United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps referred to as the United States Marines or U. S. Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting expeditionary and amphibious operations with the United States Navy as well as the Army and Air Force; the U. S. Marine Corps is one of the four armed service branches in the U. S. Department of Defense and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States; the Marine Corps has been a component of the U. S. Department of the Navy since 30 June 1834, working with naval forces; the USMC operates installations on land and aboard sea-going amphibious warfare ships around the world. Additionally, several of the Marines' tactical aviation squadrons Marine Fighter Attack squadrons, are embedded in Navy carrier air wings and operate from the aircraft carriers; the history of the Marine Corps began when two battalions of Continental Marines were formed on 10 November 1775 in Philadelphia as a service branch of infantry troops capable of fighting both at sea and on shore.
In the Pacific theater of World War II the Corps took the lead in a massive campaign of amphibious warfare, advancing from island to island. As of 2017, the USMC has around some 38,500 personnel in reserve, it is the smallest U. S. military service within the DoD. As outlined in 10 U. S. C. § 5063 and as introduced under the National Security Act of 1947, three primary areas of responsibility for the Marine Corps are: Seizure or defense of advanced naval bases and other land operations to support naval campaigns. This last clause derives from similar language in the Congressional acts "For the Better Organization of the Marine Corps" of 1834, "Establishing and Organizing a Marine Corps" of 1798. In 1951, the House of Representatives' Armed Services Committee called the clause "one of the most important statutory – and traditional – functions of the Marine Corps", it noted that the Corps has more than not performed actions of a non-naval nature, including its famous actions in Tripoli, the War of 1812, numerous counter-insurgency and occupational duties, World War I, the Korean War.
While these actions are not described as support of naval campaigns nor as amphibious warfare, their common thread is that they are of an expeditionary nature, using the mobility of the Navy to provide timely intervention in foreign affairs on behalf of American interests. The Marine Band, dubbed the "President's Own" by Thomas Jefferson, provides music for state functions at the White House. Marines from Ceremonial Companies A & B, quartered in Marine Barracks, Washington, D. C. guard presidential retreats, including Camp David, the Marines of the Executive Flight Detachment of HMX-1 provide helicopter transport to the President and Vice President, with the radio call signs "Marine One" and "Marine Two", respectively. The Executive Flight Detachment provides helicopter transport to Cabinet members and other VIPs. By authority of the 1946 Foreign Service Act, the Marine Security Guards of the Marine Embassy Security Command provide security for American embassies and consulates at more than 140 posts worldwide.
The relationship between the Department of State and the U. S. Marine Corps is nearly as old as the corps itself. For over 200 years, Marines have served at the request of various Secretaries of State. After World War II, an alert, disciplined force was needed to protect American embassies and legations throughout the world. In 1947, a proposal was made that the Department of Defense furnish Marine Corps personnel for Foreign Service guard duty under the provisions of the Foreign Service Act of 1946. A formal Memorandum of Agreement was signed between the Department of State and the Secretary of the Navy on 15 December 1948, 83 Marines were deployed to overseas missions. During the first year of the MSG program, 36 detachments were deployed worldwide; the Marine Corps was founded to serve as an infantry unit aboard naval vessels and was responsible for the security of the ship and its crew by conducting offensive and defensive combat during boarding actions and defending the ship's officers from mutiny.
Continental Marines manned raiding parties, both at ashore. America's first amphibious assault landing occurred early in the Revolutionary War on 3 March 1776 as the Marines gained control of Fort Montague and Fort Nassau, a British ammunition depot and naval port in New Providence, the Bahamas; the role of the Marine Corps has expanded since then. The Advanced Base Doctrine of the early 20th century codified their combat duties ashore, outlining the use of Marines in the seizure of bases and other duties on land to support naval campaigns. Throughout the late 19th and 20th centuries, Marine detachments served aboard Navy cruisers and aircraft carriers. Marine detachments served in their traditional duties as a ship's landing force, manning the ship's weapons and providing shipboard security. Marine detachments were augmented by members of the ship's company for landing parties, such as in the First Sumatran Expedition of 1832, continuing in the Caribbean and Mexican campaigns of the early 20th centuries.
