William Jasper was a noted American soldier in the Revolutionary War. He was a sergeant in the 2nd South Carolina Regiment. Jasper distinguished himself in the defense of Fort Moultrie on June 28, 1776; when a shell from a British warship shot away the flagstaff, he recovered the South Carolina flag in the Battle of Sullivan's Island, raised it on a temporary staff, held it under fire until a new staff was installed. Governor John Rutledge gave his sword to Jasper in recognition of his bravery. In 1779, Sergeant Jasper participated in the Siege of Savannah, led by General Lincoln, which failed to recapture Savannah, from the British, he was mortally wounded during an assault on the British forces there. Sgt. Jasper's story is similar to that of Sgt. John Newton. Several states have adjacent counties named Jasper and Newton, as these were remembered as a pair, due to the popularity of Parson Weems' memorializing early American history. Several other states have a Jasper County with a county seat of Newton, or vice versa.
Sources differ on William Jasper's origins. According to one account, William Jasper came to America in 1767 on the ship Minerva, he and other immigrants landed in Philadelphia. He was 16 at the time, but he had decided that whatever the new land held, he would accept it with open arms, he arrived in Philadelphia in the fall and was fed some warm soup and put in a line to take an oath of allegiance and sign his name. When it was his turn, Jasper did not know how to read or write, so he could not write his name on the list, he had to just put an X down where he should have put his name and next to it the colonist who had signed him in wrote John William Jasper. He completed a few years of indentured servitude and moved south to find some land of his own. William Jasper was motivated. To pay for her journey to come live with him, he joined the military. Although the pay was not great, he soon became a sergeant, earning enough for Elizabeth to join him in Georgia, where they were soon married. According to other accounts, William Jasper was the son of John Jasper, a Virginia blacksmith who had migrated to Union County, South Carolina during the early 1770s.
Jasper was soon called to Sullivan's Island to help protect Charles Towne Harbor. There he served under Colonel William Moultrie, in charge of the defense of Charleston against the British Navy. A few days before the British were due to arrive, Colonel Moultrie decided to build a fort to protect the harbor, his officers were sent local plantation owners, to borrow their slaves to help with the creation of the fort. Soldiers and volunteers banded together to chop down palmettos and use them in its construction. Called Fort Sullivan, some time after the battle the fort was renamed to Fort Moultrie; the British arrived. The Moultrie flag was raised over the structure, a ten-hour siege began. Low on ammunition, the 2nd South Carolina Regiment only fired; the flag, designed by Moultrie himself at the behest of the colonial government, was shot down, fell to the bottom of the ditch on the outside of the fort. Leaping from an embrasure, Jasper recovered the flag, which he tied to a sponge staff and replaced on the parapet, where he supported it until a permanent flag staff had been procured and installed.
With this rallying point, the colonists held out until sunset. They did not succeed in taking Charleston until several years later; because of Jasper's heroism, Governor John Rutledge presented him with his personal sword, offered him a lieutenant's commission. He did not accept the offer to become an officer, saying that he would only be an embarrassment since he could neither read nor write, he was presented with two silk flags by Mrs. Susannah Elliott. Colonel Moultrie gave him a roving commission to scour the country with a few men, gather information, surprise and capture the enemy's outposts; this commission was renewed by Francis Marion and Benjamin Lincoln. Prominent among his achievements was the legendry rescue by himself and a single comrade (John Newton of some American captives from a party of British soldiers, whom he overpowered and made prisoners; however while in truth while Jasper did engage in a heroic action against the British, the incident was exaggerated by the storyteller Parson Weems At the Siege of Savannah, he received his death wound while fastening to the parapet the standard, presented to his regiment.
