A reef is a bar of rock, coral or similar material, lying beneath the surface of water. Many reefs result from natural, abiotic processes—deposition of sand, wave erosion planing down rock outcrops, etc.—but the best known reefs are the coral reefs of tropical waters developed through biotic processes dominated by corals and coralline algae. Artificial reefs sometimes have a role in enhancing the physical complexity of featureless sand bottoms, in order to attract a diverse assemblage of organisms algae and fish. Earth's largest reef system is the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, at a length of over 2,300 kilometres. There is a variety of biotic reef types, including oyster reefs and sponge reefs, but the most massive and distributed are tropical coral reefs. Although corals are major contributors to the framework and bulk material comprising a coral reef; these biotic reef types take on additional names depending upon how the reef lies in relation to the land, if any. Reef types include fringing reefs, barrier reefs, atolls.
A fringing reef is a reef, attached to an island. A barrier reef forms a calcareous barrier around an island resulting in a lagoon between the shore and the reef. An atoll is a ring reef with no land present; the reef front is a high energy locale whereas the internal lagoon will be at a lower energy with fine grained sediments. Ancient reefs buried within stratigraphic sections are of considerable interest to geologists because they provide paleo-environmental information about the location in Earth's history. In addition, reef structures within a sequence of sedimentary rocks provide a discontinuity which may serve as a trap or conduit for fossil fuels or mineralizing fluids to form petroleum or ore deposits. Corals, including some major extinct groups Rugosa and Tabulata, have been important reef builders through much of the Phanerozoic since the Ordovician Period. However, other organism groups, such as calcifying algae members of the red algae Rhodophyta, molluscs have created massive structures at various times.
During the Cambrian Period, the conical or tubular skeletons of Archaeocyatha, an extinct group of uncertain affinities, built reefs. Other groups, such as the Bryozoa have been important interstitial organisms, living between the framework builders; the corals which build reefs today, the Scleractinia, arose after the Permian–Triassic extinction event that wiped out the earlier rugose corals, became important reef builders throughout the Mesozoic Era. They may have arisen from a rugose coral ancestor. Rugose corals built their skeletons of calcite and have a different symmetry from that of the scleractinian corals, whose skeletons are aragonite. However, there are some unusual examples of well-preserved aragonitic rugose corals in the late Permian. In addition, calcite has been reported in the initial post-larval calcification in a few scleractinian corals. Scleractinian corals may have arisen from a non-calcifying ancestor independent of the rugosan corals. One useful definition distinguishes reefs from mounds as follows: Both are considered to be varieties of organosedimentary buildups – sedimentary features, built by the interaction of organisms and their environment, that have synoptic relief and whose biotic composition differs from that found on and beneath the surrounding sea floor.
Reefs are held up by a macroscopic skeletal framework. Coral reefs are an example of this kind. Corals and calcareous algae grow on top of one another and form a three-dimensional framework, modified in various ways by other organisms and inorganic processes. By contrast, mounds lack a macroscopic skeletal framework. Mounds are built by organisms that don't grow a skeletal framework. A microbial mound might be built or by cyanobacteria. Examples of biostromes formed by cyanobacteria occur in the Great Salt Lake in Utah, in Shark Bay on the coast of Western Australia. Cyanobacteria do not have skeletons, individuals are microscopic. Cyanobacteria can encourage the precipitation or accumulation of calcium carbonate to produce distinct sediment bodies in composition that have relief on the seafloor. Cyanobacterial mounds were most abundant before the evolution of shelly macroscopic organisms, but they still exist today. Bryozoans and crinoids, common contributors to marine sediments during the Mississippian, for instance, produced a different kind of mound.
