidelines Includes lists of material codes in several countries. Packaging Material Codes Includes lists of material codes in Germany
A flip-top, swing-top, or Quillfeldt stopper is a type of closure used for bottles containing carbonated beverages, such as beer or mineral water. The mouth of the bottle is sealed by a stopper made of porcelain or plastic, fitted with a rubber gasket and held in place by a set of wires; the bottle can be opened and resealed and without the use of a bottle opener, with the wires acting in the same way as a latch clamp. The flip-top was the dominant method of sealing beer and mineral water bottles prior to the invention of the crown cork; this is sometimes called a bail closure. Prior to the creation of the flip-top bottle, bottles were made from blown glass and sealed with a cork, difficult to open by hand and unreliable for carbonated beverages such as mineral water or beer. A precursor to the flip-top, the "bail" or "Kilner" closure was invented in 1859, where a lid with gasket was held by a wire harness and sealed by a separate set of wires; the first flip-top closure was created by Charles de Quillfeldt in the United States, who filed for a patent on 30 November 1874, receiving patent number 158406.
The rights were purchased by Henry W. Putnam, he received a patent 25 April 1882, called "Trademark Lightning" and the jars became known as the lightning jars. Several other varieties have been developed; the rubber gaskets are used sometimes by guitarists as an improvised straplock. Various flip-top closures Screw cap Bung Yam, K. L. "Encyclopedia of Packaging Technology", John Wiley & Sons, 2009, ISBN 978-0-470-08704-6
Cookie jars are utilitarian or decorative ceramic or glass jars found in American and Canadian kitchens. In the United Kingdom, they are known as biscuit barrels or biscuit jars. If they are cans made out of tinplate, they are called biscuit tins. While used to store actual cookies or biscuits, they are sometimes employed to store other edible items like candy or dog treats, or non-edible items like currency. Cookie jars known as biscuit barrels or jars, have been used in England since the latter part of the 18th century, they were made of glass with metal lids. Cookie jars became popular in America around the time of the Great Depression in 1929. Early American cookie jars were made of glass with metal screw-on lids. In the 1930s, stoneware became predominant as the material for American cookie jars. Early cookie jars have simple cylindrical shapes and were painted with floral or leaf decorations or emblazoned with colorful decals; the Brush Pottery Company of Zanesville, Ohio is recognized as producing the first ceramic cookie jar.
The jar was green with the word "Cookies" embossed on the front. Most cookie jar manufacturers followed Brush's move to ceramics in the late 1930s, designs became more innovative with figures, vegetables and other whimsical interpretations such as the Hull "Little Red Riding Hood" predominating; the golden period for American cookie jar production covers the years from 1940 until 1970, with several manufacturers rising to prominence. Advertising Character Funny animal Nursery rhyme/storybook Holidays and seasons Cultural icons Everyday objects Artist Andy Warhol amassed a collection of 175 ceramic cookie jars; these were in a multitude of figures. Most were purchased at flea markets. Warhol's collection was featured in a prominent news magazine and sparked an interest in collecting cookie jars; when asked in the 1970s why he pursued the 1930s and 1940s jars, Warhol said "They are time pieces." At an auction of his apartment's contents in 1987, Warhol's collection of cookie jars realized $250,000.