His hold, never relaxed, he bore the colors to a place of safety before he died. Jasper County, Georgia Jasper County, Illinois Jasper County, Indiana Jasper County, Iowa Jasper County, Mississippi Jasper County, Missouri Jasper County, South Carolina Jasper County and the city of Jasper, Texas City of Jasper, Alabama City of Jasper, Arkansas City of Jasper, Florida City of Jasper, Georgia City of Jasper, Minnesota City of Jasper, Missouri Town of Jasper, Tennessee Town of Jasper, Indiana Town of Jasper, New York Edward McCrady; the History of South Carolina in the Revolution, 1775-1780. Macmillan. P. 157. Cited by 1920 Americana. James Mason Peck. Lives of Daniel Boone and Benjamin Lincoln. Boston: C. C. Little and J. Brown. Pp. 315–316. Alexander Garden. "Sergeant Jasper, 2d Regiment". Anecdotes of the Revolutionary War in America. Pp. 90–91. DeSoto Hotel and Jasper Monument, Savann
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
San Augustine County, Texas
San Augustine County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 8,865, its county seat is San Augustine. San Augustine County was formed in 1837, it was named after the Saint, Augustine of Hippo. However, it seems plausible that the county was named for the town of San Augustine, established five years earlier and whose name was based upon an 18th-century Spanish presidio. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 592 square miles, of which 531 square miles is land and 62 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 96 State Highway 21 State Highway 103 State Highway 147 Shelby County Sabine County Jasper County Angelina County Nacogdoches County Angelina National Forest Sabine National Forest Mission Dolores State Historic Site As of the census of 2000, there were 8,946 people, 3,575 households, 2,520 families residing in the county; the population density was 17 people per square mile. There were 5,356 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 69.26% White, 27.95% Black or African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.20% Asian, 1.64% from other races, 0.75% from two or more races. 3.58% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,575 households out of which 26.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.50% were married couples living together, 13.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.50% were non-families. 27.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.93. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.70% under the age of 18, 6.80% from 18 to 24, 23.00% from 25 to 44, 25.10% from 45 to 64, 21.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 92.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,025, the median income for a family was $32,772.
Males had a median income of $28,395 versus $18,925 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,548. About 15.60% of families and 21.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.70% of those under age 18 and 20.10% of those age 65 or over. At the presidential level, San Augustine County has voted for the Republican candidate in every election since 2000, having been carried by Democratic candidates up until that point. Like many areas of the South, while Republicans win federal and state elections, Democrats tend to perform better in down-ballot races for local offices. Identification with the Democratic Party is strong in San Augustine County. In 2012 24 percent of eligible voters participated in the Democratic primary, while less than 6 percent participated in the Republican primary, despite there being a competitive presidential primary on the Republican ballot. At the Federal level, San Augustine County is part of the 1st Congressional District, represented by Louie Gohmert, a Republican from Tyler.
In the Texas Legislature, the county is represented by State Representative Trent Ashby, by State Senator Robert Nichols. San Augustine Broaddus Black Ankle White Rock Sunrise Macune Norwood White City Anthony Harbor Benina American photographer John Vachon took a series of photographs of rural schoolchildren in San Augustine County, for the Farm Security Administration in 1943. National Register of Historic Places listings in San Augustine County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in San Augustine County San Augustine County government's website San Augustine County from the Handbook of Texas Online San Augustine County Collection at the Autry National Center "San Augustine"; the American Cyclopædia. 1879
American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia in Concord led to open combat on April 19, 1775.
Militia forces besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, the Americans failed decisively in an attempt to invade Quebec and raise insurrection against the British. On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States.
In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis Cowpens, he retreated to Yorktown, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in America, but the war continued overseas. Britain scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war.
French involvement had proven decisive. Spain failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar; the Dutch were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes. Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765 to pay for British military troops stationed in the American colonies after the French and Indian War. Parliament had passed legislation to regulate trade, but the Stamp Act introduced a new principle of a direct internal tax. Americans began to question the extent of the British Parliament's power in America, the colonial legislatures argued that they had exclusive right to impose taxes within their jurisdictions. Colonists condemned the tax because their rights as Englishmen protected them from being taxed by a Parliament in which they had no elected representatives. Parliament argued that the colonies were "represented virtually", an idea, criticized throughout the Empire. Parliament did repeal the act in 1766, but it affirmed its right to pass laws that were binding on the colonies.
