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Jay Miner

Jay Glenn Miner was an American integrated circuit designer, known for developing multimedia chips for the Atari 2600 and Atari 8-bit family and as the "father of the Amiga". He received a BS in EECS from UC Berkeley in 1959. Miner started in the electronics industry with a number of designs in the medical world, including a remote-control pacemaker, he moved to Inc. in the late 1970s. One of his first successes was to combine an entire breadboard of components into a single chip, known as the TIA; the TIA was the display hardware for the Atari 2600. After working on the TIA he headed up the design of the follow-on chip set known as ANTIC and CTIA for which he held a patent; these chips would be used for the Atari 8-bit family of home computers and the Atari 5200 video game system. In the early 1980s, along with other Atari staffers, had become fed up with management and decamped, they set up another chipset project under a new company in Santa Clara, called Hi-Toro, where they could have creative freedom.

There, they started to create a new Motorola 68000-based games console, codenamed Lorraine, that could be upgraded to a computer. To raise money for the Lorraine project, Amiga Corp. designed and sold joysticks and game cartridges for popular game consoles such as the Atari 2600 and ColecoVision, as well as an odd input device called the Joyboard a joystick the player stood on. Atari continued to be interested in the team's efforts throughout this period, funded them with $500,000 in capital in return for first use of their resulting chipset. In the early 1980s, Jay worked on a project with Intermedics, Inc. to create their first microprocessor-based cardiac pacemaker. The microprocessor was called Lazarus and the pacemaker was called Cosmos. Jay was listed co-inventor on two patents. US patent 4390022, Richard V. Calfee & Jay Miner, "Implantable device with microprocessor control", issued 1983-06-28, assigned to Intermedics, Inc. US patent 4404972, Pat L. Gordon; the Amiga crew, having continuing serious financial problems, had sought more monetary support from investors that entire Spring.

Amiga entered into discussions with Commodore. The discussions led to Commodore wanting to purchase Amiga outright, which would cancel any outstanding contracts - including Atari Inc.'s. So instead of Amiga delivering the chipset, Commodore delivered a check of $500,000 to Atari on Amiga's behalf, in effect returning the funds invested into Amiga for completion of the Lorraine chipset. Jay worked at Commodore-Amiga in Los Gatos, California, they made good progress at the beginning, but as Commodore management changed, they became marginalised and the original Amiga staff was fired or left out on a one-by-one basis, until the entire Los Gatos office was closed. Miner worked as a consultant for Commodore until it went bankrupt, he was known as the'Padre' of the Amiga among Amiga users. Jay always took his dog "Mitchy" with him. While he worked at Atari, Mitchy had her own ID-badge, an embossing of Mitchy's paw print is visible on the inside of the Amiga 1000 top cover, alongside the signatures of the engineers who worked on it.

Jay endured kidney problems for most of his life, according to his wife, relied on dialysis. His sister donated one of her own. Miner died due to complications from kidney failure at the age of 62, just two months after Commodore declared bankruptcy. On the Edge: The Spectacular Rise and Fall of Commodore, Variant Press. ISBN 0-9738649-0-7. Jay Miner Society Amiga Forever Premium Edition and Amiga Forever Video Edition, Cloanto IT srl. A DVD set featuring Jay Miner in several speeches. History of the Amiga, Ars Technica Amiga article series

Regula Tschumi

Regula Tschumi is a Swiss social anthropologist and art historian. Regula Tschumi has spent time in East and South Africa, researching into contemporary African art. In 2006 she published a standard work on the figurative coffins of the Ga people. In this book she traces the origins of these coffins in the art and religion of the Ga, questions the history of their evolution. In the course of this research Regula Tschumi discovered the coffin-artist and art brut painter Ataa Oko, born 1919, from La, in Ghana. Ataa Oko was making figurative coffins as long ago as 1945, to say, according to her, before Kane Kwei, recognised outside Ghana as having "invented" these coffins for the burial rituals of the Ga. In her PhD thesis 2013 Regula Tschumi makes the first deep research about the unknown figurative palanquins of the Ga, she shows how the figurative palanquins are related with the figurative coffins, why the figurative palanquins were used in Accra as early as 1930. She discovered that differently from what many Ga believe, no chief has been buried in his figurative palanquin.