Sometimes the phrase "keep your hands out of the cookie jar" is a way of telling someone to stay out of other people's business when doing so seems lucrative. In financial reporting, "cookie jar accounting" is the practice of increasing reserves during good years and eating them up during bad years; this process of income smoothing is ethical, but non-disclosure - to reach performance targets - is illegal. In computer programming, a "cookie jar" is an area of memory set aside for storing cookies. "Who Stole the Cookie from the Cookie Jar?" is an elementary school song. The American band Gym Class Heroes wrote a song called "Cookie Jar", released as a single in 2008. Jack Johnson wrote a song called "Cookie Jar", released on the album On and On South Korean girl group Red Velvet released their debut Japanese EP titled #Cookie Jar in 2017 along with its lead single of the same name. Media related to cookie jars at Wikimedia Commons Warhol's World on View: Gems to Cookie Jars Collector Found His Passion In Cookie Jars Video produced by Wisconsin Public Television
A Mason jar, named after John Landis Mason who first invented and patented it in 1858, is a molded glass jar used in home canning to preserve food. The jar's mouth has a screw thread on its outer perimeter to accept a metal ring; the band, when screwed down, presses a separate stamped tin-plated steel disc-shaped lid against the jar's rim. An integral rubber ring on the underside of the lid creates a hermetic seal; the bands and lids come with new jars, but they are sold separately. While the bands are reusable, the lids are intended for single use. Supplanted by other products and methods for commercial canning, such as tin cans and plastic containers, glass jars and metal lids are still used in home canning. Mason jars are called: ball jars, in reference to the Ball Corporation, an early and prolific manufacturer of glass canning jars fruit jars for a common content glass canning jars a generic term reflecting their material and purposeLightning fruit jars, another type of Mason jar, were not as common as the screw-thread version, but they were popular for home canning in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
In the United States, standard-size Mason jars are made of soda-lime glass and come in two sizes: regular mouth, 2 3⁄8 in inner and 2 3⁄4 in outer diameter, wide mouth, 3 in inner and 3 3⁄8 in outer diameter, versions. They are produced in a variety of volumes, including cup, pint and half-gallon. Among the most common U. S. brands of Mason jars are Ball and Golden Harvest. Jarden Corporation, based in Boca Raton, retains the license to use the Ball and Kerr registered trademarks on home-canning products as a part of its branded consumables business. At one time, Jarden may have had a license to use the Golden Harvest brand. In Canada, another division of Jarden, is the most common brand. Jarden offers its Canadian jars in metric volumes of 250 ml, 500 ml and 1 litre, it appears. Kilner – manufactured 1842, UK. Walter John Kilner may be the inventor earlier than that. Mason – registered 1858, US. Glass lid replaced with metal to indicate seal integrity, reduce cost or avoid the Kilner patent. Weck – registered 1895, Germany.
Spring clip retainers instead of a thread, glass lid. Otherwise similar to Kilner. Fowler's Vacola – registered 1915, Australia. A vacuum sealed process using a large single clip, removed after processing. In home canning, food is packed into the mason jar, leaving some empty "head space" between the level of food and the top of the jar; the lid is placed on top of the jar with the integral rubber seal resting on the rim. A band is screwed loosely over the lid, allowing steam to escape; the jar is heat sterilized in boiling water or steam and the lid is secured. The jar is allowed to cool to room temperature; the cooling of the contents creates a vacuum in the head space, pulling the lid into tight contact with the jar rim to create a hermetic seal. Once cooled, the band is removed to prevent residual water between the jar threads and the lid from rusting the band. If the jar seal is properly formed, internal vacuum will keep the lid on the jar. Most metal lids used today are domed to serve as a seal status indicator.
The vacuum in a properly sealed mason jar pulls the lid down to create a concave-shaped dome. An improper or failed seal or microbial growth will cause the dome to pop upward. French chef Nicolas Appert invented the method of preserving food by enclosing it in sealed containers. Among the earliest glass jars used for home canning were wax sealers, named in reference to the sealing wax, poured into a channel around the lip to secure a tin lid; this process, complicated and error-prone, became popular in the late 1830s or early 1840s and was used to seal fruit jars from the early 1850s until about 1890. The wax sealing process was the only one available until other sealing methods were developed, used into the early 1900s. By far the most popular and longest used form of closure for the glass canning jar was a zinc screw-on cap, the precursor to today's screw-on lids, it had a milk-glass liner, but some of the earliest lids may have had transparent glass liners. In 1858, a Vineland tinsmith named John Landis Mason invented and patented a screw finish glass jar or bottle that became known as the Mason jar From 1857, when it was first patented, to the present, Mason jars have had hundreds of variations in shape and cap design.