From 1767, Parliament began passing legislation to raise revenue for the salaries of civil officials, ensuring their loyalty while inadvertently increasing resentment among the colonists, opposition soon became widespread. Enforcing the acts proved difficult; the seizure of the sloop Liberty in 1768 on suspicions of smuggling triggered a riot. In response, British troops occupied Boston, Parliament threatened to extradite colonists to face trial in England. Tensions rose after the murder of Christopher Seider by a customs official in 1770 and escalated into outrage after British troops fired on civilians in the Boston Massacre. In 1772, colonists in Rhode Island burned a customs schooner. Parliament repealed all taxes except the one on tea, passing the Tea Act in 1773, attempting to force colonists to buy East India Company tea on which the Townshend duties were paid, thus implicitly agreeing to Parliamentary supremacy; the landing of the tea was resisted in all colonies, but the governor of Massachusetts permitted British tea ships to remain in Boston Harbor, so the Sons of Liberty destroyed the tea chests in what became known as the "Boston Tea Party".
Parliament passed punitive legislation. It closed Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for and revoked the Massachusetts Charter, taking upon themselves the right to directly appoint the Massachusetts Governor's Council. Additionally, t
Big Thicket is the name of a forested area in Southeast Texas, United States. Several attempts to provide boundaries have been made ranging from only a 10 to 15 mile section of Hardin County to an area encompassing over 29 counties and over 3,350,000 acres. Scientific studies have been performed but with varying results. In "... 1936... Hal B. Parks and Victor L. Cory of the Texas Agriculture Experiment station conducted a biological survey of the Big Thicket region", their study, based on geology, resulted in over 3,350,000 acres of Southeast Texas and covering 14 counties from Houston in the west to Orange in the east and Huntsville to Wiergate on the north. Claude McLeod, a botany professor at Sam Houston State University, performed a botanical based study, resulting in a region of over 2,000,000 acres. While no exact boundaries exist, the area occupies much of Hardin, Tyler, San Jacinto, Polk Counties and is bounded by the San Jacinto River, Neches River, Pine Island Bayou. To the north, it blends into the larger Piney Woods terrestrial ecoregion.
It has been the most dense forest region in what is now Texas, though logging in the 19th and 20th centuries reduced the forest concentration. The Big Thicket has been described as one of the most biodiverse areas in the world outside the tropics; the Big Thicket National Preserve was established in 1974 in an attempt to protect the many plant and animal species within. BITH, along with Big Cypress National Preserve in Florida, became the first national preserves in the United States National Park System when both were authorized by the United States Congress on October 11, 1974. Senator Ralph Yarborough was its most powerful proponent in Congress and the bill was proposed by Charles Wilson and Bob Eckhardt that established the 84,550-acre Preserve. Big Thicket was designated as a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 1981; as of September 30, 2016, the preserve includes 112,501 acres. It consists of nine separate land units as well as six water corridors. Centered about Hardin County, the BITH extends into parts of surrounding Jasper, Liberty, Orange and Tyler counties.
The Preserve's headquarters are located 8 miles north of Kountze, 30 miles north of Beaumont via US 69/287. One's fondness for the area is hard to explain, it has awesome gorge, no topographical feature of distinction. Its appeal is more subtle. – Big Thicket Legacy, University of Texas Press, 1977. The terrain in the Big Thicket is flat or rolling; the area lies on the flat coastal plain of Texas, is crossed by numerous small streams. The extent of the region was once much larger than today covering more than 2 million acres in east Texas; the Spaniards, who once ruled the region, defined its boundaries in the north as El Camino Real de los Tejas, a trail that ran from central Texas to Nacogdoches. Timber harvesting in the 19th and 20th centuries reduced the extent of the dense woodlands. Prior to the acquisition of a reservation in 1854, the Alabama-Coushattas resided in the Big Thicket; the Big Thicket's geographical features are believed to have their origins with the Western Interior Seaway, an inland sea that covered much of North America during the Cretaceous period.