Palanquins belong to the powerful royal insignias. Therefore, kings were not buried in their palanquin, but in a coffin that looked the same like their palanquin; this was necessary because the Ga believe that funerals are complementary. Regula Tschumi has taken part in various exhibition projects in leading museums, when she worked with different Ghanaian artists and coffin-palanquin-makers like Paa Joe, Ataa Oko and Kudjoe Affutu among others. 2017 Ataa Oko. A glimpse inside the amazing world of Ghanaian funerals and how the carpenter Ataa Oko became an artis, Kvadrat Interwoven: the fabric of things, online article. 2014 Concealed Art. The figurative palanquins and coffins of Ghana. Edition Till Schaap, Bern. ISBN 978-3-03828-099-6. 2014 The Buried Treasures of the Ga: Coffin Art in Ghana. Edition Till Schaap, Bern. ISBN 978-3-03828-016-3. A revised and updated second edition of Benteli 2008. 2013 The Figurative Palanquins of the Ga. History and Significance, in: African Arts, vol. 46, 4, 2013, pp. 60–73.

2013 Die figürlichen Sänften und Särge der Ga im Süden Ghanas. Geschichte, Transformation und Sinn einer künstlerischen Ausdrucksform von den Anfängen bis in die Gegenwart, PhD theses, phil.-hist. Univ. Basle. 2010 The Deathbead of a Living Man. A Coffin for the Centre Pompidou, in: Saâdane Afif, Anthologie de l'humour noir, Paris: Editions Centre Pompidou, pp. 56–61. 2010 Ataa Oko et le langage formel des Ga in: Ataa Oko. Exhibition catalogue. Lausanne, Gollion: lnfolio. 2006 Last Respects, First Honoured. Ghanaian Burial Rituals and Figural Coffins in: Kunstmuseum Bern, Six Feet Under. Autopsy of Our Relation to the Dead. Ex.-Cat. Bielefeld, Leipzig: Kerber, pp. 114–125. Ataa Oko. A glimpse inside the amazing world of Ghanaian funerals and how the carpenter Ataa Oko became an artist

Bonifacio Transport Corporation

Bonifacio Transport Corp. or more known as BGC Bus or The Fort Bus, is an intercity bus company in Metro Manila, Philippines operated under Fort Bonifacio Development Corporation, an affiliate company under Ayala Corporation, one of the largest conglomerate company established during the Spanish era. It plies routes from EDSA in Makati to Bonifacio Global City in Taguig via McKinley Road; this bus company was regarded as the first non-EDSA Metro Manila bus that traverses from one business district to another. It utilizes a contactless smart card, as a mode of electronic payment. Founded in 1998, Bonifacio Transport Corp. was established under Fort Bonifacio Development Corporation. It was formed through the use of 24 buses –- 10 of which are Mercedes-Benz buses and the rest are Nissan Diesel units—for internal transport system to and from Bonifacio Global City and Ayala Center. In 2008, the Mercedes-Benz O 500 M 1725 buses were launched by FBDC. Six coaches were used first for the said route, just like some of the buses used in other countries like United Kingdom or Turkey.

There were additional 14 buses of the same model to sustain the need of the passengers of the bus. In the same year, HM Transport Inc. and Bonifacio Transport Corp. signed an agreement, allowing the use of some buses to ply at Bonifacio Global City. Market! in Taguig City as its terminal via EDSA and Kalayaan Avenue but this was only operates every weekdays. Bonifacio Transport Corp. maintains UD Nissan Diesel, Mercedes-Benz and Higer buses. Higer DMMW Aero Adamant Mercedes-Benz DMMW Aero Extreme AMC Tourist Star Nissan Diesel Santarosa EXFOH BGC Bus operates on 7 different routes originating from EDSA Bus originating from EDSA-Ayala-McKinley Bus Terminal or at Market Market. Bonifacio Transport Corp. operates 24/7 as of today. The trip stops. Most of the passengers of the bus company were those working at call centers erected in Bonifacio Global City and nearby areas at Ayala, Makati. List of bus companies of the Philippines Premium Point-to-Point Bus Service