Marine Attack Squadron 214 is a United States Marine Corps fighter squadron consisting of AV-8B Harrier jets. The squadron is based at Marine Corps Air Station Yuma, Arizona and is under the command of Marine Aircraft Group 13 and the 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing; the squadron is best known as the Black Sheep of World War II fame and for one of its commanding officers, Colonel Gregory "Pappy" Boyington, whose memoirs inspired the 1970s television show Baa Baa Black Sheep syndicated as Black Sheep Squadron, which dramatized the squadron's exploits during the war. Provide offensive air support, armed reconnaissance, air defense for Marine expeditionary forces. Marine Fighter Squadron 214 was commissioned on July 1, 1942, at Marine Corps Air Station Ewa, on the Island of Oahu. Called the "Swashbucklers," they participated in the Solomon Islands campaign, flying out of Henderson Field on Guadalcanal, they were disbanded following their combat tour and the squadron designation was given to the Marine command on Espiritu Santo.
In August 1943, a group of twenty-seven young men under the leadership of Major Gregory "Pappy" Boyington were joined together to form the original "Blacksheep" of VMF-214. Major Boyington had just returned from a year's tour in China as a member of the 1st American Volunteer Group, had been credited with multiple kills of Japanese aircraft; the squadron was not assigned any aircraft or ancillary personnel at first and flew to Guadalcanal and the Russell Islands in borrowed planes that were in less than satisfactory condition. On the evening of September 13, 1943, the men of VMF-214 gathered in their commanding officer's hootch during which time it was suggested that they needed a nickname; the squadron called itself "Boyington's Bastards" after its new commander, the fact that all of the pilots had been orphans and not attached to a squadron when they got together, the fact they possessed few reliable planes and no mechanics. The following day, this new label was presented to the Marine Corps public information officer on the island at the time, Captain Jack DeChant, found to be unacceptable because civilian newspapers would never print it.
DeChant suggested the call sign "Black Sheep" because the expression meant the same thing. The pilots ranged from experienced combat veterans, with several air-to-air victories to their credit, to new replacement pilots from the United States. Major Boyington and Major Stan Bailey were given permission to form the unassigned pilots into a squadron, with the understanding that they would have less than four weeks to have them trained and ready for combat. Although they dropped the moniker "Boyington's Bastards," the squadron still retains the black bar of bastardy across its shield, they chose for their badge the black shield of illegitimacy, the bar sinister, a black sheep superimposed, surrounded by a circle of twelve stars, crowned with the image of their aircraft, the F4U Corsair. The Black Sheep squadron fought for eighty-four days, they met the Japanese over their own fields and territory and piled up a record of 203 planes destroyed or damaged, produced nine fighter aces with 97 confirmed air-to-air kills, sank several troop transports and supply ships, destroyed many installations, in addition to numerous other victories.
For their actions, the original Black Sheep were awarded the Presidential Unit Citation for extraordinary heroism in action. Following their first combat tour, 26 pilots from the squadron left the airfield at Munda for a week of rest and relaxation in Sydney, Australia where they holed up in the Australia Hotel; the Black Sheep ended their second combat tour on January 8, 1944, five days after Major Boyington was shot down and captured by the Japanese. The original Black Sheep were disbanded and the pilots were placed in the pilot pool in Marine Aircraft Group 11. Exploits of this incarnation of the unit were loosely fictionalized in the 1970s television series Baa Baa Black Sheep renamed Black Sheep Squadron, starring Robert Conrad as Boyington. VMF-214 was reformed on January 29, 1944 at Marine Corps Air Station Santa Barbara near Goleta, California, they deployed aboard the aircraft carrier USS Franklin on February 4, 1945 to join on-going operations on Okinawa. On March 19, a Japanese bomber hit USS Franklin.
The explosion and resulting fire caused 772 deaths aboard Franklin including 32 Black Sheep members. Many Black Sheep aircraft were launching for a strike on mainland Japan at the time. One, First Lieutenant Ken Linder, was given half credit for shooting down the Japanese bomber that struck Franklin; this ended VMF-214 involvement in World War II. During the course of the war, the squadron suffered 23 pilots killed in action or missing and lost 48 aircraft to accidents or enemy contact. In April 1945, the Black Sheep were relocated to Marine Corps Air Station El Centro, to MCAS El Toro, California in October 1945. In the next few years, the Black Sheep deployed for operations on board USS Rendova, USS Bairoko, USS Badoeng Strait, USS Boxer; when the Korean War broke out, VMF-214 was en route to Hawaii on board USS Badoeng Strait hosting midshipmen from the Naval Academy. The squadron's commanding officer, Major Robert P. Keller, was summoned to headquarters in Hawaii where he met with Colonel Victor Krulak.
