Shawn Corey Carter, known professionally as Jay-Z, is an American rapper, producer and record executive. Born and raised in New York City, Jay-Z first began his musical career after founding the record label Roc-A-Fella Records in 1995, subsequently released his debut studio album Reasonable Doubt in 1996; the album was released to widespread critical success, solidified his standing in the music industry. He has gone on to release twelve additional albums, which have all attained positive critical reception and commercial success, including The Blueprint and The Black Album. Jay-Z has released the full-length collaborative albums Watch the Throne and Everything Is Love with Kanye West and wife Beyoncé, respectively. Outside of his musical career, Jay-Z has attained significant success and media attention for his career as a businessman. In 1999, he founded the clothing retailer Rocawear, in 2003, he founded the luxury sports bar chain 40/40 Club. Both businesses have grown to become multi-million dollar corporations, allowed Jay-Z to fund the start-up for the entertainment company Roc Nation, founded in 2008.

In 2015, he acquired the tech company Aspiro, took charge of their media streaming service Tidal, which has since become the world's third-largest online streaming company. Jay-Z is one of the world's best-selling music artists, with over 50 million albums and 75 million singles sold worldwide, he has won a total of 22 Grammy Awards, the most by a rapper, holds the record for the most number-one albums by a solo artist on the Billboard 200, with 14. He has been ranked by Billboard and fellow music publication Rolling Stone as one of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. In 2017, he became the first rapper to be honored into the Songwriters Hall of Fame, in 2018, received the commemorative "Salute to Industry Icons" award at the 60th Grammy Awards. In June 2019, Jay-Z became the first hip hop billionaire, making him the 5th wealthiest African-American and the wealthiest American musician. Shawn Corey Carter was born in the Brooklyn borough of New York City and raised in Marcy Houses, a housing project in the Bedford-Stuyvesant neighborhood.

After their father, Adnis Reeves, abandoned the family and his three siblings were raised by their mother, Gloria Carter. Reeves would meet and reconcile with Jay-Z before dying in 2003. Jay-Z claims in his lyrics that in 1982 at age 12, he shot his older brother in the shoulder for stealing his jewelry. Along with future rapper AZ, Carter attended Eli Whitney High School in Brooklyn until it was closed down, he attended the nearby George Westinghouse Career and Technical Education High School with future rappers The Notorious B. I. G. and Busta Rhymes, followed by a stint at Trenton Central High School in Trenton, New Jersey, though he did not graduate. According to his interviews and lyrics, during this period he sold crack cocaine and was shot at three times. According to his mother, Carter used to wake up his siblings at night banging out drum patterns on the kitchen table, she bought him a boom box for his birthday. He began writing lyrics. Known as "Jazzy" around the neighborhood, Carter adopted the showbiz/stage name "Jay-Z" in homage to his mentor Jaz-O.

Jay-Z can be heard on several of Jaz-O's early recordings in the late 1980s and early 1990s, including "HP Gets Busy", "The Originators" and "Hawaiian Sophie." Jay-Z became embroiled in several battles with rapper LL Cool J in the early 1990s. He first became known to a wide audience on the posse cut "Show and Prove" on the 1994 Big Daddy Kane album Daddy's Home. Jay-Z has been referred to as Big Daddy Kane's hype man during this period, although Kane explains that he didn't fill the traditional hype man role, was instead making cameo appearances on stage. "When I would leave the stage to go change outfits, I would bring out Jay-Z and Positive K and let them freestyle until I came back to the stage." The young Jay-Z appeared on a popular song by Big L, "Da Graveyard", on Mic Geronimo's "Time to Build", which featured early appearances by DMX and Ja Rule in 1995. His first official rap single was called "In My Lifetime", for which he released a music video in 1995. An unreleased music video was produced for the B-side "I Can't Get with That."

With no major label to give him a record deal, Jay-Z sold CDs out of his car and, with Damon "Dame" Dash and Kareem "Biggs" Burke, created Roc-A-Fella Records as an independent label in 1995. After striking a distribution deal with Priority, Jay-Z released his 1996 debut album Reasonable Doubt with beats from acclaimed producers such as DJ Premier and Super DJ Clark Kent and an appearance by The Notorious B. I. G.. The album reached number 23 on the Billboard 200, was favored by critics; this album would be included in Rolling Stone's "500 Greatest Albums of All Time" as No. 248 and reach platinum status. After reaching a new distribution deal with Def Jam in 1997, Jay-Z released his follow-up In My Lifetime, Vol. 1. Produced by Sean "Puff Daddy" Combs, it sold better than his previous effort. Jay-Z explained that the album was made during one of the worst periods of his life when he was reeling from the death of his close friend, The Notorious B. I. G; the album was a personal revelation for Jay-Z.

