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Jay Treaty

The Treaty of Amity and Navigation, Between His Britannic Majesty and the United States of America known as the Jay Treaty, as Jay's Treaty, was a 1795 treaty between the United States and Great Britain that averted war, resolved issues remaining since the Treaty of Paris of 1783, facilitated ten years of peaceful trade between the United States and Britain in the midst of the French Revolutionary Wars, which began in 1792. The Treaty was supported by President George Washington, it angered bitterly divided Americans. It inflamed the new growth of two opposing parties in every state, the pro-Treaty Federalists and the anti-Treaty Jeffersonian Republicans; the Treaty gained many of the primary American goals. This included the withdrawal of British Army units from forts in the Northwest Territory that it had refused to relinquish under the Paris Peace Treaty; the British were retaliating for the United States reneging on Articles 6 of the 1783 treaty. The parties agreed that disputes over wartime debts and the American–Canadian boundary were to be sent to arbitration—one of the first major uses of arbitration in modern diplomatic history.

This set a precedent used by other nations. The Americans were granted limited rights to trade with British colonies in the Caribbean in exchange for some limits on the American export of cotton; the Jay treaty was signed on November 19, 1794, submitted to the United States Senate for its advice and consent the following June. It was ratified by the Senate on June 24, 1795, by a two-thirds majority vote of 20–10, it was ratified by the British government, took effect February 29, 1796, the day when ratifications were exchanged. The treaty was hotly contested by Jeffersonians in each state. An effort was made to block it in the House, which failed; the Jeffersonians feared that closer economic or political ties with Great Britain would strengthen Hamilton's Federalist Party, promote aristocracy, undercut republicanism. This debate crystallized the emerging partisan divisions and shaped the new "First Party System", with the Federalists favoring the British and the Jeffersonian republicans favoring France.

The treaty was for ten years' duration. Efforts failed to agree on a replacement treaty in 1806 when Jefferson rejected the Monroe–Pinkney Treaty, as tensions escalated toward the War of 1812; the outbreak of war between France and Great Britain in 1793 ended the long peace that had enabled the new nation to flourish in terms of trade and finance. The United States now emerged as an important neutral country with a large shipping trade. From the British perspective, improving relations with the United States was a high priority lest it move into the French orbit. British negotiators ignored elements. From the American viewpoint, the most pressing foreign policy issues were normalizing the trade relations with Britain, the United States' leading trading partner, resolving issues left over from the Treaty of Paris; as one observer explained, the British government was "well disposed to America.... They have made their arrangements upon a plan that comprehends the neutrality of the United States, are anxious that it should be preserved."Without warning American officials, the British government used the Royal Navy to capture nearly 300 neutral American merchant ships carrying goods from French colonies in the West Indies.

Americans were outraged and Republicans in Jefferson's coalition demanded a declaration of war, but James Madison instead called for an embargo on trade with Britain. British officials told First Nations near the Canada–U. S. Border that the border no longer existed and sold weapons to them. Congress voted on a trade embargo against Britain in March 1794, it was approved in the House of Representatives but defeated in the Senate when Vice President John Adams cast a tie-breaking vote against it. At the national level American politics was divided between the factions of Jefferson and Madison, which favored the French, the Federalists led by Hamilton, who saw Britain as a natural ally and thus sought to normalize relations with Britain in the area of trade. Washington sided with Hamilton. Hamilton devised a framework for negotiations, President George Washington sent Chief Justice of the Supreme Court John Jay to London to negotiate a comprehensive treaty; the American government had several outstanding issues: The British were occupying forts on U.

S. territory in the Great Lakes region, at Detroit and Mackinac in modern-day Michigan and Oswego in New York, Maumee in modern-day Ohio. Britain said it was in response to American refusals to pay debts, agreed upon; the British were continuing to impress American sailors into the Royal Navy to fight against France. American merchants wanted compensation for about 300 merchant ships which the British had confiscated in 1793 and 1794. Southern interests wanted monetary compensation for slaves owned by Loyalists who were taken away to the West Indies along with their masters in 1781–83. American merchants wanted the British West Indies to be reopened to American trade; the boundary with Canada was vague in many places, needed to be more delineated. The British were providing munitions to First Nations peoples in armed conflict with settlers in the Northwest (Ohio and Mich

422

Year 422 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Theodosius; the denomination 422 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years. End of the Roman–Sassanid War: Emperor Theodosius II signs a 100-year peace treaty with Persia after 2 years of war, he agrees a status quo ante bellum, both parties guarantee liberty of religion in their territories. March 3 – Theodosius II issues a law to form provisions in peacetime, he instructs landowners leasing towers in the Theodosian Walls to assist with the build-up of emergency goods. Theodosius pays an annual tribute of 350 pounds of gold to the Huns. Theodosius II receives a statue at Hebdomon, military parade ground on the shores of the Propontis, just outside Constantinople. On its base, an inscription praises him as “everywhere and forever victorious.” The walls of Rome's Flavian Amphitheater crack during an earthquake.

