Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire
Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire was a French naturalist who established the principle of "unity of composition". He was a colleague of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and expanded and defended Lamarck's evolutionary theories. Geoffroy's scientific views had a transcendental flavor and were similar to those of German morphologists like Lorenz Oken, he believed in the underlying unity of organismal design, the possibility of the transmutation of species in time, amassing evidence for his claims through research in comparative anatomy and embryology. Geoffroy was born at Étampes, studied at the Collège de Navarre, in Paris, where he studied natural philosophy under M. J. Brisson, he attended the lectures of Daubenton at the College de France and Fourcroy at the Jardin des Plantes. In March 1793 Louis-Jean-Marie Daubenton, through the interest of Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, procured him the office of sub-keeper and assistant demonstrator of the cabinet of natural history, made vacant by the resignation of Bernard Germain Étienne de la Ville, Comte de Lacépède.
By a law passed in June 1793, Geoffroy was appointed one of the twelve professors of the newly constituted Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, being assigned the chair of zoology. In the same year he busied himself with the formation of a menagerie at that institution. In 1794, Geoffroy entered into correspondence with Georges Cuvier. Shortly after the appointment of Cuvier as assistant at the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Geoffroy received him into his house; the two friends wrote together five memoirs on natural history, one of which, on the classification of mammals, puts forward the idea of the subordination of characters upon which Cuvier based his zoological system. It was in a paper entitled Histoire des Makis, ou singes de Madagascar, written in 1795, that Geoffroy first gave expression to his views on the unity of organic composition, the influence of, perceptible in all his subsequent writings. In 1798, Geoffroy was chosen a member of Napoleon's great scientific expedition to Egypt as part of the natural history and physics section of the Institut d'Égypte.
On the capitulation of Alexandria in August 1801, he took part in resisting the claim made by the British general to the collections of the expedition, declaring that, were that demand persisted in, history would have to record that he had burnt a library in Alexandria. Early in January 1802 Geoffroy returned to Paris, he was elected a member of the French Academy of Sciences in September 1807. In March of the following year Napoleon, who had recognized his national services by the award of the cross of the legion of honor, selected him to visit the museums of Portugal, for the purpose of procuring collections from them, in the face of considerable opposition from the British he was successful in retaining them as a permanent possession for his country. In 1809, the year after his return to France, Geoffroy was made professor of zoology at the faculty of sciences at Paris, from that period he devoted himself more than before to anatomical study. In 1818 he published the first part of his celebrated Philosophie anatomique, the second volume of which, published in 1822, subsequent memoirs account for the formation of monstrosities on the principle of arrest of development, of the attraction of similar parts.
Geoffroy's friend Robert Edmund Grant shared his views on unity of plan and corresponded with him while working on marine invertebrates in the late 1820s in Edinburgh when Grant identified the pancreas in molluscs. When, in 1830, Geoffroy proceeded to apply to the invertebrata his views as to the unity of animal composition, he found a vigorous opponent in Cuvier, his former friend. Geoffroy, a synthesiser, contended, in accordance with his theory of unity of plan in organic composition, that all animals are formed of the same elements, in the same number. With Johann Wolfgang von Goethe he held that there is in nature a law of compensation or balancing of growth, so that if one organ take on an excess of development, it is at the expense of some other part, it was his conviction that, owing to the conditions of life, the same forms had not been perpetuated since the origin of all things, although it was not his belief that existing species are becoming modified. Cuvier, an analytical observer of facts, admitted only the prevalence of laws of co-existence or harmony in animal organs, maintained the absolute invariability of species, which he declared had been created with a regard to the circumstances in which they were placed, each organ contrived with a view to the function it had to fulfil, thus putting, in Geoffroy's considerations, the effect for the cause.
In 1836 he coined the term phocomelia. In July 1840, Geoffroy became blind, some months he had a paralytic attack. From that time his strength failed him, he resigned his chair at the museum in 1841, was succeeded by his son, Isidore Geoffroy Saint
An art museum or art gallery is a building or space for the display of art from the museum's own collection. It might be in public or private ownership and may be accessible to all or have restrictions in place. Although concerned with visual art, art galleries are used as a venue for other cultural exchanges and artistic activities, such as performance arts, music concerts, or poetry readings. Art museums frequently host themed temporary exhibitions which include items on loan from other collections. In distinction to a commercial art gallery, run by an art dealer, the primary purpose of an art museum is not the sale of the items on show. Throughout history and expensive works of art have been commissioned by religious institutions and monarchs and been displayed in temples and palaces. Although these collections of art were private, they were made available for viewing for a portion of the public. In classical times, religious institutions began to function as an early form of art gallery. Wealthy Roman collectors of engraved gems and other precious objects donated their collections to temples.
