Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate known as a number plate or a license plate, is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. All countries require registration plates for road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles. Whether they are required for other vehicles, such as bicycles, boats, or tractors, may vary by jurisdiction; the registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the vehicle owner within the issuing region's vehicle register. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, while in others it is unique within a state or province. Whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. There are electronic license plates. Most governments require a registration plate to be attached to both the front and rear of a vehicle, although certain jurisdictions or vehicle types, such as motorboats, require only one plate, attached to the rear of the vehicle.
National databases relate this number to other information describing the vehicle, such as the make, colour, year of manufacture, engine size, type of fuel used, mileage recorded, vehicle identification number, the name and address of the vehicle's registered owner or keeper. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Either a government agency or a private company with express contractual authorization from the government makes plates as needed, which are mailed to, delivered to, or picked up by the vehicle owners. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates, because such unauthorized private manufacturing is equivalent to forging an official document. Alternatively, the government will assign plate numbers, it is the vehicle owner's responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be permanently assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime.
If the vehicle is either destroyed or exported to a different country, the plate number is retired or reissued. China requires the re-registration of any vehicle that crosses its borders from another country, such as for overland tourist visits, regardless of the length of time it is due to remain there. Other jurisdictions follow a "plate-to-owner" policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyer's name and plate number. A person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the local laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them, or may be permitted to keep them; some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with "personal" plates. In some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, may have to pay a fee to exercise this option. Alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration, periodic safety and/or emissions inspections or vehicle taxation. Other jurisdictions have replaced the decal requirement through the use of computerization: a central database maintains records of which plate numbers are associated with expired registrations, communicating with automated number plate readers to enable law-enforcement to identify expired registrations in the field. Plates are fixed directly to a vehicle or to a plate frame, fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the vehicle service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames. In some jurisdictions registration plate frames have design restrictions.
For example, many states, like Texas, allow plate frames but prohibit plate frames from covering the name of the state, district, Native American tribe or country that issued of license plate. Plates are designed to conform to standards with regard to being read by eye in day or at night, or by electronic equipment; some drivers purchase clear, smoke-colored or tinted covers that go over the registration plate to prevent electronic equipment from scanning the registration plate. Legality of these covers varies; some cameras incorporate filter systems that make such avoidance attempts unworkable with infra-red filters. Vehicles pulling trailers, such as caravans and semi-trailer trucks, are required to display a third registration plate on the rear of the trailer. An engineering study by the University of Illinois published in 1960 recommended that the state of Illinois adopt a numbering system and plate design "composed of combinations of characters which can be perceived and are legible at a distance of 125 feet under daylight conditions, are adapted to filing and administrative procedures".
It recommended that a standard plate size of 6 inches by 14 inches be adopte
The British Raj was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent from 1858 to 1947. The rule is called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India; the region under British control was called British India or India in contemporaneous usage, included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom, which were collectively called British India, those ruled by indigenous rulers, but under British tutelage or paramountcy, called the princely states. The whole was informally called the Indian Empire; as India, it was a founding member of the League of Nations, a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, 1936, a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945. This system of governance was instituted on 28 June 1858, after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the rule of the British East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person of Queen Victoria, it lasted until 1947, when it was partitioned into two sovereign dominion states: the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan.
At the inception of the Raj in 1858, Lower Burma was a part of British India. The British Raj extended over all present-day India and Bangladesh, except for small holdings by other European nations such as Goa and Pondicherry; this area is diverse, containing the Himalayan mountains, fertile floodplains, the Indo-Gangetic Plain, a long coastline, tropical dry forests, arid uplands, the Thar Desert. In addition, at various times, it included Aden, Lower Burma, Upper Burma, British Somaliland, Singapore. Burma was separated from India and directly administered by the British Crown from 1937 until its independence in 1948; the Trucial States of the Persian Gulf and the states under the Persian Gulf Residency were theoretically princely states as well as presidencies and provinces of British India until 1947 and used the rupee as their unit of currency. Among other countries in the region, Ceylon was ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens. Ceylon was part of Madras Presidency between 1793 and 1798.
The kingdoms of Nepal and Bhutan, having fought wars with the British, subsequently signed treaties with them and were recognised by the British as independent states. The Kingdom of Sikkim was established as a princely state after the Anglo-Sikkimese Treaty of 1861; the Maldive Islands were a British protectorate from 1887 to 1965, but not part of British India. India during the British Raj was made up of two types of territory: British India and the Native States. In its Interpretation Act 1889, the British Parliament adopted the following definitions in Section 18: The expression "British India" shall mean all territories and places within Her Majesty's dominions which are for the time being governed by Her Majesty through the Governor-General of India or through any governor or other officer subordinates to the Governor-General of India; the expression "India" shall mean British India together with any territories of any native prince or chief under the suzerainty of Her Majesty exercised through the Governor-General of India, or through any governor or other officer subordinates to the Governor-General of India.