Bryozoans are small and the skeletons of crinoids disintegrate. However and crinoid meadows can persist over time and produce compositionally distinct bodies of sediment with depositional relief; the Proterozoic Belt Supergroup contains evidence of possible microbial mat and dome structures similar to stromatolite reef complexes. Benjamin Kahn Coral reef Reef Hobbyist Magazine Placer Pseudo-atoll Shears N. T. Biogeography, community structure and biological habitat types of subtidal reefs on the South Island West Coast, New Zealand. Science for Conservation 281. P 53. Department of Conservation, New Zealand. Reef Rescue - Smithsonian Ocean Portal Coral Reefs of the Tropics: facts and movies from The Nature Conservancy NOAA Photo Library Reef Environmental Education Foundation NOS Data Explorer - A portal to obtain NOAA National Ocean Service data Reef formation Atoll
Midway Atoll is a 2.4-square-mile atoll in the North Pacific Ocean at 28°12′N 177°21′W. Midway is equidistant between North America and Asia. Midway Atoll is an unincorporated territory of the United States. Midway continues to be the only island in the Hawaiian archipelago, not part of the state of Hawaii. Unlike the other Hawaiian islands, Midway observes Samoa Time, one hour behind the time in the state of Hawaii. For statistical purposes, Midway is grouped as one of the United States Minor Outlying Islands; the Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, encompassing 590,991.50 acres of land and water in the surrounding area, is administered by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. The refuge and most of its surrounding area are part of the larger Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument; until 1993, the atoll was the home of the Naval Air Facility Midway Island. The Battle of Midway, fought between June 4 and 6, 1942, was a critical Allied victory of the Pacific campaign of World War II.
The United States Navy defended the atoll from a Japanese invasion, defeating a Japanese battle group, marking a turning point in the war in the Pacific Theater. USAAF aircraft based at the original Henderson Field on Eastern Island joined the attack against the Japanese fleet, which suffered losses of four carriers and one heavy cruiser. 40 to 60 people live on the atoll, which includes staff of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and contract workers. Visitation to the atoll is possible only for business reasons as the tourism program has been suspended due to budget cutbacks. In 2012, the last year that the visitor program was in operation, 332 people made the trip to Midway. Tours focused on both the unique ecology of Midway as well as its military history; the economy is derived from governmental sources and tourist fees. Nearly all supplies must be brought to the island by ship or plane, though a hydroponic greenhouse and garden supply some fresh fruits and vegetables; as its name suggests, Midway is equidistant between North America and Asia, lies halfway around the world longitudinally from Greenwich, UK.
It is near the northwestern end of the Hawaiian archipelago, about one-third of the way from Honolulu, Hawaii, to Tokyo, Japan. Midway island is not considered part of the State of Hawaii due to the passage of the Hawaii Organic Act, which formally annexed Hawaii to the United States as a territory, only defined Hawaii as "the islands acquired by the United States of America under an Act of Congress entitled'Joint resolution to provide for annexing the Hawaiian Islands to the United States,' approved July seventh, eighteen hundred and ninety-eight." Although it could be argued that Midway became part of Hawaii when Middlebrooks discovered it in 1859, it was assumed at the time that Midway was independently acquired by the U. S. when Reynolds visited in 1867, so was not considered part of the Territory. In defining which islands the State of Hawaii would inherit from the Territory, the Hawaii Admissions Act clarified the question excluding Midway from the jurisdiction of the state. Midway Atoll is 140 nautical miles east of the International Date Line, about 2,800 nautical miles west of San Francisco, 2,200 nautical miles east of Tokyo.
Midway Atoll is part of a chain of volcanic islands and seamounts extending from Hawaii up to the tip of the Aleutian Islands and known as the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain. It consists of a ring-shaped barrier reef nearly five miles in diameter and several sand islets; the two significant pieces of land, Sand Island and Eastern Island, provide a habitat for millions of seabirds. The island sizes are shown in the table above; the atoll, which has a small population, is designated an insular area under the authority of the United States Department of the Interior. Midway was formed 28 million years ago when the seabed underneath it was over the same hotspot from which the Island of Hawaii is now being formed. In fact, Midway was once a shield volcano as large as the island of Lana'i; as the volcano piled up lava flows building the island, its weight depressed the crust and the island subsided over a period of millions of years, a process known as isostatic adjustment. As the island subsided, a coral reef around the former volcanic island was able to maintain itself near sea level by growing upwards.