It is unclear. In Europe, from the Late Medieval period onwards, areas in royal palaces and large country houses of the social elite were made accessible to sections of the public, where art collections could be viewed. At the Palace of Versailles, entrance was restricted to people wearing the proper apparel – the appropriate accessories could be hired from shops outside; the treasuries of cathedrals and large churches, or parts of them, were set out for public display. Many of the grander English country houses could be toured by the respectable for a tip to the housekeeper, during the long periods when the family were not in residence. Special arrangements were made to allow the public to see many royal or private collections placed in galleries, as with most of the paintings of the Orleans Collection, which were housed in a wing of the Palais-Royal in Paris and could be visited for most of the 18th century. In Italy, the art tourism of the Grand Tour became a major industry from the 18th century onwards, cities made efforts to make their key works accessible.
The Capitoline Museums began in 1471 with a donation of classical sculpture to the city of Rome by the Papacy, while the Vatican Museums, whose collections are still owned by the Pope, trace their foundation to 1506, when the discovered Laocoön and His Sons was put on public display. A series of museums on different subjects were opened over subsequent centuries, many of the buildings of the Vatican were purpose-built as galleries. An early royal treasury opened to the public was the Grünes Gewölbe of the Kingdom of Saxony in the 1720s. Established museums open to the public began to be established from the 17th century onwards based around a collection of the cabinet of curiosities type; the first such museum was the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, opened in 1683 to house and display the artefacts of Elias Ashmole that were given to Oxford University in a bequest. In the second half of the eighteenth century, many private collections of art were opened to the public, during and after the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars many royal collections were nationalized where the monarchy remained in place, as in Spain and Bavaria.
In 1753, the British Museum was established and the Old Royal Library collection of manuscripts was donated to it for public viewing. In 1777, a proposal to the British government was put forward by MP John Wilkes to buy the art collection of the late Sir Robert Walpole who had amassed one of the greatest such collections in Europe, house it in a specially built wing of the British Museum for public viewing. After much debate, the idea was abandoned due to the great expense, twenty years the collection was bought by Tsaritsa Catherine the Great of Russia and housed in the State Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg; the Bavarian royal collection was opened to the public in 1779 and the Medici collection in Florence around 1789. The opening of the Musée du Louvre during the French Revolution in 1793 as a public museum for much of the former French royal collection marked an important stage in the development of public access to art by transferring the ownership to a republican state; the building now occupied by the Prado in Madrid was built before the French Revolution for the public display of parts of the royal art collection, similar royal galleries were opened to the public in Vienna and other capitals.
In Great Britain, the corresponding Royal Collection remained in the private hands of the monarch and the first purpose-built national art galleries were the Dulwich Picture Gallery, founded in 1814 and the National Gallery opened to the public a decade in 1824. University art museums and galleries constitute collections of art developed and maintained by all kinds of schools, community colleges and universities; this phenomenon exists in the East, making it a global practice. Although overlooked, there are over 700 university art museums in the US alone; this number, compared to other kinds of art museums, makes university art museums the largest category of art museums in the country. While the first of these collections can be traced to learning collections developed in art academies in Western Europe, they are now associated with and housed in centers of higher education of all types; the word gallery being an archite
Albert, Baron Frère was a Belgian businessman and the richest man in Belgium. Frère helped in the business since an early age, his father died when Frère was 17. At the age of 30, he started investing in Belgian steel factories and by the end of the 1970s he controlled the whole steel industry in the region of Charleroi, he foresaw the coming steel crisis of the late 1970s and sold his enterprises to the Belgian state after merging them with the competing steel firm Cockerill to create Cockerill-Sambre. Frère used the proceeds from this sale to build an investment empire around the Swiss holding company Pargesa which he founded with the Canadian investor Paul Desmarais. Pargesa took over the Belgian holding company Groupe Bruxelles Lambert in 1982 and over the year added significant stakes in such wide ranging Belgian companies as Petrofina, Royale Belge Insurance, Compagnie Luxembourgoise de Télédiffusion, Tractebel, he promoted international consolidation of the sectors in which he was involved, selling Banque Bruxelles Lambert to ING Group, Royale Belge to AXA, Tractebel to Suez, Petrofina to Total S.