In general, the term "British India" had been used to refer to the regions under the rule of the British East India Company in India from 1600 to 1858. The term has been used to refer to the "British in India"; the terms "Indian Empire" and "Empire of India" were not used in legislation. The monarch was known as Empress or Emperor of India and the term was used in Queen Victoria's Queen's Speeches and Prorogation Speeches; the passports issued by the British Indian government had the words "Indian Empire" on the cover and "Empire of India" on the inside. In addition, an order of knighthood, the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, was set up in 1878. Suzerainty over 175 princely states, some of the largest and most important, was exercised by the central government of British India under the Viceroy. A clear distinction between "dominion" and "suzerainty" was supplied by the jurisdiction of the courts of law: the law of British India rested upon the laws passed by the British Parliament and the legislative powers those laws vested in the various governments of British India, both central and local.
At the turn of the 20th century, British India consisted of eight provinces that were administered either by a governor or a lieutenant-governor. During the partition of Bengal, the new provinces of Assam and East Bengal were created as a Lieutenant-Governorship. In 1911, East Bengal was reunited with Bengal, the new provinces in the east becam
Jammu and Kashmir (princely state)
Jammu and Kashmir was, from 1846 until 1952, a princely state of the British Empire in India and ruled by a Jamwal Rajput Dogra Dynasty. The state was created in 1846 from the territories under Sikh Empire after the First Anglo-Sikh War; the East India Company annexed the Kashmir Valley, Jammu and Gilgit-Baltistan from the Sikhs, transferred it to Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu in return for an indemnity payment of 7,500,000 Nanakshahee Rupees. At the time of the British withdrawal from India, Maharaja Hari Singh, the ruler of the state, preferred to become independent and remain neutral between the successor dominions of India and Pakistan. However, an uprising in the western districts of the State followed by an attack by raiders from the neighbouring Northwest Frontier Province, supported by Pakistan, put an end to his plans for independence. On 26 October 1947, the Maharaja signed the Instrument of Accession joining the Dominion of India in return for military aid; the western and northern districts presently known as Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan passed to the control of Pakistan, while the remaining territory became the Indian state Jammu and Kashmir.
The Dogra state in Jammu was established by Dhruv Dev, of the Jamuwal family, during the declining years of the Mughal Empire in the 18th century. The Jammu state asserted its supremacy among the'Dugar' states to the south of the Kashmir Valley, its ascent reached its peak under Dhruv Dev's successor Raja Ranjit Dev, respected among the hill states. Towards the end of Ranjit Dev's rule, the Sikh Misls gained ascendency, Jammu began to be contested by the Bhangi and Sukerchakia misls. Around 1770, the Bhangi misl forced Ranjit Dev to become a tributary. Brij Lal Dev, his successor, was defeated by the Sukerchakia Misl under Mahan Singh, who sacked Jammu and plundered it, thus Jammu lost its supremacy over the surrounding country. In 1808, Jammu itself was annexed to the Sikh Empire by Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the son of Mahan Singh. Gulab Singh, Dhruv Dev's direct descendant, was 16 years old when Jammu was annexed to the Sikh Empire. Gulab Singh and his two brothers, Dhyan Singh and Suchet Singh, went on to enrol with the Sikh forces.
Gulab Singh soon distinguished himself in battle, was awarded a Jagir near Jammu. He was allowed to keep an independent force. After the conquest of Kishtwar and the subjugation of Rajouri, he was made a hereditary Raja of Jammu in 1822, with an annual allowance of 300,000 rupees. Ranjit Singh installed him as the Raja of Jammu, his brother Dhyan Singh received Suchet Singh Ramnagar. Thus the Jammu state was reestablished after a gap of 20 years under the suzerainty of the Sikh Empire, Gulab Singh proceeded to regain its preeminence among the hill states. By 1827, Gulab Singh brought under his control all the principalities lying between Kashmir and Jammu. Dhyan Singh became the Lord Chamberlain and Prime Minister for Ranjit Singh. Gulab Singh acquired fame in the Sikh court as an able manager of the State's affairs. In 1832, after the death of Hari Singh Nalwa in the Battle of Jamrud, the Sudhan tribe of Poonch rose in revolt in Mong. Gulab Singh was given the task of crushing the rebellion. After defeating insurgents in Hazara and Murree hills, Gulab Singh made Kahuta his headquarter to deal with Sudhan insurgents.