Over time, water smoothed out the land along. Small towns are contained within the Big Thicket. Most of these towns developed in the late 19th century in support of the lumber industry, as evidenced by names like Lumberton; as transportation through the area improved, many of the towns became suburbs of the much larger cities of Beaumont to the south and Houston to the southwest. During the last glacial period and animal species from many different biomes moved into the area. Before their extinction, the Big Thicket was home to most species of North American megafauna. Today the Big Thicket retains numerous species, has been described as the "biological crossroads of North America" or the "American Ark"; the area contains over 100 species of trees and shrubs, with longleaf pine once dominating the region. Big Thicket National Preserve has introduced programs to re-establish this dominance, including one of the US's most active prescribed burn programs. With the National Park Service's centennial occurring in 2016, efforts are in progress to plant between 100,000 and 300,000 Longleaf Pines.
The National Park Service lists more than one thousand species of flowering plants and ferns that can be found in the thicket, including 20 orchids and four types of carnivorous plants. Animal life includes 300 species of migratory and nesting birds, many endangered or threatened including the red-cockaded woodpecker, extinct ivory-billed woodpecker; the thicket is home to numerous reptile species, including all four groups of North American venomous snakes and alligators. A dirt road leading north out of the town of Saratoga is the core of the area's predominant ghost story. Bragg Road, as it is more formally known, was constructed in 1934 on the bed of a former railroad line that had serviced the lumber industry. In the 1940s, stories began to circulate about a mysterious light, sometimes referred to as the Light of Saratoga, that could be seen on and near the road at night. No adequate explanation of the light has been offered; the various ghost stories include reference to the Kaiser Burnout, long-dead conquistadors looking for their buried treasure, a decapitated railroad wor
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Sabine County, Texas
Sabine County is a county located on the central eastern border of the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 10,834, its county seat is Hemphill. The county was organized on December 14, 1837, named for the Sabine River, which forms its eastern border. Sabine County is represented in the Texas House of Representatives by Republican Chris Paddie, a radio broadcaster and former mayor of Marshall in Harrison County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 577 square miles, of which 491 square miles is land and 85 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 96 State Highway 21 State Highway 87 State Highway 103 State Highway 184 Sabine National Forest Shelby County Sabine Parish, Louisiana Newton County Jasper County San Augustine County Like other eastern Texas counties, Sabine was developed as cotton plantations, which depended on the labor of numerous enslaved African Americans. After the Civil War and emancipation, many freedmen remained in the rural area, working as tenant farmers and sharecroppers.
There was considerable violence by whites against blacks after Reconstruction. After 1877 and through the early 20th century, Sabine County had 10 lynchings of blacks by whites in acts of racial terrorism; this was the fourth-highest total in the state, where lynchings took place in nearly all counties through this period. From 1930 to 1970, the population declined as many African Americans left this rural county and other parts of the South in the Great Migration to escape Jim Crow oppression and seek better jobs in Northern industrial cities and on the West Coast, where the defense industry built up beginning during World War II; as of the census of 2000, there were 10,469 people, 4,485 households, 3,157 families residing in the county. The population density was 21 people per square mile. There were 7,659 housing units at an average density of 16 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 87.85% White, 9.92% Black or African American, 0.41% Native American, 0.09% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.82% from other races, 0.88% from two or more races.
1.81% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,485 households out of which 23.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.90% were married couples living together, 8.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.60% were non-families. 27.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.78. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.10% under the age of 18, 5.60% from 18 to 24, 21.10% from 25 to 44, 27.20% from 45 to 64, 24.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 47 years. For every 100 females there were 93.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,198, the median income for a family was $32,554. Males had a median income of $28,695 versus $21,141 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,821.
About 11.80% of families and 15.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.90% of those under age 18 and 12.70% of those age 65 or over. The following school districts serve Sabine County: Brookeland Independent School District Hemphill Independent School District Shelbyville Independent School District West Sabine Independent School District Hemphill Pineland Milam Bronson Brookeland Fairmount Geneva Isla Pendelton Harbor Subdivision Rosevine Sexton Yellowpine National Register of Historic Places listings in Sabine County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Sabine County Sabine County website Sabine County Chamber of Commerce Sabine County from the Handbook of Texas Online