Krulak bluntly asked, "Major, are you ready to go to war?" Flying eight F4U-4B Corsairs on August 3, 1950, VMF-214 became the first Marine squadron to see action in Korea, when they launched from USS Sicily and executed a raid against enemy installations near Inchon. After the F4Us delivered their incendiary bombs and rockets, they followed up with a series
University of Alaska Fairbanks
The University of Alaska Fairbanks is a public research university in College, Alaska. It is a flagship campus of the University of Alaska system and a land-grant, sea-grant, space-grant institution. UAF was established in 1917 and opened for classes in 1922. Named the Alaska Agricultural College and School of Mines, it became the University of Alaska in 1935. Fairbanks-based programs became the University of Alaska Fairbanks in 1975. UAF is home to several major research units, including the Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station. Located just 200 miles south of the Arctic Circle, the Fairbanks campus' unique location favors Arctic and northern research. UAF's research specialties are renowned worldwide, most notably Arctic biology, Arctic engineering, geophysics and Alaska Native studies; the University of Alaska Museum of the North is on the Fairbanks campus. In addition to the Fairbanks campus, UAF encompasses six rural and urban campuses: Bristol Bay Campus in Dillingham. UAF is the home of eLearning and Distance Education, an independent learning and distance delivery program.
In fall 2017, UAF enrolled 8,720 students. Of those students, 58% were female and 41% were male; as of May 2018, 1,352 students had graduated during the preceding summer and spring semesters. The University of Alaska Fairbanks was established in 1917 as the Alaska Agricultural College and School of Mines, but its origins lie in the creation of a federal agricultural experiment station in Fairbanks in 1906; the station set the tone for the research-oriented university that developed later. In the spring of 1915, the U. S. Congress approved legislation that reserved about 2,250 acres of land for a campus around the research station, it allowed the federal government to give the college land, surveyed and unclaimed in the Tanana Valley. However, because most of the land in Tanana Valley remained unsurveyed for years, the college only received 12,000 acres. In 1929, Congress attempted to remedy the situation by granting the college an additional 100,000 acres anywhere in Alaska, but those rights were extinguished in 1959 when Alaska became a state.
Four months after Congress approved the legislation for the campus land in 1915, a cornerstone for the college was laid by Territorial Delegate James Wickersham on a bluff overlooking the lower Chena River valley. The ridge, which the indigenous Athabaskan people called Troth Yeddha', soon became known as College Hill. Charles E. Bunnell was appointed the university’s chief executive and served the university for 28 years. Classes began at the new institution on September 18, 1922, it offered 16 different courses to a student body of six on opening day. In 1923, the first commencement produced John Sexton Shanly. In 1935, the Alaska Legislature passed a bill that changed the name of the college to the University of Alaska; when William R. Wood became the university’s president in 1960, he divided the academic departments of the university into six select colleges: Arts and Letters. From that point on, both the university’s student population and research mission grew tremendously. With the appointment of Chancellor Howard A. Cutler in 1975, the University of Alaska became the University of Alaska Fairbanks.
The two other primary UA institutions are the University of Alaska Anchorage and the University of Alaska Southeast in Juneau. The Alaska Constitutional Convention was held in the freshly constructed Student Union Building on the Fairbanks campus from November 1955 to February 1956. While the convention progressed, the building became known as Constitution Hall, where the 55 delegates drafted the legal foundation of the 49th state; the campus’ old library and gymnasium was renamed Signers’ Hall after the Alaska Constitution was signed there in February 1956. UAF has nine academic schools and colleges: College of Engineering and Mines College of Liberal Arts College of Natural Science and Mathematics College of Rural and Community Development Graduate School School of Education College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences School of Management School of Natural Resources and Extension There are 190 different degree and certificate programs available in more than 120 disciplines; the UAF Honors Program was created in 1983 and provides additional opportunities for students to prepare for professional school admission.