That reef is now over 516 feet thick. What remains today is a shallow water atoll about 6 miles across. Following Kure Atoll, Midway is the 2nd most northerly atoll in the world; the atoll has some 20 miles of roads, 4.8 miles of pipelines, one port on Sand Island, an airfield. As of 2004, Henderson Field airfield at Midway Atoll, with its one active runway has been designated as an emergency diversion airport for aircraft flying under ETOPS rules. Although the FWS closed all airport operations on November 22, 2004, public access to the island was restored from March 2008. Eastern Island Airstrip is a disused airfield, in use by U. S. forces during the
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives. It is characterized by both biological features. A species' habitat is those places where it can find food, shelter and mates for reproduction; the physical factors are for example soil, range of temperature, light intensity as well as biotic factors such as the availability of food and the presence or absence of predators. Every organism has certain habitat needs for the conditions in which it will thrive, but some are tolerant of wide variations while others are specific in their requirements. A habitat is not a geographical area, it can be the interior of a stem, a rotten log, a rock or a clump of moss, for a parasitic organism it is the body of its host, part of the host's body such as the digestive tract, or a single cell within the host's body. Habitat types include polar, temperate and tropical; the terrestrial vegetation type may be forest, grassland, semi-arid or desert. Fresh water habitats include marshes, rivers and ponds, marine habitats include salt marshes, the coast, the intertidal zone, reefs, the open sea, the sea bed, deep water and submarine vents.
Habitats change over time. This may be due to a violent event such as the eruption of a volcano, an earthquake, a tsunami, a wildfire or a change in oceanic currents. Other changes come as a direct result of human activities; the introduction of alien species can have a devastating effect on native wildlife, through increased predation, through competition for resources or through the introduction of pests and diseases to which the native species have no immunity. The word "habitat" has been in use since about 1755 and derives from the Latin habitāre, to inhabit, from habēre, to have or to hold. Habitat can be defined as the natural environment of an organism, the type of place in which it is natural for it to live and grow, it is similar in meaning to a biotope. The chief environmental factors affecting the distribution of living organisms are temperature, climate, soil type and light intensity, the presence or absence of all the requirements that the organism needs to sustain it. Speaking, animal communities are reliant on specific types of plant communities.
Some plants and animals are generalists, their habitat requirements are met in a wide range of locations. The small white butterfly for example is found on all the continents of the world apart from Antarctica, its larvae feed on a wide range of Brassicas and various other plant species, it thrives in any open location with diverse plant associations. The large blue butterfly is much more specific in its requirements. Disturbance is important in the creation of biodiverse habitats. In the absence of disturbance, a climax vegetation cover develops that prevents the establishment of other species. Wildflower meadows are sometimes created by conservationists but most of the flowering plants used are either annuals or biennials and disappear after a few years in the absence of patches of bare ground on which their seedlings can grow. Lightning strikes and toppled trees in tropical forests allow species richness to be maintained as pioneering species move in to fill the gaps created. Coastal habitats can become dominated by kelp until the seabed is disturbed by a storm and the algae swept away, or shifting sediment exposes new areas for colonisation.
Another cause of disturbance is when an area may be overwhelmed by an invasive introduced species, not kept under control by natural enemies in its new habitat. Terrestrial habitat types include forests, grasslands and deserts. Within these broad biomes are more specific habitats with varying climate types, temperature regimes, soils and vegetation types. Many of these habitats grade into each other and each one has its own typical communities of plants and animals. A habitat may suit a particular species well, but its presence or absence at any particular location depends to some extent on chance, on its dispersal abilities and its efficiency as a coloniser. Freshwater habitats include rivers, lakes, ponds and bogs. Although some organisms are found across most of these habitats, the majority have more specific requirements; the water velocity, its temperature and oxygen saturation are important factors, but in river systems, there are fast and slow sections, pools and backwaters which provide a range of habitats.
Aquatic plants can be floating, semi-submerged, submerged or grow in permanently or temporarily saturated soils besides bodies of water. Marginal plants provide important habitat for both invertebrates and vertebrates, submerged plants provide oxygenation of the water, absorb nutrients and play a part in the reduction of pollution. Marine habitats include brackish water, bays, the open sea, the intertidal zone, the sea bed and deep / shallow water zones. Further variations include rock pools, sand banks, brackish lagoons and pebbly beaches, seagrass beds, all supporting their own flora and fauna; the benth
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland. The United Kingdom, having financed the European coalition that defeated France during the Napoleonic Wars, developed a large Royal Navy that enabled the British Empire to become the foremost world power for the next century; the Crimean War with Russia and the Boer wars were small operations in a peaceful century. Rapid industrialisation that began in the decades prior to the state's formation continued up until the mid-19th century; the Great Irish Famine, exacerbated by government inaction in the mid-19th century, led to demographic collapse in much of Ireland and increased calls for Irish land reform. The 19th century was an era of rapid economic modernisation and growth of industry and finance, in which Britain dominated the world economy. Outward migration was heavy to the United States; the empire was expanded into much of South Asia. The Colonial Office and India Office ruled through a small number of administrators who managed the units of the empire locally, while democratic institutions began to develop.
