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Jargon

Jargon is the specialized terminology associated with a particular field or area of activity. Jargon is employed in a particular communicative context and may not be well understood outside that context; the context is a particular occupation, but any ingroup can have jargon. The main trait that distinguishes jargon from the rest of a language is special vocabulary—including some words specific to it, different senses or meanings of words, that outgroups would tend to take in another sense—therefore misunderstanding that communication attempt. Jargon is sometimes understood as a form of technical slang and distinguished from the official terminology used in a particular field of activity; the terms jargon and argot are not differentiated in the literature. According to one definition, jargon differs from slang in being secretive in nature; some sources, treat these terms as synonymous. In Russian linguistics, jargon is classified as an expressive form of language, while secret languages are referred to as argots.

Jargon is "the technical terminology or characteristic idiom of a special activity or group". Most jargon is technical terminology, involving terms of art or industry terms, with particular meaning within a specific industry. A main driving force in the creation of technical jargon is precision and efficiency of communication, when a discussion must range from general themes to specific, finely differentiated details without circumlocution. Jargon enriches everyday vocabulary with meaningful content and can become a catchword. While jargon allows greater efficiency in communication among those familiar with it, a side-effect is that it raises the threshold of comprehensibility for outsiders; this is accepted as an unavoidable trade-off, but it may be used as a means of social exclusion or social aspiration. Some academics promote the use of jargon-free language, as an audience may be alienated or confused by the technical terminology, thus lose track of a speaker or writer's broader and more important arguments.

The French word is believed to have been derived from the Latin word gaggire, meaning "to chatter", used to describe speech that the listener did not understand. The word may come from Old French jargon meaning "chatter of birds". Middle English has the verb jargounen meaning "to chatter," or "twittering," deriving from Old French; the first use of the word dates back to the usage of the word in The Canterbury Tales written by Geoffrey Chaucer between 1387 and 1400. Chaucer sounds resembling birds. In colonial history, jargon was seen as a device of communication to bridge the gap between two speakers who did not speak the same tongue. Jargon was synonymous with pidgin in naming specific language usages. Jargon began to have a negative connotation with lacking coherent grammar, or gibberish as it was seen as a "broken" language of many different languages with no full community to call their own. In the 1980s, linguists began restricting this usage of jargon to keep the word to more define a technical or specialized language use.

The term is used interchangeably, with the term buzzword when examining organizational culture. In linguistics, it is used to mean "specialist language," with the term seen as related to slang and cant. Various kinds of language peculiar to ingroups can be named across a semantic field. Slang can be either known only within a certain group or subculture. Argot is jargon purposely used to obscure meaning to outsiders. Conversely, a lingua franca is used for the opposite effect, helping communicators to overcome unintelligibility, as are pidgins and creole languages. For example, the Chinook Jargon was a pidgin. Although technical jargon's primary purpose is to aid technical communication, not to exclude outsiders by serving as an argot, it can have both effects at once and can provide a technical ingroup with shibboleths. For example, medieval guilds could use this as one means of informal protectionism. On the other hand, jargon that once was obscure outside a small ingroup can become known over time.

For example, the terms bit and hexadecimal are now recognized by many people outside computer science. The philosopher Étienne Bonnot de Condillac observed in 1782 that "every science requires a special language because every science has its own ideas"; as a rationalist member of the Enlightenment, he continued: "It seems that one ought to begin by composing this language, but people begin by speaking and writing, the language remains to be composed." "An industry term... is a type of technical terminology that has a particular meaning in a specific industry. It implies that a word or phrase is a typical one in a particular industry and people working in the respective industry or business will be familiar with and use the term."Precise technical terms and their definitions are formally recognized and taught by educators in the field. Other terms are more colloquial and used by practitioners in the field, are similar to slang; the boundaries between formal and slang jargon, as in general English, are quite fluid.

This is true in the developing world of computers and networking. For instance, the term firewall was at first technical sl

Twenty pence (British coin)

The British decimal twenty pence coin – pronounced "twenty pee" – is a unit of currency equal to 20/100 of a pound sterling. Like the 50p coin, it is an equilateral curve heptagon, its obverse has featured the profile of Queen Elizabeth II since the coin's introduction on 9 June 1982. Four different portraits of the Queen have been used; the second and current reverse, featuring a segment of the Royal Shield, was introduced in 2008. Twenty and fifty pence coins are legal tender only up to the sum of £10; as of March 2014 there were an estimated 2,765 million 20p coins in circulation, with an estimated face value of £553.025 million. Of this estimated number, between 50,000 and 200,000 of these coins are undated mule coins minted in 2008 after the dies for the old and new designs were accidentally mixed up during the minting process. Beyond the usual commemorative versions, no 20 pence coins were minted for general circulation in 2017; this was because the concurrent introduction of the new version of the one pound coin had put enough 20 pence coins back into circulation, as people emptied coin jars for the older one pound coin, due to be withdrawn.