After it was discovered that Mason's patent had expired, many other manufacturers produced glass jars for home canning using the Mason-style jar. "Patent Nov 30th 1858," signifying the date of Mason's patent, was embossed on thousands of jars, which were made in many shapes and colors well into the 1900s. Since they were made in such quantity and used for such long periods, many of them have survived to the present day. Between 1860 and 1900, many other patents were issued for Mason jar closures; the more esoteric closures were abandoned, thus can fetch high prices in today's antique market. Mason applied for and received a United States trademark, registered on May 23, 1871, as U. S. Trademark no. 276. Letters of patent issued to Mason on May 10, 1870, for improvements to his fruit-canning jar was determined to be invalid as a result of a patent infringement case brought before the Southern District of New York on June 11, 1874; the court acknowledged that Mason had invented
A drink can is a metal container designed to hold a fixed portion of liquid such as carbonated soft drinks, alcoholic drinks, fruit juices, herbal teas, energy drinks, etc. Drink cans are made of tin-plated steel. Worldwide production for all drink cans is 370 billion cans per year worldwide; the first commercial beer available in cans began in 1935 in Virginia. Not long after that, with their higher acidity and somewhat higher pressures, were available in cans; the key development for storing drinks in cans was the interior liner plastic or sometimes a waxy substance, that helped to keep the product's flavor from being ruined by a chemical reaction with the metal. Another major factor for the timing was the repeal of Prohibition in the United States at the end of 1933. In 1935, the Felinfoel Brewery at Felinfoel in Wales was the first brewery outside the USA to commercially can beer. Prior to this time, beer was only available in glass bottles. From this time, lightweight tin cans could be used.
Felinfoel was a major supplier to British armed forces abroad in the Second World War - cans saved a great deal of space and weight for wartime exports compared to glass bottles, did not have to be returned for refilling. These early cans did not have a pull tab, instead they had a crown cork. All modern UK canned beer is descended from these small, early cans which helped change the drinking and beer-buying habits of the British public. From the 18th century until the early 20th century Wales dominated world tinplate production, peaking in the early 1890s when 80% of the world's tinplate was produced in south Wales. Canned drinks were factory-sealed and required a special opener tool in order to consume the contents. Cans were formed as cylinders, having a flat top and bottom, they required a can piercer, colloquially known as a "church key", that latched onto the top rim for leverage. A smaller second hole was punched at the opposite side of the top to admit air while pouring, allowing the liquid to flow freely.
In the mid-1930s, some cans were developed with caps so that they could be opened and poured more like a bottle. These were called "cone tops", as their tops had a conical taper up to the smaller diameter of the cap. Cone top cans were sealed by the same crimped caps that were put on bottles, could be opened with the same bottle-opener tool. There were three types of conetops: high profile, low profile, j-spout; the low profile and j-spout were the earliest, dating from about 1935. The "crowntainer" was a different type of can, drawn steel with a bottom cap; these were developed by a leading drink packaging and drink can producer. Various breweries used crowntainers and conetops until the late 1950s, but many breweries kept using the simple cylindrical cans; the popularity of canned drinks was slow to catch on, as the metallic taste was difficult to overcome with the interior liner not perfected with more acidic sodas. Cans had two advantages over glass bottles. First for the distributors, flat-top cans were more compact for transportation and storage and weighed less than bottles.
Second for consumers, they did not require the deposit paid for bottles, as they were discarded after use. Glass-bottle deposits were reimbursed. By the time the United States entered World War II, cans had gained only about ten percent of the drink container market. In 1959, the recyclable aluminum can was introduced to the market in a 7 oz. size by the Adolph Coors Company. In 1959, Ermal Fraze devised a can-opening method that would come to dominate the canned drink market, his invention was the "pull-tab". This eliminated the need for a separate opener tool by attaching an aluminium pull-ring lever with a rivet to a pre-scored wedge-shaped tab section of the can top; the ring was riveted to the center of the top, which created an elongated opening large enough that one hole served to let the drink flow out while air flowed in. In 1959, while on a family picnic, Mr. Fraze had forgotten to bring a can opener and was forced to use a car bumper to open a can of beer. Thinking there must be an easier way, he stayed up all night until he came up with the pull tab.