A. and RTL to Bertelsmann. Frère had three children, his first wife was Nelly Depoplimont, they had a son, Gérald. His second wife was Christine Hennuy, they have had two children, Ségolène, Charles-Albert, who died in 1999, in a car accident at the age of 19. In 1995, he received the title of baron from the Belgian king Albert II, he was a co-owner, together with Bernard Arnault of LVMH, of the Château Cheval Blanc winery near Bordeaux. He was a member of the Cercle Gaulois. 2014: Knight Grand Cross in the Legion of Honour. Albert Frère in the 2009 Forbes billionaires' list A discreet dynamo; the Economist, 20 April 2006
Jardin d'Acclimatation railway
The Jardin d'Acclimatation railway is a 500 mm minimum gauge park railway, located in the Bois de Boulogne in Paris. It connects Porte Maillot and the Jardin d'Acclimatation, 800 meters apart, it was the first passenger-carrying narrow gauge railway of France. The French narrow gauge railway pioneer Paul Decauville wanted to experiment with passenger transport using his portable railways successfully introduced in the industry and agriculture. For the 1878 Exposition Universelle he proposed to use his concept for the exhibition by a line Trocadéro - Military Academy passing the Champ-de-Mars, but permission was denied, he offered the same facility at the Zoological Gardens, accepted. Two kilometers of railway line at the track gauge of 500 mm was constructed for the transportation of the exhibit visitors over a circular track, having a maximum speed of 15 km/h; the line carried up to 3000 passengers on some Sundays and received a positive response from the visitors. But for some unknown reason, the network was removed.
In 1880, a new modified line connected the garden to the Porte Maillot. It was constructed by another company and operated as a streetcar line with American vehicles hauled by ponies; these gave way to tractors in 1910. By 1930, the line was shortened at each end. Since it continues to link Porte Maillot to the garden, without being altered since then; the line featured a terminus loop at Porte Maillot, crossing the road at the Porte de Sablons, follows a route through the woods to the garden, traversed for its entire length. It was constructed in double track with each track following a different alignment, with a total track length of five kilometers. Curves had a minimum radius of eight to fifteen meters. In the early 1930s, the line was shortened at both ends; the section within the zoological garden was removed, the road section to Porte Maillot, where an underground construction was created, required relocating of the terminal along the road at Porte des Sablons. Two ponies towed the small vehicles alone or in groups of two.
Each car had eight seats, with passengers sitting back to back on longitudinal seats. In 1910, animal traction gives way to steam outlined gasoline locomotives, equipped with a driver's cab at the rear of the engine, they hauled three to four cars equipped with crossbenches facing the direction of travel. The appearance of the locomotives has evolved over the years with one resembling Renault taxis, while another retained a more classic look. In 1945, the shortage of gasoline caused the replacement of the gasoline locomotives with battery tractors, which came from the Universal Exhibition of 1937, with their wheels with tires running outside the rails. However, the gasoline locomotives were returned to service. In 1960, Renault built seven tractors with two bogies, their bodywork was steam outlined and brightly decorated. These machines measure 3.05 meters long and 1.20 meters wide, weigh five tons and reach 19 km / h with their engines of fifty-five horse-power. The trailers are those of the 1910s, the only modification being the addition of a small roof in the year 1951.
In 2010 new locomotives with electric traction came into service on the now 130-year-old railway. Decauville Minimum gauge railway Official site Photo report
A zoo is a facility in which all animals are housed within enclosures, displayed to the public, in which they may breed. The term "zoological garden" refers to zoology, the study of animals, a term deriving from the Greek'zoion, "animal," and logia, "study.". The abbreviation "zoo" was first used of the London Zoological Gardens, opened for scientific study in 1828 and to the public in 1857. In the United States alone, zoos are visited by over 180 million people annually; the London Zoo, which opened in 1826, was known as the "Gardens and Menagerie of the Zoological Society of London", it described itself as a menagerie or "zoological forest". The abbreviation "zoo" first appeared in print in the United Kingdom around 1847, when it was used for the Clifton Zoo, but it was not until some 20 years that the shortened form became popular in the song "Walking in the Zoo" by music-hall artist Alfred Vance; the term "zoological park" was used for more expansive facilities in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Washington, D.