The original reverse of the coin, designed by William Gardner, used from 1982 to 2008, is a crowned Tudor rose, with the numeral "20" below the rose, TWENTY PENCE above the rose. To date, three different obverses have been used. On coins minted before the 2008 redesign, the inscription is ELIZABETH II D. G. REG. F. D.. Coins minted after the 2008 redesign have the year of minting on the obverse. Like all the new decimal coins introduced in 1971, until 1984 the portrait of Queen Elizabeth II by Arnold Machin appeared on the obverse, in which the Queen wears the'Girls of Great Britain and Ireland' Tiara. Between 1985 and 1997 the portrait by Raphael Maklouf was used, in which the Queen wears the George IV State Diadem. From 1998 to 2015 the portrait by Ian Rank-Broadley was used, again featuring the tiara, with a signature-mark IRB below the portrait; as of June 2015, coins bearing the portrait by Jody Clark have been seen in circulation. In August 2005 the Royal Mint launched a competition to find new reverse designs for all circulating coins apart from the £2 coin.

The winner, announced in April 2008, was Matthew Dent, whose designs were introduced into the circulating British coinage from mid-2008. The designs for the 1p, 2p, 5p, 10p, 20p and 50p coins depict sections of the Royal Shield that form the whole shield when placed together; the shield in its entirety was featured on the now-obsolete round £1 coin. The 20p coin depicts the meeting point of the second and fourth quarter of the shield, showing the lions rampant of Scotland and the lions passant of England; the date no longer appears on the reverse of the coin, has instead been added to the obverse, where the lettering has been adjusted so as to fit the date in. An unusual accidental dateless version of the 20 pence was reported to be in circulation in June 2009, the first undated British coin to enter circulation in more than 300 years; this was the result of the production of a mule, i.e. a version of the coin with a non-standard combination of obverse and reverse face designs. The fault occurred as a result of the 2008 redesign of UK coinage, which moved the date on a 20 pence from the reverse to the obverse, a batch of coins were produced using the tooling for the obverse of the old design and the reverse of the new design.

The Royal Mint estimated that between 50,000 and 200,000 entered circulation before the error was noticed. The Royal Mint stated that these coins were legal tender, although due to their rarity they are traded at above face value by collectors. Following publicity about the coins, they were traded on eBay for several thousand pounds, although an eBay spokesman was unable to confirm if an accepted winning bid of £7,100 for one coin had been transacted. In June 2011 they trade at around £100. Machin portrait Maklouf portrait Rank-Broadley portrait Matthew Dent design Jody Clark portrait Royal Mint – 20p coin Coins of the UK – Decimal 20p Coin Twenty Pence, Coin Type from United Kingdom - Online Coin Club

List of breweries in Nevada

This is a list of breweries in Nevada, both current and defunct. Brewing companies produce a range of beers in different styles that are marketed locally and internationally. Brewing companies vary in the volume and variety of beer produced being small nanobreweries and microbreweries or nationally-owned brewpubs. In 2012, Nevada's 27 brewing establishments employed 130 people directly, more than 10,000 others in related jobs such as wholesaling and retailing. Altogether 19 people in Nevada had active brewer permits in 2012. Including people directly employed in brewing, as well as those who supply Nevada's breweries with everything from ingredients to machinery, the total business and personal tax revenue generated by Nevada's breweries and related industries was more than $286 million. Consumer purchases of Nevada's brewery products generated more than $124 million extra in tax revenue. In 2012, according to the Brewers Association, Nevada ranked 24th in the number of craft breweries per capita with 21.

For context, at the end of 2013 there were 2,822 breweries in the United States, including 2,768 craft breweries subdivided into 1,237 brewpubs, 1,412 microbreweries and 119 regional craft breweries. In that same year, according to the Beer Institute, the brewing industry employed around 43,000 Americans in brewing and distribution and had a combined economic impact of more than $246 billion. Brewing in the Nevada predates statehood, as the Carson City Brewery opened in 1860 four years before admission to the Union. Brewing in Nevada ceased with statewide prohibition starting one year prior to nationwide prohibition. Only Carson Brewery and Reno Brewery remained to continue production in the 1930s, but statewide beer production had ceased in 1957. Breweries have regained popularity in the state since brewpubs were legalized in 1993. Buckbean Brewery-Reno-CLOSED Great Basin Brewing Company and Sparks Triple 7 Restaurant and Brewery, Las Vegas Joseph James Brewing Company, Henderson Holy Cow Brewery, Las Vegas Ellis Island Casino & Brewery, Las Vegas Able Baker Brewing, Downtown Las Vegas CraftHaus Brewery and Downtown Las Vegas Bad Beat Brewing, Henderson Astronomy Ale Works, Henderson Big Dog's Brewing, North Las Vegas Scenic Brewing, Summerlin Lovelady Brewing, Henderson Hop Nuts Brewing, Downtown Las Vegas BJ's Restaurant & Brewery Gordon Biersch Brewery Restaurant Beer in the United States List of breweries in the United States List of microbreweries Nevada Brewers Guild Nevada brewers, ratebeer.com Beer guide for Las Vegas - Nevada Reno Tahoe Craft Brewery Map - Interactive