British India, by far the most important overseas possession, saw a short-lived revolt in 1857. In overseas policy, the central policy was free trade, which enabled British and Irish financiers and merchants to operate in many otherwise independent countries, as in South America. London formed no permanent military alliances until the early 20th century, when it began to cooperate with Japan and Russia, moved closer to the United States. Growing desire for Irish self-governance led to the Irish War of Independence, which resulted in most of Ireland seceding from the Union and forming the Irish Free State in 1922. Northern Ireland remained part of the Union, the state was renamed to the current "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" in 1927; the modern-day United Kingdom is the same country as the one from this period—a direct continuation of what remained after the secession—not an new successor state. A brief period of limited independence for Ireland came to an end following the Irish Rebellion of 1798, which occurred during the British war with revolutionary France.
The British government's fear of an independent Ireland siding against them with the French resulted in the decision to unite the two countries. This was brought about by legislation in the parliaments of both kingdoms and came into effect on 1 January 1801; the Irish had been led to believe by the British that their loss of legislative independence would be compensated with Catholic emancipation, that is, by the removal of civil disabilities placed upon Roman Catholics in both Great Britain and Ireland. However, King George III was bitterly opposed to any such Emancipation and succeeded in defeating his government's attempts to introduce it. During the War of the Second Coalition, Britain occupied most of the French and Dutch overseas possessions, the Netherlands having become a satellite state of France in 1796, but tropical diseases claimed the lives of over 40,000 troops; when the Treaty of Amiens ended the war, Britain agreed to return most of the territories it had seized. The peace settlement was in effect only a ceasefire, Napoleon continued to provoke the British by attempting a trade embargo on the country and by occupying the city of Hanover, capital of the Electorate, a German-speaking duchy, in a personal union with the United Kingdom.
In May 1803, war was declared again. Napoleon's plans to invade Great Britain failed, chiefly due to the inferiority of his navy, in 1805 a Royal Navy fleet led by Nelson decisively defeated the French and Spanish at Trafalgar, the last significant naval action of the Napoleonic Wars. In 1806, Napoleon issued the series of Berlin Decrees, which brought into effect the Continental System; this policy aimed to eliminate the threat from the British by closing French-controlled territory to foreign trade. The British Army remained a minimal threat to France. Although the Royal Navy disrupted France's extra-continental trade—both by seizing and threatening French shipping and by seizing French colonial possessions—it could do nothing about France's trade with the major continental economies and posed little threat to French territory in Europe. France's population and agricultural capacity far outstripped that of the British Isles, but it was smaller in terms of industry, mercantile marine and naval strength.
Napoleon expected that cutting Britain off from the European mainland would end its economic hegemony. On the contrary Britain possessed the greatest industrial capacity in the world, its mastery of the seas allowed it to build up considerable economic strength through trade to its possessions and the United States; the Spanish uprising in 1808 at last permitted Britain to gain a foothold on the Continent. The Duke of Wellington pushed the French out of Spain, in early 1814, as Napoleon was being driven back in the east by the Prussians and Russians, Wellington invaded southern France. After Napoleon's surrender and exile to the island of Elba, peace appeared to have returned. Napoleon reappeared in 1815; the Allies united and the armies of Wellington and Blücher defeated Napoleon once and for all at Waterloo. To defeat France, Britain put heavy pressure on the Americans
American Samoa is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of Samoa. Its location is centered around 14.2710° S, 170.1322° W. It is on the eastern border of the International Date Line. American Samoa consists of two coral atolls; the largest and most populous island is Tutuila, with the Manuʻa Islands, Rose Atoll, Swains Island included in the territory. All islands except for Swains Island are part of the Samoan Islands, located west of the Cook Islands, north of Tonga, some 300 miles south of Tokelau. To the west are the islands of the Wallis and Futuna group; as of April 2019 the population of American Samoa is 55,689 people. Most of them are "nationals but not citizens of the United States at birth". Most American Samoans can speak English and Samoan fluently. Samoan is the same language spoken in neighboring independent Samoa; the total land area is 199 square kilometers more than Washington, D. C. American Samoa is the southernmost territory of the United States and one of two U.