Shell molding

Shell moulding known as shell-mould casting, is an expendable mold casting process that uses a resin covered sand to form the mold. As compared to sand casting, this process has better dimensional accuracy, a higher productivity rate, lower labor requirements, it is used for small to medium parts. Shell molding was developed as a manufacturing process during the mid-20th century in Germany, it was invented by a German engineer Johannes Croning. Shell mold casting is a metal casting process similar to sand casting, in that molten metal is poured into an expendable mold. However, in shell mold casting, the mold is a thin-walled shell created from applying a sand-resin mixture around a pattern; the pattern, a metal piece in the shape of the desired part, is reused to form multiple shell molds. A reusable pattern allows for higher production rates, while the disposable molds enable complex geometries to be cast. Shell mold casting requires the use of a metal pattern, sand-resin mixture, dump box, molten metal.

Shell mold casting allows the use of both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, most using cast iron, carbon steel, alloy steel, stainless steel, aluminum alloys, copper alloys. Typical parts are small-to-medium in size and require high accuracy, such as gear housings, cylinder heads, connecting rods, lever arms; the shell mold casting process consists of the following steps: Pattern creation - A two-piece metal pattern is created in the shape of the desired part from iron or steel. Other materials are sometimes used, such as aluminum for low volume production or graphite for casting reactive materials. Mold creation - First, each pattern half is heated to 175-370 °C and coated with a lubricant to facilitate removal. Next, the heated pattern is clamped to a dump box, which contains a mixture of sand and a resin binder; the dump box is inverted. The heated pattern cures the mixture, which now forms a shell around the pattern; each pattern half and surrounding shell is cured to completion in an oven and the shell is ejected from the pattern.

Mold assembly - The two shell halves are joined together and securely clamped to form the complete shell mold. If any cores are required, they are inserted prior to closing the mold; the shell mold is placed into a flask and supported by a backing material. Pouring - The mold is securely clamped together while the molten metal is poured from a ladle into the gating system and fills the mold cavity. Cooling - After the mold has been filled, the molten metal is allowed to cool and solidify into the shape of the final casting. Casting removal - After the molten metal has cooled, the mold can be broken and the casting removed. Trimming and cleaning processes are required to remove any excess metal from the feed system and any sand from the mold. Examples of shell molded items include cylinder heads and connecting rods, it is used to make high-precision molding cores. The process of creating a shell mold consists of six steps: Fine silica sand, covered in a thin thermosetting phenolic resin and liquid catalyst is dumped, blown, or shot onto a hot pattern.

The pattern is made from cast iron and is heated to 230 to 315 °C. The sand is allowed to sit on the pattern for a few minutes to allow the sand to cure; the pattern and sand are inverted so the excess sand drops free of the pattern, leaving just the "shell". Depending on the time and temperature of the pattern the thickness of the shell is 10 to 20 mm; the pattern and shell together are placed in an oven to finish curing the sand. The shell now has a tensile strength of 350 to 450 psi; the hardened shell is stripped from the pattern. Two or more shells are combined, via clamping or gluing using a thermoset adhesive, to form a mold; this finished mold can be used or stored indefinitely. For casting the shell mold is placed inside a flask and surrounded with shot, sand, or gravel to reinforce the shell; the machine, used for this process is called a shell molding machine. It heats the pattern, applies the sand mixture, bakes the shell. Setup and production of shell mold patterns takes weeks, after which an output of 5–50 pieces/hr-mold is attainable.

Common materials include cast iron and copper alloys. Aluminum and magnesium products average about 13.5 kg as a normal limit, but it is possible to cast items in the 45–90 kg range. The small end of the limit is 30 g. Depending on the material, the thinnest cross-section castable is 1.5 to 6 mm. The minimum draft is 0.25 to 0.5 degrees. Typical tolerances are 0.005 mm/mm or in/in because the sand compound is designed to shrink and a metal pattern is used. The cast surface finish is 0.3–4.0 micrometers because a finer sand is used. The resin assists in forming a smooth surface; the process, in general, produces consistent castings from one casting to the next. The sand-resin mix can be recycled by burning off the resin at high temperatures. AdvantagesShell molding can be automated for mass production; the high productivity, low labor costs, good surface finishes, precision of the process can more than pay for itself if it reduces machining costs. There are few problems due to gases, because of the absence of moisture in the shell, the little gas, still present escapes through the thin shell.