A Sudhan, Shams Khan had captured hill forts from a Raja. Gulab Singh placed one Rupee over the head of man, woman or child connected to the insurgents, this way about 6,000 Sudhans perished in the hills; some Muslim women were sold into sexual slavery. Through the conquest of Kishtwar, the Jammu state gained control of two of the roads which lead into Ladakh. Although there were huge difficulties due to the mountains and glaciers, Gulab Singh's Dogra troop under the command of general Zorawar Singh Kahluria conquered the whole of Buddhist Ladakh in two campaigns. A few years in 1840, Zorawar Singh invaded Baltistan, captured the Raja of Skardu, who had sided with the Ladakhis, annexed his country to Gulab Singh's kingdom. Thus, whether by policy or accident, Gulab Singh's dominions encircled Kashmir by 1840. After the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1839, the Sikh court fell into anarchy and palace intrigues took over. Gulab Singh's brothers Dhyan Singh and Suchet Singh as well as his nephew Hira Singh were murdered in the struggles.
His eldest son, Udham Singh died in the process. Gulab Singh was careful to disassociate himself from the intrigues and focused on managing his Jagir and expanding his influence in the territories surrounding Kashmir. In early 1845, the Sikh Darbar marched on Jammu to seek the "reputed treasures" of Gulab Singh and demanded a fine of 30 million Nanakshahee rupees on the grounds that he had supported Hira Singh, but Gulab Singh used his battle skills as well as diplomacy to turn the Sikh troops in his favour and escaped with a payment of about 7 million rupees. He was however forced to surrender his second nephew Jawahir Singh, heir to Dhyan Singh, soon imprisoned by the Sikh Darbar. On the eve of the First Anglo-Sikh War, the relations between Gulab Singh and the Sikh Darbar were strained. Robert Huttenback states that Gulab Singh, as well as the British East India Company, had anticipated that the Sikh power would collapse after the death of Ranjit Singh and Gulab Singh positioned himself to become an independent ruler in due course.
He maintained friendly relations with the East India Company and had no intention of jeopardising them for the sake of the anarchic Sikh Darbar. On the other hand, The Sikh army had no trust in any of the Sikh commanders in Lahore and asked f
Warli painting is a style of tribal art created by the tribal people from the North Sahyadri Range in India. This range encompasses cities such as Dahanu, Jawhar, Palghar and Vikramgadh of Palghar district; this tribal art was originated in Maharashtra. The Warli tribe is one of the largest in India, located outside of Mumbai. Despite being close to one of the largest cities in India, the Warli reject much of contemporary culture; the style of Warli painting was not recognised until the 1970s though the tribal style of art is thought to date back as early as 10th century A. D; the Warli culture is centered around the concept of Mother Nature and elements of nature are focal points depicted in Warli painting. Farming is a large source of food for the tribe, they respect nature and wildlife for the resources that they provide for life. Warli artists use their clay huts as the backdrop for their paintings, similar to how ancient people used cave walls as their canvases; these rudimentary wall paintings use a set of basic geometric shapes: a circle, a triangle, a square.
These shapes are symbolic of different elements of nature. The circle and the triangle come from their observation of nature; the circle represents the sun and the moon, while the triangle is derived from mountains and pointed trees. In contrast, the square appears to be a human invention, indicating a sacred enclosure or a piece of land; the central motif in each ritual painting is the square, known as the "chalk" or "Shaukat" of two types known as Devchauk and Lagnachauk. Inside a Devchauk is a depiction of Palaghata, the mother goddess, symbolizing fertility. Male gods are unusual among the Warli and are related to spirits which have taken human shape; the central motif in the ritual painting is surrounded by scenes portraying hunting and farming, trees and animals. Festivals and dances are common scenes depicted in the ritual paintings. People and animals are represented by two inverse triangles joined at their tips: the upper triangle depicts the torso and the lower triangle the pelvis, their precarious equilibrium symbolizes the balance of the universe.