C. and the Bronx in New York, which opened in 1847, 1891 and 1899 respectively. New terms for zoos coined in the late 20th century are "conservation park" or "biopark". Adopting a new name is a strategy used by some zoo professionals to distance their institutions from the stereotypical and nowadays criticized zoo concept of the 19th century; the term "biopark" was first coined and developed by the National Zoo in Washington D. C. in the late 1980s. In 1993, the New York Zoological Society changed its name to the Wildlife Conservation Society and rebranded the zoos under its jurisdiction as "wildlife conservation parks"; the predecessor of the zoological garden is the menagerie, which has a long history from the ancient world to modern times. The oldest known zoological collection was revealed during excavations at Hierakonpolis, Egypt in 2009, of a ca. 3500 BCE menagerie. The exotic animals included hippopotami, elephants and wildcats. King Ashur-bel-kala of the Middle Assyrian Empire created zoological and botanical gardens in the 11th century BCE.
In the 2nd century BCE, the Chinese Empress Tanki had a "house of deer" built, King Wen of Zhou kept a 1,500-acre zoo called Ling-Yu, or the Garden of Intelligence. Other well-known collectors of animals included King Solomon of the Kingdom of Israel and Judah, queen Semiramis and King Ashurbanipal of Assyria, King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylonia. By the 4th century BCE, zoos existed in most of the Greek city states; the Roman emperors kept private collections of animals for study or for use in the arena, the latter faring notoriously poorly. The 19th-century historian W. E. H. Lecky wrote of the Roman games, first held in 366 BCE: At one time, bear and a bull, chained together, rolled in fierce combat across the sand... Four hundred bears were killed in a single day under Caligula... Under Nero, four hundred tigers fought with elephants. In a single day, at the dedication of the Colosseum by Titus, five thousand animals perished. Under Trajan... lions, elephants, hippopotami, bulls, stags crocodiles and serpents were employed to give novelty to the spectacle.
Charlemagne had an elephant named Abul-Abbas, given to him by the Abbasid Caliph. Henry I of England kept a collection of animals at his palace in Woodstock which included lions and camels; the most prominent collection in medieval England was in the Tower of London, created as early as 1204 by King John I. Henry III received a wedding gift in 1235 of three leopards from Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, in 1264, the animals were moved to the Bulwark, renamed the Lion Tower, near the main western entrance of the Tower, it was opened to the public during the reign of Elizabeth I in the 16th century. During the 18th century, the price of admission was three half-pence, or the supply of a cat or dog for feeding to the lions; the animals were moved to the London Zoo. Aztec emperor Moctezuma had in his capital city of Tenochtitlan a "house of animals" with a large collection of birds and reptiles in a garden tended by more than 600 employees; the garden was described by several Spanish conquerors, including Hernán Cortés in 1520.
After the Aztec revolt against the Spanish rule, during the subsequent battle for the city, Cortés reluctantly ordered the zoo to be destroyed. The oldest zoo in the world still in existence is the Tiergarten Schönbrunn in Austria, it was constructed by Adrian van Stekhoven in 1752 at the order of the Holy Roman Emperor Francis I, husband of Maria Theresa of Austria, to serve as an imperial menagerie as part of Schönbrunn Palace. The menagerie was reserved for the viewing pleasure of the imperial family and the court, but was made accessible to the public in 1765. In 1775, a zoo was founded in Madrid, in 1795, the zoo inside the Jardin des Plantes in Paris was founded by Jacques-Henri Bernardin, with animals from the royal menagerie at Versailles for scientific research and education; the Kazan Zoo, the first zoo in Russia was founded in 1806 by the Professor of Kazan State University Karl Fuchs. Until the early 19th century, the function of the zoo was to symbolize royal power, like King Louis XIV's menagerie at Versailles.
