The Javanese script, natively known as Aksara Jawa and Hanacaraka, formally known as Déntawyanjana and Carakan, is an abugida developed by the Javanese people to write several Austronesian languages spoken in Indonesia the Javanese language and an early form of Javanese called Kawi, as well as Sanskrit, an Indo-Aryan language used as a sacred language throughout Asia. The Javanese script is a descendant of the Brahmi script and therefore has many similarities with the modern scripts of South India and Southeast Asia; the Javanese script, along with the Balinese script, is considered the most elaborate and ornate among Brahmic scripts of Southeast Asia. The script was used by the court scribes of Java and the Lesser Sunda Islands. Numerous efforts to standardize the script were made in the late 19th to early 20th-century, with the invention of the script's first metal type and the development of concise orthographic guidelines. However, further development was halted abruptly following World War II and during the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies, in which its use was prohibited, the script's use has since declined.
Today, everyday use of the Javanese script has been supplanted by the Javanese Latin alphabet. There are a total of 53 letters in the Javanese script, but the number of represented phonemes varies accordingly to the language being written; each letter represents a syllable, with an inherent vowel /a/ or /ɔ/, which changes depending on the diacritics around the letter. Each consonant has a conjunct form called pasangan, which nullifies the inherent vowel of the previous syllable. In the word aksara for example, the inherent vowel of the letter ka is nullified by the use of pasangan in the following letter. Punctuation includes the comma, period and quotation marks, as well as several decorative marks indicating poetic chapter and denoting rank in correspondence. Text is written from left without word boundaries. Many of the letters are constructed from visually similar components, most notably n-shaped'hills' and u-shaped'valleys', arranged in different sequences. There are only a few components unique to certain characters and fewer letters that are unique, resulting in a uniform-looking script.
The Javanese and Balinese alphabets are both modern variants of the Kawi script, a Brahmic script developed in Java around the ninth century. It was used in religious literature written in palm-leaf manuscripts called lontar. Over the Hindu-Buddhist period the letter forms changed into Javanese, by the 17th century, the script was identifiable as in its modern form; the Javanese script was employed by court scribes centered in Surakarta and Yogyakarta, but the use was widespread among various courts of Java and the Lesser Sunda Islands. They are used to write historical accounts, ancient verses, divination guides among many others, with the most popular being copied and rewritten over the centuries; the first Javanese metal type font was produced in the 1830s by the Dutch. Two other cursive type fonts were produced in the early 20th-century. In 1926, an academic workshop in Sriwedari, Surakarta issued Wewaton Sriwedari or the "Sriwedari Resolve" as the first standard for Javanese spelling and orthography.
Since numerous guidelines on Javanese orthography have been published. However, further development was halted abruptly during the second World War when the use of the Javanese script was prohibited during the Japanese occupation. There are no newspapers or magazines being printed in the Javanese script and it is used for decorative or scholarly purposes. Everyday use of the script has been replaced by the Latin alphabet; as a preservation effort, the Indonesian government prescribed most elementary and junior-high schools in Javanese speaking areas to teach the script as a compulsory subject. Its use is encouraged by the Central Javanese government in road signs and public signage alongside Indonesian as administered in the 2012 local legislation. A single letter in the Javanese script is called an aksara, which stands for a syllable with an inherent vowel of /a/ or /ɔ/ depending on the letter's position related to other letters, it can depend on the speaker's dialect. Rules determining the inherent vowel of a letter are described in Wewaton Sriwedari as follows: A letter stands for a syllable with the vowel /ɔ/ if the previous letter contains diacritics.