The representation has the practical and amusing advantage of animating the bodies. Another main theme of Warli art is the denotation of a triangle, larger at the top, representing a man. Apart from ritualistic paintings, other Warli paintings covered day-to-day activities of the village people. One of the central aspects depicted in many Warli paintings is the tarpa dance; the tarpa, a trumpet-like instrument, is played in turns by different village men. Men and women entwine their hands and move in a circle around the tarpa player; the dancers follow him and moving as he turns, never turning their backs to the tarpa. The musician plays two different notes, which direct the head dancer to either move clockwise or counterclockwise; the tarpa player assumes a role similar to that of a snake charmer, the dancers become the figurative snake. The dancers try to encircle them for entertainment; the circle formation of the dancers is said to resemble the circle of life. The simple pictorial language of Warli painting is matched by a rudimentary technique.
The ritual paintings are created on the inside walls of village huts. The walls are made of a mixture of branches and red brick that make a red ochre background for the paintings; the Warli only paint with a white pigment made from a mixture of rice paste and water, with gum as a binder. A bamboo stick is chewed at the end to give it the texture of a paintbrush. Walls are painted only to mark special occasions such as harvests; the lack of regular artistic activity explains the traditional tribal sense of style for their paintings. In the 1970s, this ritual art took a radical turn when Jivya Soma Mashe and his son Balu Mashe started to paint, they painted not for ritual purposes, but because of their artistic pursuits. Jivya is known as the modern father of Warli painting. Since the 1970s, Warli painting has moved onto canvas. Coca-Cola India launched a campaign featuring Warli painting in order to highlight the ancient culture and represent a sense of togetherness; the campaign was called "Come Home on Deepawali" and targeted the modern youth.
The campaign included advertising on traditional mass media, combined with radio, the Internet, out-of-home media. Warli Painting is traditional knowledge and cultural intellectual property preserved across generations. Understanding the urgent need for intellectual property rights, the tribal non-profit organization Adivasi Yuva Seva Sangh helped to register Warli painting with a geographical indication under the intellectual property rights act. Various efforts are in progress for strengthening sustainable economy of the Warli with social entrepreneurship. Warli Indian painting Warli art Warli Painting Home Page by Tribals https://www.gallerieak.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=9&Itemid=243 About Warli painting
The Koli people are an ethnic Indian group native to Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Jammu and Kashmir states. The Kolis of Gujarat intermixed with Rajputs due to the practice of hypergamous marriage, used to enhance or secure social status; some Kolis had once held small princely states before the colonial British Raj period and some were still significant landholders and tenants in the twentieth century. However, most Kolis had lost their once-equal standing with the Patidar community due to the land reforms of the Raj period. During the period of the Raj, the Gujarati Kolis became involved in the process of what has subsequently been termed sanskritisation. At that time, in the 1930s, they represented around 20 per cent of the region's population and members of the local Rajput community were seeking to extend their own influence by co-opting other significant groups as claimants to the ritual title of Kshatriya; the Rajputs were politically and marginalised because their own numbers — around 4 - 5 per cent of the population — were inferior to the dominant Patidars, with whom the Kolis were disenchanted.
The Kolis were among those whom the Rajputs targeted because, although classified as a criminal tribe by the British administration, they were among the many communities of that period who had made genealogical claims of descent from the Kshatriya. The Rajput leaders preferred to view the Kolis as being Kshatriya by dint of military ethos rather than origin but, in whatever terminology, it was a marriage of political expedience. In 1947, around the time that India gained independence, the Kutch, Gujarat Kshatriya Sabha caste association emerged as an umbrella organisation to continue the work begun during the Raj. Christophe Jaffrelot, a French political scientist, says that this body, which claimed to represent the Rajputs and Kolis, "... is a good example of the way castes, with different ritual status, join hands to defend their common interests.... The use of the word Kshatriya was tactical and the original caste identity was diluted."The relevance of the Kshatriya label in terms of ritual was diminished by the practical actions of the KKGKS which, among other things, saw demands for the constituent communities to be classified as Backward Classes in the Indian scheme for positive discrimination.
Kshatriyas would not wish to be associated with such a category and indeed it runs counter to the theory of sanskritisation, but in this instance it suited the socio-economic and political desires. By the 1950s, the KKGKS had established schools, loan systems and other mechanisms of communal self-help and it was demanding reforms to laws relating to land, it was seeking alliances with political parties at state level. By 1967, the KKGKS was once again working with Congress because, despite being a haven for Patidars, the party leadership needed the votes of the KKGKS membership; the Kolis gained more from the actions of the KKGKS in these two decades than did the Rajputs, Jaffrelot believes that it was around this time that a Koli intelligentsia emerged. Ghanshyam Shah, a professor at Jawaharlal Nehru University, describes the organisation today as covering a broad group of communities, from disadvantaged Rajputs of high prestige to the semi-tribal Bhils, with the Kolis in the middle, he notes that its composition reflects "a common economic interest and a growing secular identity born out of folklore but more out of common resentment against the well-to-do castes".