The modern zoo that emerged in the early 19th century at Halifax, London and Dublin, was focused on providing educational exhibits to the public for entertainment and inspiration. A growing fascination for natural history and zoology, coupled with the tremendous expansion in the urbanization of London, led to a heightened demand for a greater variety of publ
Bois de Boulogne
The Bois de Boulogne is a large public park located along the western edge of the 16th arrondissement of Paris, near the suburb of Boulogne-Billancourt and Neuilly-sur-Seine. The land was ceded to the city of Paris by the Emperor Napoleon III to be turned into a public park in 1852, it is the second-largest park in Paris smaller than the Bois de Vincennes on the eastern side of the city. It covers an area of 845 hectares, about two and a half times the area of Central Park in New York and less than that of Richmond Park in London. Within the boundaries of the Bois de Boulogne are an English landscape garden with several lakes and a cascade; the Bois de Boulogne is a remnant of the ancient oak forest of Rouvray, which included the present-day forests of Montmorency, Saint-Germain-en-Laye and Meudon. Dagobert, the King of the Franks, hunted bears and other game in the forest, his grandson, Childeric II, gave the forest to the monks of the Abbey of Saint-Denis, who founded several monastic communities there.
Philip Augustus bought back the main part of the forest from the monks to create a royal hunting reserve. In 1256, Isabelle de France, sister of Saint-Louis, founded the Abbey of Longchamp at the site of the present hippodrome; the Bois received its present name from a chapel, Notre Dame de Boulogne la Petite, built in the forest at the command of Philip IV of France. In 1308, Philip made a pilgrimage to Boulogne-sur-Mer, on the French coast, to see a statue of the Virgin Mary, reputed to inspire miracles, he decided to build a church with a copy of the statue in a village in the forest not far from Paris, in order to attract pilgrims. The chapel was built after Philip's death between 1319 and 1330, in what is now Boulogne-Billancourt. During the Hundred Years' War, the forest became a sanctuary for robbers and sometimes a battleground. In 1416-17, the soldiers of John the Fearless, the Duke of Burgundy, burned part of the forest in their successful campaign to capture Paris. Under Louis XI, the trees were replanted, two roads were opened through the forest.
In 1526, King Francis I of France began a royal residence, the Château de Madrid, in the forest in what is now Neuilly and used it for hunting and festivities. It took its name from a similar palace in Madrid, where Francis had been held prisoner for several months; the Chateau was used by monarchs, fell into ruins in the 18th century, was demolished after the French Revolution. Despite its royal status, the forest remained dangerous for travelers. During the reigns of Henry II and Henry III, the forest was enclosed within a wall with eight gates. Henry IV planted 15,000 mulberry trees, with the hope of beginning a local silk industry; when Henry annulled his marriage to Marguerite de Valois, she went to live in the Château de la Muette, on the edge of the forest. In the early 18th century and important women retired to the convent of the Abbey of Longchamp, located where the hippodrome now stands. A famous opera singer of the period, Madmoiselle Le Maure, retired there in 1727 but continued to give recitals inside the Abbey during Holy Week.
These concerts drew large crowds and irritated the Archibishop of Paris, who closed the Abbey to the public. Louis XVI and his family used the forest as a hunting pleasure garden. In 1777, the Comte d'Artois, Louis XVI's brother, built a charming miniature palace, the Château de Bagatelle, in the Bois in just 64 days, on a wager from his sister-in-law, Marie Antoinette. Louis XVI opened the walled park to the public for the first time. On 21 November 1783, Pilâtre de Rozier and the Marquis d'Arlandes took off from the Chateau de la Muette in a hot air balloon made by the Montgolfier brothers. Previous flights had been tethered to the ground; the balloon rose to a height of 910 meters, was in the air for 25 minutes, covered nine kilometers. Following the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1814, 40,000 soldiers of the British and Russian armies camped in the forest. Thousands of trees were cut down to build shelters and for firewood. From 1815 until the French Second Republic, the Bois was empty, an assortment of bleak ruined meadows and tree stumps where the British and Russians had camped and dismal stagnant ponds.
The Bois de Boulogne was the idea of Napoleon III, shortly after he staged a coup d'état and elevated himself from the President of the French Republic to Emperor of the French in 1852. When Napoleon III became Emperor, Paris had only four public parks - the Tuileries Gardens, the Luxembourg Garden, the Palais-Royal, the Jardin des Plantes - all in the center of the city. There were no public parks in the growing east and west of the city. During his exile in London, he had been impressed by Hyde Park, by its lakes and streams and its popularity with Londoners of all social classes. Therefore, he decided to build two large public parks on the eastern and western edges of the city where both the rich and ordinary people coul
The Zulu are a Bantu ethnic group of Southern Africa and the largest ethnic group in South Africa, with an estimated 10–12 million people living in the province of KwaZulu-Natal. Small numbers live in Zimbabwe, Zambia and Mozambique; the Zulu were a major clan in what is today Northern KwaZulu-Natal, founded ca. 1709 by Zulu kaMalandela. In the Nguni languages, iZulu means weather. At that time, the area clans. Nguni communities had migrated down Africa's east coast over centuries, as part of the Bantu migrations The Zulu formed a powerful state in 1818 under the leader Shaka. Shaka, as the Zulu King, gained a large amount of power over the tribe; as commander in the army of the powerful Mthethwa Empire, he became leader of his mentor Dingiswayo's paramouncy and united what was once a confederation of tribes into an imposing empire under Zulu hegemony. Zulu expansion was a major factor of the Mfecane. In mid-December of 1878, envoys of the British crown delivered an ultimatum to 11 chiefs representing the then-current king of the Zulu empire, Cetshwayo.
