Jawaharlal Nehru

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was an Indian independence activist, subsequently, the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence. He emerged as an eminent leader of the Indian independence movement and served India as Prime Minister from its establishment as an independent nation in 1947 until his death in 1964, he has been described by the Amar Chitra Katha as the architect of India. He was known as Pandit Nehru due to his roots with the Kashmiri Pandit community while Indian children knew him as Chacha Nehru; the son of Motilal Nehru, a prominent lawyer and nationalist statesman and Swaroop Rani, Nehru was a graduate of Trinity College and the Inner Temple, where he trained to be a barrister. Upon his return to India, he enrolled at the Allahabad High Court and took an interest in national politics, which replaced his legal practice. A committed nationalist since his teenage years, he became a rising figure in Indian politics during the upheavals of the 1910s.

He became the prominent leader of the left-wing factions of the Indian National Congress during the 1920s, of the entire Congress, with the tacit approval of his mentor, Gandhi. As Congress President in 1929, Nehru called for complete independence from the British Raj and instigated the Congress's decisive shift towards the left. Nehru and the Congress dominated Indian politics during the 1930s as the country moved towards independence, his idea of a secular nation-state was validated when the Congress swept the 1937 provincial elections and formed the government in several provinces. But these achievements were compromised in the aftermath of the Quit India Movement in 1942, which saw the British crush the Congress as a political organisation. Nehru, who had reluctantly heeded Gandhi's call for immediate independence, for he had desired to support the Allied war effort during World War II, came out of a lengthy prison term to a much altered political landscape; the Muslim League under his old Congress colleague and now opponent, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, had come to dominate Muslim politics in India.

Negotiations between Congress and Muslim League for power sharing failed and gave way to the independence and bloody partition of India in 1947. Nehru was elected by the Congress to assume office as independent India's first Prime Minister, although the question of leadership had been settled as far back as 1941, when Gandhi acknowledged Nehru as his political heir and successor; as Prime Minister, he set out to realise his vision of India. The Constitution of India was enacted in 1950, after which he embarked on an ambitious program of economic and political reforms. Chiefly, he oversaw India's transition from a colony to a republic, while nurturing a plural, multi-party system. In foreign policy, he took a leading role in the Non-Aligned Movement while projecting India as a regional hegemon in South Asia. Under Nehru's leadership, the Congress emerged as a catch-all party, dominating national and state-level politics and winning consecutive elections in 1951, 1957, 1962, he remained popular with the people of India in spite of political troubles in his final years and failure of leadership during the 1962 Sino-Indian War.

In India, his birthday is celebrated as Bal Diwas. Jawaharlal Nehru was born on 14 November 1889 in Allahabad in British India, his father, Motilal Nehru, a self-made wealthy barrister who belonged to the Kashmiri Pandit community, served twice as President of the Indian National Congress, in 1919 and 1928. His mother, Swaruprani Thussu, who came from a well-known Kashmiri Brahmin family settled in Lahore, was Motilal's second wife, the first having died in child birth. Jawaharlal was the eldest of three children; the elder sister, Vijaya Lakshmi became the first female president of the United Nations General Assembly. The youngest sister, Krishna Hutheesing, became a noted writer and authored several books on her brother. Nehru described his childhood as a "sheltered and uneventful one", he grew up in an atmosphere of privilege at wealthy homes including a palatial estate called the Anand Bhavan. His father had him educated at home by private tutors. Under the influence of a tutor, Ferdinand T. Brooks, he became interested in theosophy.

He was subsequently initiated into the Theosophical Society at age thirteen by family friend Annie Besant. However, his interest in theosophy did not prove to be enduring and he left the society shortly after Brooks departed as his tutor, he wrote: "for nearly three years was with me and in many ways he influenced me greatly". Nehru's theosophical interests had induced him to the study of the Hindu scriptures. According to Bal Ram Nanda, these scriptures were Nehru's "first introduction to the religious and cultural heritage of.... provided Nehru the initial impulse for long intellectual quest which The Discovery of India." Nehru became an ardent nationalist during his youth. The Second Boer War and the Russo-Japanese War intensified his feelings. About the latter he wrote, " Japanese victories stirred up my enthusiasm... Nationalistic ideas filled my mind... I mused of Indian freedom and Asiatic freedom from the thraldom of Europe." When he had begun his institutional schooling in 1905 at Harrow, a leading school in England, he was influenced by G. M. Trevelyan's Garibaldi books, which he had received as prizes for academic merit.

He viewed Garibaldi as a revolutionary hero. He wrote: "Visions of

Paulias Matane

Sir Paulias Nguna Matane, is a Papua New Guinean politician who served as the eighth Governor-General of Papua New Guinea, serving from 29 June 2004 to 13 December 2010. His memoir My Childhood in New Guinea has been on the school curriculum since the 1970s, he is a long-time columnist for The National. Matane is a Tolai, from East New Britain Province, a native speaker of Kuanua and a staunch United Churchman, he has written 44 books which deliberately use simple English, focusing in part on his own overseas travels, including three on the State of Israel. His writing is intended to persuade Papua New Guineans that books are a useful source of information and that they should not regard them as something only for foreigners. For many years Matane wrote a column in the Malaysian Chinese-owned newspaper The National, containing advice to the younger generation, he founded the United News Agency of Melanesia. He, together with Grand Chief the Right Honourable Michael Somare, makes a point of wearing a lap-lap rather than trousers.