S. territories south of the Equator, along with the uninhabited Jarvis Island. Tuna products are the main exports, the main trading partner is the United States. American Samoa has been a member of the Pacific Community since 1983. During the 1918 flu pandemic, Governor John Martin Poyer quarantined the territory, because of his actions, American Samoa was one of the few places in the world where no flu-related deaths occurred. American Samoa is noted for having the highest rate of military enlistment of any U. S. state or territory. As of September 9, 2014, the local U. S. Army recruiting station in Pago Pago was ranked first in production out of the 885 Army recruiting stations and centers under the United States Army Recruiting Command, which includes the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the U. S. Virgin Islands, the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands, South Korea and Europe. Contact with Europeans began in the early 18th century.
Dutchman Jacob Roggeveen was the first known European to sight the Samoan Islands in 1722, calling them the "Baumann Islands" after one of his captains. This visit was followed by French explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville who named them the "Îles des Navigateurs" in 1768. British explorer James Cook recorded the island names in 1773, but never visited; the 1789 visit by La Perouse ended in an attack and resulted in the death of his second in command Capt. de Langle and several of his crew on a Tutuila water collection expedition. La Perouse named the island "Massacre Island", the bay near Aasu is still called "Massacre Bay". H. M. S. Pandora, under the command of Edwards, visited the island in 1791 during its search for the H. M. S. Bounty mutineers. Von Kotzebue visited in 1824. Mission work in the Samoas had begun in late 1830 when John Williams of the London Missionary Society arrived from the Cook Islands and Tahiti. By that time, the Samoans had gained a reputation for being savage and warlike, as violent altercations had occurred between natives and European visitors.
By the late nineteenth century, British and American vessels stopped at Samoa, as they valued Pago Pago Harbor as a refueling station for coal-fired shipping and whaling. The US Exploring Expedition visited in 1839. In March 1889, an Imperial German naval force entered a village on Samoa, in doing so destroyed some American property. Three American warships entered the Apia harbor and prepared to engage the three German warships found there. Before any shots were fired, a typhoon wrecked both German ships. A compulsory armistice was called because of the lack of any warships. At the turn of the twentieth century, international rivalries in the latter half of the century were settled by the 1899 Tripartite Convention in which Germany and the United States partitioned the Samoan Islands into two parts: The eastern island group became a territory of the United States and is today known as American Samoa. Forerunners to the Tripartite Convention of 1899 were the Washington Conference of 1887, the Treaty of Berlin of 1889 and the Anglo-German Agreement on Samoa of 1899.
The following year, the U. S. formally annexed its portion, a smaller group of eastern islands, one of which contains the noted harbor of Pago Pago. After the United States Navy took possession of eastern Samoa for the United States government, the existing coaling station at Pago Pago Bay was expanded into a full naval station, known as United States Naval Station Tutuila and commanded by a commandant; the Navy secured a Deed of Cession of Tutuila in 1900 and a Deed of Cession of Manuʻa in 1904 on behalf of the US government. The last sovereign of Manuʻa, the Tui Manuʻa Elisala, signed a Deed of Cession of Manuʻa following a series of U. S. naval trials, known as the "Trial of the Ipu", in Pago Pago, Taʻu, aboard a Pacific Squadron gunboat. The territory became known as the U. S. Naval Station Tutuila. On July 17, 1911, the US Naval Station Tutuila, composed of Tutuila, Aunu'u and Manu'a, was renamed American Samoa. In 1918, during the final stages of World War I, the flu pandemic had taken its toll, spreading from country to country.
American Samoa became on
A desert island, or uninhabited island, is an island, islet or atoll, not permanently populated by humans. Uninhabited islands are used in movies or stories about shipwrecked people, are used as stereotypes for the idea of "paradise"; some uninhabited islands are protected as nature reserves and some are owned. Devon Island in Canada is claimed to be the largest uninhabited island in the world. Small coral atolls or islands have no source of fresh water, but at times a fresh water lens can be reached with a well. Uninhabited islands are sometimes called "deserted islands" or "desert islands". In the latter, the adjective desert connotes not desert climate conditions, but rather "desolate and sparsely occupied or unoccupied"; the word desert has been "formerly applied more to any wild, uninhabited region, including forest-land", it is this archaic meaning that appears in the phrase "desert island". The term "desert island" is commonly used figuratively to refer to objects or behavior in conditions of social isolation and limited material means.