Under the British terms delivered to the Zulu, Cetshwayo would have been required to disband his army and accept British sovereignty. Cetshwayo refused, war between the Zulus and African contingents of the British crown began on January 12th, 1879. Despite an early victory for the Zulus at the Battle of Isandlwana on the 22nd of January, the British fought back and won the Battle at Rorke's Drift, definitively defeated the Zulu army by July at the Battle of Ulundi. After Cetshwayo's capture a month following his defeat, the British divided the Zulu Empire into 13 "kinglets"; the sub-kingdoms fought amongst each other until 1883 when Cetshwayo was reinstated as king over Zululand. This still did not stop the fighting and the Zulu monarch was forced to flee his realm by Zibhebhu, one of the 13 kinglets, supported by Boer mercenaries. Cetshwayo died in February 1884, killed by Zibhebhu's regime, leaving his son, the 15-year-old Dinuzulu, to inherit the throne. In-fighting between the Zulu continued for years, until Zululand was absorbed into the British colony of Natal.
Under apartheid, the homeland of KwaZulu was created for Zulu people. In 1970, the Bantu Homeland Citizenship Act provided that all Zulus would become citizens of KwaZulu, losing their South African citizenship. KwaZulu consisted in what is now KwaZulu-Natal. Hundreds of thousands of Zulu people living on owned "black spots" outside of KwaZulu were dispossessed and forcibly moved to bantustans – worse land reserved for whites contiguous to existing areas of KwaZulu. By 1993 5.2 million Zulu people lived in KwaZulu, 2 million lived in the rest of South Africa. The Chief Minister of KwaZulu, from its creation in 1970 was Chief Mangosuthu Buthelezi. In 1994, KwaZulu was joined with the province of Natal. Inkatha YeSizwe means "the crown of the nation". In 1975, Buthelezi revived the Inkatha YaKwaZulu, predecessor of the Inkatha Freedom Party; this organization was nominally a protest movement against apartheid, but held more conservative views than the ANC. For example, Inkatha was opposed to the armed struggle, to sanctions against South Africa.
Inkatha was on good terms with the ANC, but the two organizations came into increasing conflict beginning in 1976 in the aftermath of the Soweto Uprising. The modern Zulu population is evenly distributed in both urban and rural areas. Although KwaZulu-Natal is still their heartland, large numbers have been attracted to the relative economic prosperity of Gauteng province. Indeed, Zulu is the most spoken home language in the province, followed by Sotho; the language of the Zulu people is "isiZulu", a Bantu language. Zulu is the most spoken language in South Africa, where it is an official language. More than half of the South African population are able to understand it, with over 9 million first-language and over 15 million second-language speakers. Many Zulu people speak Xitsonga and others from among South Africa's 11 official languages. Zulus wear a variety of attire, both traditional for ceremonial or culturally celebratory occasions, modern westernized clothing for everyday use; the women engaged, or married.
The men wore a leather belt with two strips of hide hanging down back. Most Zulu people state their beliefs to be Christian; some of the most common churches to which they belong are African Initiated Churches the Zion Christian Church, United African Apostolic Church, although membership of major European Churches, such as the Dutch Reformed and Catholic Churches are common. Many Zulus retain their traditional pre-Christian belief system of ancestor worship in parallel with their Christianity. Zulu religion includes belief in a creator God, above interacting in day-to-day human life, although this belief appears to have originated from efforts by early Christian missionaries to frame the idea of the Christian God in Zulu terms. Traditionally, the more held Zulu belief was in ancestor spirits, who had the power to intervene in people's lives, for good or ill; this belief continues to be widespread among the modern Zulu population. Traditionally, the Zulu recognize several elements to b