The Roman army invades Gaul. Shao Di, age 16, eldest son of Wu Di, succeeds his father as emperor of the Liu Song Dynasty. Petrus, bishop of Illyria, starts construction of the Church of Santa Sabina. September 4 – Pope Boniface I dies after a 4-year reign, interrupted for 15 weeks, by the faction of the antipope Eulalius, he is succeeded by Celestine I as the 43rd pope. August 8 – Casper, ruler of the Maya city of Palenque Genevieve, patron saint Licinia Eudoxia, Roman empress September 4 – Pope Boniface I Abraham of Cyrrhus, Syrian hermit and bishop Fa-Hien, Chinese Buddhist monk and traveler Theudemeres, king of the Franks Wu Di, emperor of the Liu Song Dynasty

DAF 55

The DAF 55 is a small family car produced by the Dutch company DAF from December 1967 to September 1972. At that time it was replaced with the DAF 66. All 55s featured the unique Variomatic belt-driven continuously variable transmission, with no manual transmission available; this feature of all DAF cars was unusual for its class at the time. The 55 was available as a 3-door estate and a 2-door coupe. In total 164,231 DAF 55s were built; the 55 was developed to be a more powerful version of the 1966 DAF 44. The redesign was extensive, featured the following major changes: Powertrain Because the 44's two-cylinder DAF-designed boxer engine was at the end of its development, DAF partnered with Renault to build a 50 bhp version of their 1108 cc water-cooled inline 4 C-series engine, dubbed the B110. Suspension The front suspension was changed from the 44's transverse leaf spring setup to longitudinally mounted torsion bars. At the rear the 44's swing axle Variomatic layout was retained. Braking For added safety a dual circuit brake system was fitted.

All models featured front disc brakes as opposed to the 44's drum brakes. Bodywork The front panel was changed to provide room and airflow to the radiator; the rest of the car featured detail trim changes to set it apart from the lesser 44. All this heightened performance to a 136 km/h top speed, made for a more practical car; the saloon was launched at the end of 1967, with the coupe version launched three months in March 1968. The coupe was overall more elegant than the saloon, featuring a lower and sloping roof line, pillarless doors and a more upscale interior featuring reclining seats, carpet instead of the saloon's rubber mats and fake wood on the dashboard. Although the roof line turned it from a 4-seater into a 2+2, the coupe was a successful model. In September 1968 the estate version became available. In August 1969 there was a minor facelift of the whole model range and a delivery version became available a 55 estate without a rear seat. After the success of the DAF 55 in the London-Sydney Marathon, the dealer option'Marathon' package was introduced.

The multi-tier package meant that the dealer could fit an optical package with alloy wheels and interior parts, an uprated suspension, parts to upgrade the B110 engine to 65 bhp, or all of the above. In 1971 the factory version of this package was introduced called the 55 Marathon; this did not feature an upgraded suspension, had a 63 bhp 1108 cc engine, the BR110. This raised the top speed to 145 km/h; the 55 Marathon featured wider steel wheels, exterior striping and a brake booster was added for safety and comfort. The Marathon was available as a coupe. In 1971 the coupe received normal doors with pillars, since the earlier pillarless design proved to be leaky and noisy at speed; the DAF factory was involved in motorsport, to show the world that the Variomatic transmission was reliable as well as sporty. The 55 relieved the 44 in the works rally program, had various successes. A 55 won the 1968 Alpine Rally, in late 1968 Rob Slotemaker finished 17th out of 100 contestants in the grueling 16500 km London-Sydney Marathon.

This remarkable success inspired the later'Marathon' range offered by DAF. Because of the Variomatic and its function as a limited slip differential it was popular with many privateers in the rally world. Jan de Rooy, of Paris Dakar fame, built his own 4-wheel drive version, with a mid mounted Ford BDA engine coupled to a special Variomatic and campaigned it with great success on the international rallycross theatre throughout the early 1970s. DAF 55/DAF 66 Family Tree