Pull-tab cans, or the discarded tabs from them, were called "pop-tops" colloquially. In Australia these were colloquially known as "ring-pull". Into the 1970s, the pull-tab was popular, but its popularity came with a significant problem, as people would discard the pull-tabs on the ground as litter, or drop them into the can and risk choking on them; these problems were both addressed by the invention of the "push-tab". Used on Coors Beer cans in the mid-1970s, the push-tab was a raised circular scored area used in place of the pull-tab, it needed no ring to pull up. Instead, the raised aluminium blister was pushed down into the can, with a small unscored piece that kept the tab connected after being pushed inside. Push-tabs never gained wide popularity because while they had solved the litter problem of the pull-tab, they created a safety hazard where the person's finger upon pushing the tab into the can was exposed to the sharp edges of the opening. An unusual feature of the push-tab Coors Beer cans was that they had a second, push-tab at the top as an airflow vent — a convenience, lost with the switch from can opener to pull-tab.
Boxed wine is wine packaged in a bag-in-box. Wine is contained in a plastic bladder with an air-tight valve emerging from a protective corrugated fiberboard box, it serves as an alternative to traditional wine bottling in glass with synthetic seal. It is sometimes called goon bag or "Chateau Cardboard" in Australia; the process for packaging'cask wine' was invented by Thomas Angove, a winemaker from Renmark, South Australia, patented by his company on April 20, 1965. Polyethylene bladders of 1 gallon were placed in corrugated boxes for retail sale; the original design required that the consumer cut the corner off the bladder, pour out the serving of wine and reseal it with a special peg and was based on a product on the market, a bag in a box used by mechanics to hold and transport battery acid. In 1967, Australian inventor Charles Malpas and Penfolds Wines patented a plastic, air-tight tap welded to a metallised bladder, making storage more convenient. All modern wine casks now use some sort of plastic tap, exposed by tearing away a perforated panel on the box.
For the next decades bag in a box packaging was preferred by producers of less expensive wines as it is cheaper to fabricate and distribute than glass bottles. In 2003, California Central Coast AVA–based Black Box Wines introduced mass premium wines in a box, which served to overturn the stereotype that boxed wines are an alternate packing on inexpensive jug wine. Within the decade premium wineries and bottlers began packaging their own high-quality boxed wine, including French rabbit, Bandit Wines, Octavin and hundreds of others; this coupled with an increased cultural interest in environmentally sustainable packaging has cultivated growing popularity with affluent wine consumers. During the mid-1970s, the bag in box packaging concept expanded to other beverages including spring waters, orange juices, wine coolers, however today wine and spring water are the main two beverages packed into these bags. Bag-in-box packaging is less expensive and more environmentally friendly than glass-bottled wine, as well as being easier to transport and store.
Typical bag-in-box containers hold one and a half to four 750 ml bottles of wine per box, though they come in a wide variety of volumes. The fact that wine is removed from the flexible bag without adding air to fill the vacated space reduces oxidation of the wine during dispensing. Compared to wine in a bottle which should be consumed within hours or days of opening, bag-in-box wine is not subject to cork taint and will not spoil for 3–4 weeks after breaking the seal. Wine contained in plastic bladders are not intended for cellaring and should be consumed within the manufacturer printed shelf life. Deterioration may be noticeable by 12 months after filling. In a 2007 editorial in The Sydney Morning Herald, Adele Horin criticized the lower level of alcohol excise levied on cask wine in Australia, saying it encourages binge drinking. Goon of Fortune Wine cask Franzia, brand of boxed wine Hardy Wine Company Flavored fortified wine Jug wine, inexpensive table wine