Behavior on a desert island is common thought experiment, for example, "desert island morality". Appat Island, Greenland Auckland Islands in the South Pacific, part of New Zealand Astola Island, Pakistan A majority of the Barra Isles, the Outer Hebrides, Scotland; the most famous of these is Barra Head. Blasket Islands in County Kerry, Ireland Ball's Pyramid, a tall volcanic mountain located far from other islands in the South Pacific Most of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago Caquorobert, Guernsey Clipperton Island, a Pacific island of France Coral Sea Islands off the northeastern coast of Australia De Long Islands in the Arctic Ocean, part of Russia Devon Island, the largest uninhabited island in the world at 55,247 km2 Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Australia Ilha da Queimada Grande "Snake Island", Brazil Many islands within the waters of Hong Kong Keros and other small islands off the coast of Greece Kermadec Islands, part of New Zealand Korzhin Island in Lake Balkhash Klein Curaçao, Curaçao Lítla Dímun, Faroe Islands Ogurchinsky Island in the Caspian Sea Isle Royale in Lake Superior Santa Luzia, Cape Verde South Sentinel Island in the Indian Ocean Surtsey, a volcanic island located south of Iceland Tetepare Island, the largest uninhabited island in the South Pacific Most of the United States Minor Outlying Islands The first known novels to be set on a desert island were Philosophus Autodidactus written by Ibn Tufail, followed by Theologus Autodidactus written by Ibn al-Nafis.
The protagonists in both are feral children living in seclusion on a deserted island, until they come in contact with castaways from the outside world who are stranded on the island. The story of Theologus Autodidactus, extends beyond the deserted island setting when the castaways take Kamil back to civilization with them. William Shakespeare's 1610–11 play, The Tempest, uses the idea of being stranded on a desert island as a pretext for the action of the play. Prospero and his daughter Miranda are set adrift by Prospero's treacherous brother Antonio, seeking to become Duke of Milan, Prospero in turn shipwrecks his brother and other men of sin onto the island. A Latin translation of Ibn Tufail's Philosophus Autodidactus appeared in 1671, prepared by Edward Pococke the Younger, followed by an English translation by Simon Ockley in 1708, as well as German and Dutch translations. In the late 17th century, Philosophus Autodidactus inspired Robert Boyle, an acquaintance of Pococke, to write his own philosophical novel set on a deserted island, The Aspiring Naturalist.
Ibn al-Nafis' Theologus Autodidactus was eventually translated into English in the early 20th century. Published in 1719, Daniel Defoe's novel Robinson Crusoe about a castaway on a desert island has spawned so many imitations in film and radio that its name was used to define a genre, Robinsonade; the novel features Crusoe's personal assistant. It is that Defoe took inspiration for Crusoe from a Scottish sailor named Alexander Selkirk, rescued in 1709 after four years on the otherwise uninhabited Juan Fernández Islands, it is likely that he was inspired by the Latin or English translations of Ibn Tufail's Philosophus Autodidactus. Tom Neale was a New Zealander who voluntarily spent 16 years in three sessions in the 1950s and 1960s living alone on the island of Suwarrow in the northern Cook Islands group, his time there is documented in An Island To Oneself. Significant novels set on deserted islands include The Swiss Family Robinson, The Coral Island, The Mysterious Island, Lord of the Flies, The Cay and The Beach.
Juana Maria, a Native American woman, was stranded for 18 years on San Nicolas Island off California in the 19th century. The theme of being stranded on a desert island has inspired films, such as Cast Away, TV series, like Lost and the comedy Gilligan's Island, it is the driving force behind reality shows like Survivor and the Discovery Kids show Flight 29 Down. In the popular conception, such islands are located in the Pacific, tropical and uncharted, they are remote locales that offer escape and force people marooned or stranded as castaways to become self-sufficient and create a new society. This society can either be utopian, based on an ingenious re-creation of society's comforts or a regression into savagery. In reality, small coral atolls or islands have no source of fresh water (thus precluding any long-term hu