The album's glossy production stood as a contrast to his first release, some dedicated fans felt he had "sold out." However, the album did feature some beats from producers who had worked with him on Reasonable Doubt, namely DJ Premier and Ski. Like its predecessor, In My Lifetime, Vol. 1 earned platinum

Linton Smith

Martin Linton Smith, was an Anglican bishop who served in three dioceses during the first half of the twentieth century. Smith was educated at Repton and Hertford College, Oxford. Ordained priest in 1894 he was a curate at four parishes before securing his own incumbency at Colchester in 1902. By now married to Kathleen Dewe with a young family, he gained experience in Liverpool becoming a Cathedral Canon, his finest hour, was the First World War where he gained the DSO for his sterling work at The Somme and Ypres. When peace came he was raised to the episcopate, firstly for two years as the suffragan Bishop of Warrington. Retiring to Cheltenham in 1940 he died after a long life “rich in service”. Lambeth and Reunion: An Interpretation of the Mind of the Lambeth Conference of 1920, with Frank Theodore Woods and Martin Linton Smith

Float (film)

Float is a 2019 American animated short film directed and written by Bobby Rubio, produced by Pixar Animation Studios, distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. It is the fourth film in Pixar's "SparkShorts" program, focuses on a son's ability to fly and the choice his father must make; the short was released on Disney+ on November 12, 2019. Dad is playing with his newborn son Alex in the front yard of his house. While showing him a dandelion, Alex proceeds surprising Dad. Watchful eyes begin to concern him as he brings him back inside the house. Now a toddler, Alex continues floating all over the darkened house as Dad has become a hermit with a disheveled appearance, he keeps his son on a leash and stuffs his backpack with rocks to keep him down, although these precautions are shown to not do much. They leave the house while trying to avoid the neighbors. Dad pauses in front of a playground and watches the other kids play, but he turns to see that Alex has escaped and is interacting with the other children by floating and annoying everyone.

Dad hurriedly grabs his son, who begins to have a temper tantrum, resulting in Dad asking his son why he can't be normal. Alex sadly pulls his hood over his head; as he looks at all the park attendees, Dad sits on the swing set. He begins to swing back and forth, reinvigorating his son, launches him in the air. Alex continues to fly as Dad runs around underneath him. Bobby Rubio as Dad Eli Fucile as Baby Alex Luna Watson as Toddler Alex Mika Kubo as Additional voices Float is a short film, directed and written by Bobby Rubio, produced by Krissy Cababa and Pixar Animation Studios, it is the fourth film of Pixar's "SparkShorts" program, it lasts seven minutes. In January 2019, Rubio described the program as "different films from the kinds of films" developed at Pixar, while executive producer Lindsey Collins said that the shorts are referred to as SparkShorts because Pixar " to discover that creative spark" in its employees. Rubio viewed the program as "a wonderful opportunity to tell story", he stated that Float is inspired by his son, who has autism, that he identified with the father from the short.

Rubio said. He commented that while "the father loves his son wholeheartedly without restriction" at first, this begins to be altered by what the other people say. Since his son was growing up, Rubio decided he had "to tell this story" and "started storyboarding it"; the initial storyboards contained Caucasian characters, but one of Rubio's co-workers told him that he should depict Filipino-American characters instead. While he was unsure of this idea, he decided to make this change to "empower and empower children of color". Rubio wanted to incorporate some of his own features as a Filipino-American into the characters' designs in order to make them look "authentic", he commented that he was "proud" that Float was released during Filipino American History Month. Rubio said that seeing the viewers react to some scenes in the way he had expected them to was "amazing", stating that he "totally loved it". According to Rubio, viewers had "several different" interpretations of the film. Krissy Cababa described Float as "a powerful story about being a parent and the struggles you go through as a parent with your kids".

She characterized it as "an important story about acceptance and being able to love and celebrate the people in our lives". Cababa said the short "was about celebrating people for who they are and not who you want them to be", she stated that "people are talking about representation" due to Float, "sharing what this means to them and its importance". She mentioned that the short is "a huge deal". Cababa said the short had received "so much support" and a "positive feedback", saying this had been "really overwhelming". Barney Jones, who composed the music for the Pixar short film Smash and Grab, composed the music for Float; the score will be released in 2020. Float was released on Disney+ on November 12, 2019, alongside fellow "SparkShorts" entries Purl and Grab, Kitbull. Float has obtained a positive critical response, with writers deeming it "touching", "moving", "spot-on"; the child on whom the short is centered was characterized as "extremely cute", as "adorable". Alex Abad-Santos of Vox described the short as "one of the best new things on Disney+".

He commented that "facial expressions and body language carry the story" despite the general lack of dialogue, adding that "a small shift in posture or the way a frown sharpens an entire face wields so much emotion". Abad-Santos stated that the short's "core story could be a story about assimilation and growing up as a minority" or "it could be about what like to feel different from those around you", he said that "Float taps into the human instinct to fiercely protect someone you love, the worry that the world out there see them the way you do, the hope that that big scary world will love this person as much as you do". Fortune's Ellen McGirt said that Rubio's "own fear that his son would be judged by others is palpable" through this short. Float was described as "a film about acceptance" with "a heart-warming story". Float on IMDb Float on Disney+