He was married to Lady Kaludia Matane who served her country with "great distinction" and passed away on 20 December 2016. Matane attended Toma Village Higher School and Keravat High School. Beginning in 1956 he studied at Sogeri Teachers’ College and from 1963 he attended Port Moresby Teachers’ College and Mendi for Inspector’s Theoretical and Practical Training. At the end of his training he worked as an inspector of schools. Matane served as the first Papua New Guinean Ambassador to the United States in the years 1975-76 following the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries.. He was PNG's Ambassador to the United Nations from 1975 and in 1979 was elected as a vice-president of the General Assembly. In the mid-1980s he was Secretary of Papua New Guinea's Foreign Affairs Department and was led delegations to Australia to discuss that country's foreign aid to PNG and negotiated with Indonesia regarding border incursions and refugee problems. Matane was elected Governor-General by Parliament on 27 May 2004, receiving 50 votes, while his opponent, Sir Pato Kakeraya received 46 votes.

Attempts to elect a Governor-General had failed for six months before Matane's election because of constitutional flaws in the nomination process. Following Matane's election, Kakaraya brought a petition to the Supreme Court of Papua New Guinea, seeking to invalidate the election. Matane was sworn in on 29 June 2004, he was invested as Governor-General by Queen Elizabeth II on 13 October 2004. He was reappointed for a second term in June 2010, under what The National called "very controversial circumstances, in an act to be challenged in court"; the National reported that there was "conflicting advice from the speaker and the prime minister" regarding the proper procedure for the appointment, that the government had Matane reappointed by "using section 87 of the Constitution, arguing that the absolute majority secured for Sir Paulias meant that the exhaustive secret ballot vote was not required". The Supreme Court of Papua New Guinea ruled Matane's reelection unconstitutional in December 2010.

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Joint author: M. L. Ahuja

Buckley & Taylor

Buckley & Taylor was a British engineering company that manufactured stationary steam engines. It was the largest firm of engine makers in Oldham, England; the company produced large steam-driven engines for textile mills in Oldham and exported to India and Brazil. Buckley & Taylor started business in 1861, were producing mill engines by 1867. Many of their early engines were large compound beam engines. By 1870 they had established a reputation for horizontal twin tandem compounds, their original 1⁄2-acre site at the Castle Ironworks at Green acres expanded to 3 acres in 1880, they operated a forge at Openshaw. In 1890 they were employing 400 men, they built their last engine in 1926. Through Buckley, the firm had a close relationship with the Oldham Boiler Works Ltd. Samuel Buckley was born in 1837 at Lees, to a mule spinner, he started work in a mill at the age of six. While working he got an education and studied engineering. Before he was twenty he had been appointed chief engineer at Lowerhouse Mill.

He had an interest in politics and was Mayor of Oldham on three occasions: 1883/4 1889/90 and 1890/1. James Taylor was born in 1838 at Shaw, served an apprenticeship with Woolstenhulmes & Rye. Both men were engineers, though it was Taylor who dealt with the practical details, Buckley conducted the commercial side of the business. On Taylor's death, Buckley managed the business alone, it was incorporated in 1902. It was taken over by the Brightside Foundry, general engineers of Sheffield in 1947, but continued to operate under its own name; these were'standard' mill engines preferred by the Oldham Limiteds. An early example was the 1,000-ihp engine delivered to the North Moor spinning company in 1876; the design was conservative, spur wheel gear drive transmission. They did start to fit Corliss valves and rope drives in 1883, but these didn't become standard until the 1890s. An example of such an engine was the 2,000-ihp, horizontal twin tandem triple expansion delivered to Pearl Mill in 1892. During the 1890s Buckley & Taylor revived the beam engine, building at least 11 engines using designs of JH Tattersall, a consulting engineer from Preston.

The two identical engines, twin beam triple expansion engines, built for Nile Mill and Tay Mill were the biggest beam engine installed in a cotton mill. They delivered 2,500 ihp and cost over £10,000 Inverted vertical engines, known as marine type engines, needed less space to operate. From about 1899 Buckley & Taylor started to specialise in this type of engine. Starting with an engine for Don Mill, they built 29 of these engines from 1899 to 1916 with a total capacity of 33,000 ihp, they provided a marine type vertical triple expansion engines to Regent Mill, Failsworth, in 1906. It was the largest; the engine had a 63-inch-diameter low-pressure cylinder. It was sometimes loaded to 2,000 ihp, it ran until 1958. It ran 60,000 spindles. There was 26 ropes operated at 64 rpm. Between 1861 and 1926 Buckley & Taylor built more than 200 mill engines with a total capacity of over 160,000 ihp. Arthur Roberts details 26 in his black book; this list is representative rather than complete. Sun Mill, Chadderton.1867 Lees & Wrigley No.3.

Mill, Glodwick 1875 Pearl Mill, Oldham 1878 Nile Mill Tay Mill Don Mill, Middleton 1901 Regent Mill, Failsworth 1906 Orb Mill, Waterhead 1908 Wye No.2 Mill, Shaw 1926 English Heritage Photographs George Watkins Collection