The Kolis of Gujarat remained educationally and occupationally disadvantaged compared to communities such as the Brahmins and Patidars. Their many Jātis include the Bareeya and Thakor, they use Koli as a suffix, giving rise to groups such as the Gulam Koli and Matia Koli; some do not refer to themselves as Koli at all. As of 2012, various communities bearing the Koli name appear in the central lists of Other Backward Classes maintained by the National Commission for Backward Classes, although at least one is in part recognised as a Scheduled Tribe; these classifications have been in force since at least 1993. The Government of India classified the Koli community as Scheduled Caste in the 2001 census for the states of Delhi, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. While the Koli are Hindu, in Mumbai, Native Christians include autochthonous Koli East Indian Catholics, who were forcefully converted by the Portuguese during the 16th century. Kanhoji Angre, Admiral of Maratha Navy of Shivaji Hathi Sord, Maharaja of Idar State.
Yakut Khan, Admiral of Mughal Navy and Jagirdar of Janjira Fort. Dhan Mer and founder of Dhandhuka and Dhandhalpur and son of Sonang Mer. Govindas Ramdas, Indian revolutionary. Mansa Khant, Revolutionary in Gujarat Sultanate against Junagadh State. Alpesh Thakor, Founder of'Kshatriya Thakor Sena, Gujarat' and Member of Legislative Assembly from Radhanpur. Thakur Karan Singh Makwana, Ruler of Katosan State. Yashwantrao Martandrao Mukne, Maharaja of the Jawhar State. Jhalkaribai, a woman soldier who played an important role in the Indian Rebellion of 1857 Tanaji Malusare, Commander in the Maratha Army of Shivaji Parshottambhai Solanki, former minister of Fishery in the Government of Gujarat Anant Tare, leader of Shiv Sena from Thane Notes References Bibliography Basu, Villages and the Success of Dairy Cooperatives in India: Making Place for Rural Development, Cambria Press, ISBN 9781604976250 Fuller, Christopher John, "The Internal Structure of the Nayar Caste", Journal of Anthropological Research, 31, JSTOR 3629883, Christophe
Chamber of Princes
The Chamber of Princes was an institution established in 1920 by a royal proclamation of King-Emperor George V to provide a forum in which the rulers of the princely states of India could voice their needs and aspirations to the colonial government of British India. It survived until the end of the British Raj in 1947; the Chamber of Princes was established in 1920, by King-Emperor George V's proclamation on 23 December 1919, after the Government of India Act 1919 was given royal assent. The creation of the chamber followed the abandonment by the British of their long-established policy of isolating the Indian rulers from each other and from the rest of the world; the Chamber first met on 8 February 1921 and consisted of 120 members. Of those, 108 from the more significant states were members in their own right, while the remaining twelve seats were for the representation of a further 127 states; that left 327 minor states. Some of the more important rulers like the Maratha-ruled states of Baroda State, Gwalior State and Holkar State declined to join it.
The Chamber of Princes met only once a year, with the Viceroy of India presiding, but it appointed a Standing Committee which met more often. The full Chamber elected from its princely ranks a permanent officer styled the Chancellor, who chaired the Standing Committee; the chamber convened at Sansad Bhavan. The hall is used as parliament's library today. On 12 March 1940, the Chamber resolved: The Chamber of Princes, while welcoming the attainment by India of its due place among the Dominions of the British Commonwealth under the British Crown, records its emphatic and firm view that, in any future constitution for India, the essential guarantees and safeguards for the preservation of the sovereignty and autonomy of the States and for the protection of their rights and interests arising from treaties, engagements and sanads or otherwise, should be provided and that any unit should not be placed in a position to dominate the others or to interfere with the rights and safeguards guaranteed to them, that all parties must be ensured their due share and fair play.
Durbar List of Indian princely states Salute state S. M. Verma. Chamber of Princes, 1921-1947 at Google Books. ISBN 81-85135-44-4 Proceedings of the Meetings of the Chamber of Princes Held at New Delhi on 14 and 15 October 1943 at Google Books R. P. Bhargava, The Chamber of Princes ISBN 81-7211-005-7 Barbara N. Ramusack, The Princes of India in the Twilight of Empire: Dissolution of a Patron-client System, 1914–1939 Ian Copland, Princes of India in the Endgame of Empire, 1917-1947 Media related to Chamber of Princes at Wikimedia Commons Image of the chamber in session