When the metal is poured some of the resin binder burns out on the surface of the shell, which makes shaking out easy. Complex shapes and fine details can be formed with good surface finish, high production rate, low labor cost

Villa Mariënhof

Villa Mariënhof is a historic mansion with a garden located along the Bredaseweg in the Dutch city Tilburg. It was built between 1916 and 1918 as the residence of the family of a factory owner, it was designed by Johan Wilhelm Hanrath. In 1986, it was inherited by Staatsbosbeheer, who first used Villa Mariënhof as an office and rented it; the house itself, its teahouse, the garden are rijksmonumenten. Villa Mariënhof was constructed between 1916 and 1918 according to a design by architect Johan Wilhelm Hanrath; the client was Jos Janssen, the owner of the dyeing factory "De Regenboog" along the Bredaseweg. It was built on the north side of the Bredaseweg, where ribbon development of large detached houses with gardens started to take a hold in the 1930s; the building was renovated after a building permit was granted in 1939. The veranda was turned into a sunroom, a terrace was added adjacent to it in the front. In 1951, a concrete one-car garage was built on the eastern side of the lot; the government organization Staatsbosbeheer inherited the property from Charles Janssen, Jos' son, in 1986 with the request to conserve the mansion for at least 25 years.

It subsequently served as a regional headquarters for that organization, it was renovated in the late 1980s, adding among other things a fire escape. Starting in 1997, Staatsbosbeheer rented Villa Mariënhof as a residential unit; the mansion, its garden, its teahouse became three separate rijksmonumenten in 2002. According to the Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed, the building has cultural-historical importance as it serves as an example of the construction of estates along the arteries entering industrial towns. Furthermore, it has important value within the oeuvre of architects Hanrath and Springer, its interior and exterior are in a good condition; the roof of Villa Mariënhof was replaced in 2012. Staatsbosbeheer tried to sell the mansion in 2015 for an asking price of around €950,000, preferably for residential usage and not to a developer; that price did not include the lot on which the mansion stands, as Staatsbosbeheer planned to lease this to a seller. This last condition was dropped, the asking price was raised to €1.85 million before it was lowered again to €1.6 million in 2019.

Because the estate agent did not manage to sell the property, Staatsbosbeheer dropped the preference for residential usage and a private seller that year, although the zoning plans still required an alteration to allow for extensions or other uses. The mansion was designed by Johan Wilhelm Hanrath, a Dutch architect from Hilversum in the traditionalist and rationalist styles, it has two above-ground floors, a basement, an attic below its hip roof. The roof is covered with red roof tiles, features two masoned chimneys; the mansion has Flemish bond brickwork. The front facade consists of three bays; the central porch is topped by a rounded arch, it includes a front door made out of oak. The door is flanked by two leaded windows depicting scenes from the textile industry. A leaded window above the door shows Noah's Ark, the dates "1890 - 2 december - 1940" and the signature of stained glass artist Pieter Wiegersma; the porch features a foundation stone out of sandstone with the inscription "Memorial stone laid by Joseph and Charles Janssen, January 1917".

On both sides, there are canted bay windows. Most windows in the front facade are cross-windows and some have shutters; the roof features three dormers. The east side facade has a sunroom, it is supported by features rounded windows. A balcony with a masoned balustrade is located on top of it. Another entrance with a two-step stairs is situated next to the sunroom under a wooden canopy; the west facade is symmetric, has a terrace with two balustrades. The backside has a door in the middle. There is a wooden balcony above that door; the back facade has three dormers just like the front facade. A vestibule with a floor and panelling made out of green marble is located behind the front door; the central hall on the ground floor connects to most rooms including the living room and a drawing room with teak panelling. The ground floor toilet and its passage are decorated with green glazed tiles. Another passage has a backdoor and the entrance to the kitchen, fitted with an intercom to deliver messages to the other rooms.