A letter stands for a syllable with the vowel / a /. The first letter of a word has the /ɔ/ vowel, unless it precedes two other letters without diacritics, in which case the first letter has the /a/ vowel. There are a total of 53 letters in the Javanese script, but the number of represented phonemes vary accordingly to the language being written. For example, transcription of Sanskrit uses 33 consonants and 14 vowels, while the modern orthography uses 20 consonants and 5 vowels; the other letters have lost their original distinct pronunciations and are used instead for honorific purposes. Consonant letters are as follows: ^1 Only found in non-initial position as ꧀ꦖ. ^2 Originally jnya ꦗ꧀ꦚ, but developed into a single letter. Modern Javanese uses 20 consonants, each consonant can be represented with up to 3 letter cases: a lower case called nglegéna, an upper case called murda or gedé, the mahaprana case. Murda are similar
Duck, Goose is a traditional children's game first learned in preschool or kindergarten. The game may be adapted on the playground for early elementary students; the object of this game is to walk in a circle, tapping on each player's head until one is chosen. A group of players sit in a circle, facing inward, while another player, "it", walks around tapping or pointing to each player in turn, calling each a "duck" until calling one a "goose"; the "goose" rises and tries to tag the "it", while the "it" tries to return to and sit where the "goose" had been sitting before. If "it" succeeds, the "goose" becomes the "it" and the process begins again. If the "goose" tags the "it", the "goose" may return to their previous spot and the original "it" restarts the process. A variation described in the 1919 book, Entertaining Made Easy by Emily Rose Burt, has children standing in a circle, joining hands; the daisy picker goes around the outside, saying "Daisy in the dell, I don't pick you … I do pick you."
"Duck, Gray Duck" is a variation played in Minnesota. The core gameplay difference is that the picker taps the heads of the other players while duck calling "duck, duck..." and calls "gray duck!" to signal which player must chase the picker. The picker can make the game trickier, by calling various colors or adjectives that might sound like "gray duck," such as saying "Duck, green duck, gross duck, grape duck, GRAY DUCK!" The caller can add various other colors, just for fun: "Duck, green duck, purple duck, yellow duck, orange duck, green duck, grape duck, GRAY DUCK!" In some regions and variations, the caller may change the direction. "Drip, Drop" is another version played by children in warmer climates. One player, "it" goes around the circle with a container of water and "drips" a small amount on each person's head, they will select someone in the circle to "drop" the entire container on top of them. This player will try to tag the "it" before the "it" sits in the spot of the person who got "dropped" on.
If "it" is tagged they will remain "it" for another round. A similar, common Afrikaner game is called meaning rotten egg. Instead of saying anything or pointing at anybody a token of some kind is carried by the one, "it" going around the circle of sitting players; the token is dropped behind one of the sitting players. Players are not allowed to look behind themselves, but can feel with their hands on the ground behind them. If the player behind which the token has been dropped discovers it, that player chases the one who dropped the token. If the player, "it" is caught and tagged, that player will sit in the center of the circle and become a rotten egg and the player who did the chasing becomes the next one to be "it". If the player, "it" was chased all the way around the circle, that player sits in the place of the player behind which the token was dropped; the chased player is the next one to be "it". If the player behind which the token was dropped does not become aware of this by the time the "it" player has gone around the circle, the player so caught becomes another rotten egg to sit in the center.
The "it" player remains "it", picks up the token again and continues. The game can continue until there is only one person left, not a rotten egg or more when the "rotten eggs" get tired of sitting in the center and demand to restart the game. A similar game to vrot eier is known as "Rumaal Chor" in Hindi speaking regions of India and by other names in rest of India. A "rumaal" or handkerchief is thrown by the picker and the players have to search behind them using their hands to search for the handkerchief. International variants of Duck Duck Goose
Ivo Illuminati was an Italian film director and screenwriter and a pioneer of the Italian silent movie. In 1887 he moved with his parents and two brothers from his native Ripatransone to Rome, where his father worked as a state civil servant. There Illuminati met personnel of Auguste and Louis Lumière, who imported the new techniques of the cinema from France and taught them to young people, he became a pupil of Gaston Velle, director of the production company Cines and learned how to use the movie camera. Between 1902 and 1913 he made many short films of 2 to 5 minutes duration, in which many Italian actors made their debut, e.g. Hesperia, Leda Gys, Diomira Jacobini, Maria Jacobini, Fulvia Perini, Elvira Radaelli. Illumnati himself had his first role in Emilio Ghione's Gespay, fantino e gentiluomo in 1914. In the same year his career as a film director took off with La fanciulla di Capri, Una donna and Mamma perdona, he became an established figure in the Italian movie scene with Leda innamorata, Quando la primavera ritornò, Sotto l'ala della morte, I re, le torri, gli alfieri and Emir, cavallo da circo.