Students complete core curriculum courses for their degrees in the Honors Program, maintain at least a 3.25 grade-point average in all courses, complete a thesis project. Elmer E. Rasmuson Library The Alaska Film Archives, housed in the library's Alaska and Polar Regions Collections and Archives, holds the largest collection of film-related material about Ala
Port Alsworth, Alaska
Port Alsworth is a census-designated place in Lake and Peninsula Borough, United States. It is one hundred miles southwest of Anchorage; the population was 159 at the 2010 census, up from 104 in 2000. Port Alsworth was founded in 1950 by Babe Alsworth, a missionary and bush pilot, Mary Alsworth, the town's first postmaster. Port Alsworth is located on private land within Lake Clark National Park and Preserve and the site of the National Park's field headquarters. Samaritan's Purse operates a lodge for wounded United States military veterans located within the town for "Operation Heal Our Patriots". There is a summer camp called "Tanalian Bible Camp" where youth, ages 8-19, from the surrounding villages can attend. From the summer of 2013 to the spring of 2014, the local Tanalian School underwent renovation and a dearly needed expansion; the renovation involved tripling school square footage, all new furniture, doubling the size of the gym. Port Alsworth is located at 60°12′30″N 154°18′24″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 22.8 square miles, of which, 22.7 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water.
Port Alsworth has a continental subarctic climate. Port Alsworth first appeared on the 1940 U. S. Census as the unincorporated village of "Tanalian Point." It next appeared on the 1960 census under its present name of Port Alsworth. It did not reappear again until 1990; as of the census of 2000, there were 104 people, 34 households, 24 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 4.6 people per square mile. There were 70 housing units at an average density of 3.1/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 77.88% White, 4.81% Native American, 17.31% from two or more races. There were 34 households out of which 47.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 67.6% were married couples living together, 2.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.5% were non-families. 23.5% of all households were made up of individuals and none had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.06 and the average family size was 3.64. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 41.3% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 28.8% from 25 to 44, 18.3% from 45 to 64, 3.8% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 26 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.8 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $58,750.00, the median income for a family was $62,083. Males had a median income of $50,417 versus $17,083 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $21,716. There were no families and 6.0% of the population living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and none of those over 64. Sports On December 1, 2018, the Tanalian Lynx Mix Six volleyball team dominated the state competition and took home the trophy; this is the first of many state title to come for the Lynx. Subsistence harvests and uses of wild resources in Iliamna, Nondalton, Pedro Bay, Port Alsworth, Alaska, 2004 / by James A. Fall.... Hosted by Alaska State Publications Program
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
Triangle is a social fraternity, limiting its recruitment of members to male students majoring in engineering and the physical, mathematical and computer sciences. It is the only member of the North-American Interfraternity Conference to limit its membership recruitment to these majors. Triangle Fraternity organized at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign in the fall of 1906 and was incorporated by the state of Illinois on 15 April 1907, celebrated each year as Founders' Day. There are thirty-five chapters and eight colonies of Triangle Fraternity active in the U. S; the headquarters is located in Plainfield, Indiana in a historic building built as a Carnegie library in 1912. Triangle Fraternity is one of three national fraternities not to have Greek letters, the others being Acacia and FarmHouse. Triangle was formed in the fall of 1906 by sixteen civil engineering juniors at the University of Illinois, it was formally incorporating on 15 April 1907. The date of incorporation has been designated as Founders' Day, Triangle celebrates it every year at each chapter.
Triangle's mission statement reads, "The purpose of Triangle shall be to maintain a fraternity of engineers and scientists. It shall carry out its purpose by establishing chapters that develop balanced men who cultivate high moral character, foster lifelong friendships, live their lives with integrity." Colors: Old Rose and Grey Coat of Arms: The crest consists of a rising sun beneath a Triangle T. Beneath is an esquire helmet in profile. At the center of the Coat of Arms is the fraternity's shield and a ribbon containing the organization's motto "Veritas Omnia Vincit". Surrounding the shield is a mantling. Flower: White Chrysanthemum Flag: The Coat of Arms on a Yellow T with Gray field. Triangle Fraternity was founded on high ethical and moral ideals, expects the men of the fraternity to follow a set Code of Ethics, as follows: As a member of Triangle, I recognize my obligation to: Observe the precepts of the Fraternity as set forth in the Ritual. List of social fraternities and sororities Triangle Fraternity – The Fraternity of Engineers and Scientists Triangle Education Foundation
Joseph E. Vogler was the founder of the Alaskan Independence Party, he was chair or gubernatorial nominee during most of the company's existence. He was known in his adopted hometown of Fairbanks and statewide, as a frequent participant in governmental and political affairs and frequent litigant in court. Curiously enough, he was known to many non-political observers for his fashion sense, in particular his ubiquitous wearing of fedoras and bolo ties. Vogler was born April 1913, on a farm outside Barnes, Kansas, he graduated from high school in Waterville, Kansas, in 1929. That year, he began studying at the University of Kansas on a scholarship, he was admitted to the Kansas State Bar. Vogler moved to Alaska in March 1942, having run afoul of many of his contemporaries in the Lower 48 regarding his views on then-U. S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt. After spending a year in Kodiak, he moved to Fairbanks and worked as a civilian employee of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers at Ladd Field in Fairbanks, until 1951 when he began mining on Homestake Creek.