The kitchen and scullery have floors with a chessboard pattern and panelling of white glazed tiles with images. Similar tiling can be found around one of the fireplaces as well; the central hall contains the three-part staircase, made out of Scots pine wood and leads to the first floor. This floor and the one above it contain the bathrooms; the forested garden with a size of 18,000 m2 was designed by landscape architect Leonard Springer, responsible for the Leijpark in Tilburg. The English landscape garden was constructed in 1919 and used to have a size of around 25,000 m2, it has two driveways – both with white wooden gates supported by masoned pillars at the road. A lawn is situated in between the two curved driveways, it used to house a sundial. Another lawn is located directly behind the house and is surrounded by weeping beeches, silver lindens, oak trees. A winding path surrounded by shrubs goes through the garden; when Villa Mariënhof was just completed, it offered vistas of farmlands in the south and forests in the west.

About 15% of the garden was sold around the year 1970 for the development of a new residential area. Because of this, the kitchen garden, the orchard, the gardener's residence disappeared; the layout of the paths was adjusted. Bald cypresses and Dougla

Rastan (video game)

Rastan is a fantasy-themed side-scrolling action game released for arcades in 1987 by Taito and ported to various platforms. The player controls a barbarian warrior. While on his way to the dragon's lair, Rastan must fight hordes of enemy monsters based on mythical creatures such as chimeras and harpies; the controls of Rastan consists of an eight-way joystick, a button for attacking, a button for jumping. By using the joystick in combination with either button, the player can determine the height of Rastan's jumps, as well as the direction he swings his weapon; the game uses a health gauge system along with limited lives, although certain obstacles will kill Rastan regardless of how much health he has left. There are a total of six rounds, each consisting of three areas: an outdoor scene, a castle scene and a throne room where the player must confront the stage's boss; the backgrounds of the outdoor areas feature broad landscapes with changing sunlight effects with detail. The game's bosses, in order of appearance, consist of: King Graton, a halberd-wielding skeletal warrior.

All the weapons and power-ups picked by Rastan will be equipped only for a limited time. When Rastan picks up any equipable item, an icon will appear on the lower right corner of the screen as an indicator of the item's effect until it wears out. Rastan can only wield one weapon at a time, as well as only one type of protector, but other items can be worn at the same time. There are jewels that gives out bonus points, as well potion bottles that restore or deplete the player's health depending on the color; the rare golden sheep's head restores Rastan's health completely. Rastan Saga features an opening sequence, when the player starts the game, which explains the purpose of Rastan's journey, it is not included in the versions released in other countries. In the Japanese version when the player completes a stage the "victory" screen has text pertaining to the storyline. In the international versions, there is a "generic" victory screen with generic text. However, the international versions feature a different attract sequence which shows all the items that can be obtained by the player along with their effect.

In the Japanese version there are far fewer bats during the bat swarm sequences in the castle of level 1 than in other versions. Rastan was ported to various 8-bit home computers in Europe by Imagine Software in 1987; the ZX Spectrum version was awarded 9/10 in the July 1988 issue of Your Sinclair and was placed at number 54 in the Your Sinclair's Top 100 list. Taito imported Imagine's C64 version to the United States, releasing it alongside two additional versions for the IBM PC and Apple IIGS, both of which were ported by Novalogic. An unreleased version for the Atari ST was discovered in demo form only. In 1988, Taito developed its own conversions for the MSX2 in Japan, the Master System in North America and Europe. Both ports featured redesigned level layouts, with the Master System version replacing some of the boss characters as well; this version was itself ported to the Game Gear and released in Japan on August 9, 1991 as Rastan Saga. An emulation of the Rastan arcade game is included in Taito Legends, released for the PlayStation 2, Xbox and Windows PC in 2006.

The game was followed by two sequels, Rastan Saga II and Warrior Blade: Rastan Saga Episode III. Rastan made an appearance in another Taito game titled Champion Wrestler as "Miracle Rastan"; the Saffire Corporation developed game Barbarian was released under the name Warrior Blade: Rastan vs. Barbarian in Japan as Taito published the game in the region; the game has nothing to do with Rastan despite the title change. The game was released in Japan on Nintendo GameCube; the GameCube version's release was cancelled in North Europe due to poor sales. Indie game Völgarr the Viking, developed by Crazy Viking Studios for Windows, OS X, Xbox One, Dreamcast, was described on its Kickstarter page as based on Rastan. Rastan Saga at Rastan Saga at arcade-history Rastan at arcade-history Gameplay Video of Rastan