The last two films are considered to be among his best works. In 1917 Illuminati changed his production company from Medusa Film to Silentium Film of Milan, with whom he made La nemica and Automartirio. However, Illuminati ran into conflicts with a film critic who preferred American imported movies and with the Italian government, which cut 600 meters from his film La vita è fumo. A similar fate hit La stirpe. Tombola convinced a public from the United States. In the 1920s Illuminati's career halted because of the advent of sound movies and the death of his beloved actress Margherita Soave, who starred in Alba rossa. In 1921 he still directed three movies and became an assistant-director for Carmine Gallone's Giuseppe Verdi. In 1941 Illuminati directed his last film, Il vetturale del San Gottardo if the Italian Ministry of Popular Culture forced the collaboration of the German Hans Hinrich on him. Forgotten by the public, Ivo Illuminati died at Rome in 1963. Most of Illuminati's production is lost, but the Italian Cineteca Nazionale at Rome curates restored copies of Selika and Vetturale del San Gottardo which were presented at the Venice Film Festival in 2011.
In 2013, Tragico convegno was discovered at EYE Film Institute Netherlands and a restored version with a running time of 34 minutes and with Dutch intertitles was subsequently presented at the Festival del Cinema Ritrovato in Bologna. Ivo Illuminati on IMDb
The 2007 Zuiderduin Masters was a darts tournament held at the Hotel Zuiderduin in Egmond aan Zee, the Netherlands, run by the British Darts Organisation and the World Darts Federation. It was the first edition of the tournament since the sponsorship of the event was taken over by the Hotel Zuiderduin to become the Zuiderduin Masters. A new tournament format was introduced, it was the last year the tournament was held as an unranked event and a men's only competition. The last winner of the event, Mervyn King in 2005 as no event was held in 2006, was absent from the field as he had transferred over to the PDC earlier in the year. Martin Adams, the BDO World Champion, was knocked out in the quarter-finals by Gary Robson; the number one seed Gary Anderson defeated Mark Webster in the final, 5–4 in sets, to win the event for the first time. He added this event to his successes at the International Darts League and the World Darts Trophy in May and September. All matches best of 9 legs. P = Played.
Led Zeppelin DVD is a double DVD set by the English rock band Led Zeppelin, released in the United Kingdom on 26 May 2003, the United States on 27 May 2003. It contains live concert footage of the band spanning the years 1969 to 1979; the DVD includes performances from the Royal Albert Hall in 1970, Madison Square Garden in 1973, Earls Court in 1975, Knebworth in 1979, plus other footage. Bootleg footage from some of the concerts is interspersed with the professionally shot material; the DVD cover features West and East Mitten Buttes, photographed from the visitor centre at the Navajo Tribal Park located at Monument Valley, Arizona. Led Zeppelin guitarist and producer of the DVD, Jimmy Page, commenced work on the project in the early 2000s. While fans had been trading poor quality versions of Led Zeppelin video material for years, this was the first official archival video release to contain any footage of the band playing live. In an interview he gave after the release of the DVD, Page explained the impetus behind the project: The reason for was that there was no visual material, out there really.
The studio albums had been put out in many different shapes and forms, but this was something, sorely missing because Zeppelin built its material on live performances. So that had to be done; the idea for a live chronology had, dated back some time before this, according to singer Robert Plant in 2003: The idea of creating a Led Zeppelin collage has been in the works for... fifteen years. We just didn't have the time to put it together as a project because there was so much concentrated work, required. So, as we all finished our individual projects, Jimmy Page took the helm along with some technical guys and this is what we've got. For the DVD, Page collaborated with music producer Kevin Shirley, with whom Page worked when he was performing with The Black Crowes. Shirley recalled: I produced the Black Crowes, Jimmy joined them for a run of live dates in 1999. I saw the show in New York, I went to California and recorded the shows, took the tapes away, fixed them up a little and mixed them. I did Live at the Greek without any input from anyone, as it wasn't going to be an official release.