He filed for 80 acres of homestead land off the Steese Highway and acquired 320 acres near Fairbanks off Farmers Loop Road. Vogler spent fifty years as a developer in Alaska. Vogler was known around Fairbanks as a frequent writer of letters to the editor until 1973 when he launched a petition drive calling for Alaska to secede, he subsequently launched his first campaign for governor a year later. He gained his first serious notoriety in Fairbanks during the 1940s and 1950s for a feud with Paul and Flora Greimann, operators of University Bus Lines; the company was a private urban transit company, which transported students between Fairbanks and the University of Alaska. Prior to the replacement of the Cushman Street Bridge in 1959, the old bridge was too narrow to accommodate both a large vehicle such as a truck or bus, another vehicle. Vogler, with Warren A. Taylor as his attorney, sued University Bus Lines in 1948 in what the Fairbanks Daily News-Miner at the time called the "Battle of the Bridge".
Vogler sought a permanent injunction against the buses straddling the center rail of the bridge. The feud continued after the Wendell Street Bridge opened in 1953 and Greimann's buses continued using the Cushman bridge instead of the newer, wider bridge. Police were involved in quelling these confrontations. Vogler arose as a figure in Alaskan politics in 1973, where he began a petition calling for secession of Alaska from the United States. Alaska magazine reported that Vogler claimed to have gathered 15,000 signatures over a period of about three weeks. Vogler was quoted as saying about the effort: "The response has been beyond my wildest expectations. I never dreamed the people would respond like this."During the 1970s, Vogler founded the Alaskan Independence Party and Alaskans For Independence. The latter name was used to label the 1973 petition drive. Vogler claimed to have organized the meeting which led to the formation of the Alaska Libertarian Party; the AIP and AFI, as Vogler explained, were intended to function as separate entities—AIP was to explore whether the 1958 vote by Alaskans authorizing statehood was legal, AFI was to pursue secession for Alaska from the United States.
The Alaskan Independence Party quotes Vogler as stating "I'm an Alaskan, not an American. I've got no use for America or her damned institutions."In a 1991 interview housed at the Oral History Program in the Rasmuson Library at the University of Alaska, Vogler is recorded as saying "The fires of hell are frozen glaciers compared to my hatred for the American government. And I won't be buried under their damn flag. I'll be buried in Dawson, and when Alaska is an independent nation they can bring my bones home."Vogler would serve as the AIP's standard-bearer for most of the party's first two decades. He ran for governor with Wayne Peppler, a fellow miner from Fairbanks, as his running mate. Jay Hammond, a longtime legislator from the Bristol Bay region, was elected over incumbent governor Bill Egan by 287 votes, with Vogler trailing far behind. Many commentators described Vogler as a "spoiler" in the election, arguing that the result would have been different had he not been in the race. However, this campaign opened up the doors for non-major party candidates to run for major offices in Alaska, this accusation is leveled during every election cycle.
Vogler switched to run for lieutenant governor in 1978, with Don Wright running for governor. Wright was the AIP's nominee for governor from 2002 through 2010; the 1978 campaign for governor was dominated by the controversial Republican primary race between moderate Hammond and former governor Walter Hickel. Hickel would launch a write-in campaign in the general election. Hammond was reelected governor. There was a well-financed independent candidate in the race, Tom Kelly, Commissioner of Natural Resources under Hickel and his successor, Keith Miller. There was little hope for the AIP ticket to gain much attention due to these factors; the Democratic nominee, Chancy Croft, placed third in the general election due to the continued interest in Hammond vs. Hickel beyond the primary election. Vogler ran for governor in 1982 and 1986. Several incidents during these campaigns raised his profile as a "colorful character." In the 1982 race, Vogler was taken to task for comments made during a debate. The issue of moving Alaska's capital appeared during the election, as it has on and off since 1960.
The media and political pundits took great