But I think. When Jimmy decided to do a new DVD, he started looking for someone familiar with the modern applications necessary for surround sound mixing. If you listen to the Royal Albert Hall opening in 5.1, you can see Jimmy had this audio concept early on of giving people a sense of the band going onstage and the audience swells around you. We had a meeting to discuss the requirements needed for the DVD project audio, afterward, he asked if I would be interested in ‘helping’ him. Page, with Shirley and the producer and creative director Dick Carruthers, worked for the best part of a year to research, load and present the material. Much of the footage, included on the DVD was painstakingly restored for several months, before being mixed at Sarm West Studios in London. In all, 132 cans of film and two sets of two-inch video tape were examined for the project; some of the video tapes suffered from a common fault called sticky-shed syndrome where the bonding agent holding the magnetic particles to the tape backing decomposes to the point where the oxide is scraped off during playback.
The tapes had to be restored by baking them in ovens at 55 °C for three weeks in order for them to be played back. The audio portions were digitally remixed for 5.1 surround mixes. Upon its release the DVD received positive reviews. Michael Azerrad of Rolling Stone magazine gave the DVD four stars, describing it as the "Holy Grail of heavy metal" and "one of the best rock documentaries made." The RIAA certified Led Zeppelin DVD at 13 times multi-platinum. According to the BBC, the DVD broke all sales records for a music video, nearly three times as many in the first week of sales as the previous record holder, it was, for three years, the highest selling music DVD in America. Royal Albert Hall, 9 January 1970 Dressing room – 0:27 "Thank You" – 0:34 "Heartbreaker" – 0:36 Reykjavik Airport, 22 June 1970 "Moby Dick" – 0:56 Laugardalshöll, 22 June 1970 "Dazed and Confused" Sydney Showground, 27 February 1972 "Black Dog" – 0:36Madison Square Garden, 27 July 1973 "Since I've Been Loving You" – 0:49Madison Square Garden, 28 July 1973 "Over the Hills and Far Away" – 2:23Seattle Center Coliseum, 21 March 1975 "Whole Lotta Love" – 0:48Earls Court, 24 May 1975 "Bron-Yr-Aur Stomp" – 0:49Earls Court, 25 May 1975 "Stairway to Heaven" – 0:54 LA Forum, 21 June 1977 "The Song Remains the Same" – 5:37 Led Zeppelin John Bonham – drums, percussion John Paul Jones – bass guitar, Mellotron, mandolin Robert Plant – vocals, harmonica Jimmy Page – electric and acoustic guitars, creative directorTechnical Dick Carruthers – production, creative director Kevin Shirley – sound engineering LPCM stereo, Dolby Digital 5.1 surround sound, DTS 5.1 surround sound.
Menu: Dolby Digital 2.0 stereo, Extras: Dolby Digital 2.0 stereo Led Zeppelin DVD on IMDb The Garden Tapes
William Marshall Craig was an English painter who exhibited at times at the Royal Academy, from 1788 until 1827. Craig first lived at Manchester, but settled in London about 1791, he was painter in water-colours to the Queen, miniature painter to the Duke and Duchess of York. He excelled as a draughtsman on wood, as a book illustrator, he published in 1821'Lectures on Drawing and Engraving.' He is said to have been a nephew of Thomson, the poet.'The Wounded Soldier' by him is in the Water-Colour Gallery at the South Kensington Museum. One of his pupils was the mouth-painter Sarah Biffen; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Michael. "Craig, William Marshall". In Graves, Robert Edmund. Bryan's Dictionary of Engravers. I. London: George Bell & Sons