Kamal Haasan, is an Indian film actor, film director, producer, playback singer and politician who works in Tamil cinema. Kamal has won awards including four National Film Awards, the second-most by any Indian actor, nineteen Filmfare Awards, his production company, Raaj Kamal Films International, has produced several of his films. He started his career as a child artist in the 1960 Tamil language film Kalathur Kannamma, for which he won the President's Gold Medal, he met director Vaaranam Vijay, credited for shaping Kamal's acting skills. His breakthrough as a lead actor came in the 1975 drama Apoorva Raagangal, directed by K. Balachander, in which he played a rebellious youth who falls in love with an older woman, he won his first National Film Award for his portrayal of a guileless school teacher who cares for a woman who suffers from retrograde amnesia in Moondram Pirai. He was noted for his performances in Mani Ratnam's Nayakan and S. Shankar's vigilante film Indian, which saw him playing dual roles of a father and a son.
Since he has appeared in films including Hey Ram, Vishwaroopam which were his own productions and Dasavathaaram in which he played ten roles. Kamal Haasan was awarded the Kalaimamani award in 1979, the Padma Shri in 1990, the Padma Bhushan in 2014 and the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres in 2016. On February 21, 2018, Kamal Haasan formally launched Makkal Needhi Maiam; the party's flag displays six joined hands in a circle in alternate red and white colours with a white star at its centre in a black background. Kamal Haasan was born on 7 November 1954, to D. Srinivasan, a lawyer, Rajalakshmi, a housewife, his brothers and Chandrahasan, have acted. Kamal's sister, Nalini, is a classical dancer, he received his primary education in Paramakudi before moving to Madras as his brothers pursued their higher education. Kamal continued his education in Santhome and was attracted towards film and fine arts as encouraged by his father; when a physician friend of his mother, visited Avichi Meiyappa Chettiar to treat his wife, she brought Kamal with her.
Impressed by his demeanor AVM's son, M. Saravanan, recommended him for their production Kalathur Kannamma. Kamal won the Rashtrapathi Award for his performance in Kalathur Kannamma at age four and starred in five more films as a child, he debuted in the Malayalam film industry with Kannum Karalum. Upon his father's encouragement, he joined a repertory company headed by T. K. Shanmugam. In the meanwhile, he continued his education at the Hindu Higher Secondary School in Triplicane, his time with the theatre company kindled his interest in makeup. After a seven-year hiatus from films, Kamal amma returned to the industry as a dance assistant, apprenticing under choreographer Thankappan. During this time, Kamal made brief appearances in some films including a few uncredited roles, his first appearance came in the 1970 film Maanavan. He went on to assist Thankappan in films such as Kasi Yathirai. In the former he worked as an assistant director, his first full-fledged role came in K. Balachander's Tamil film Arangetram.
Balachander cast him as the antagonist in his Sollathaan Ninaikkiren. Kamal went on to do supporting roles in films such as Gumasthavin Magal, Aval Oru Thodar Kathai and Naan Avanillai; the same year, he played his first lead role in the Malayalam film, for which he the won his first Filmfare Award. In Tamil cinema, he had his breakthrough as a lead actor in Balachander's Apoorva Raagangal, he played a rebellious young man. For this character portrayal, Kamal learned to play the mridangam; the role won him his second Filmfare Award. In 1976, Balachander cast Kamal as a womaniser in Manmadha Leelai. Kamal appeared in the Balachander drama Moondru Mudichu. Avargal concerned the women's movement, it was remade in Telugu with Kamal reprising his role. 16 Vayathinile, in which he played a village bumpkin, won him a third consecutive Best Actor award. In 1977 Kamal starred in his first Kannada film, the directorial debut of friend and mentor Balu Mahendra; that year he appeared in a Bengali film, Kabita, a remake of the Tamil film Aval Oru Thodar Kathai.
In 1978 Kamal made his Telugu film debut with a lead role in the cross-cultural romantic Maro Charitra, directed by Balachander. His fourth consecutive Filmfare Award resulted from Sigappu Rojakkal, a thriller in which he played a psychopathic sexual killer. In the 1978 Telugu film Sommokadidhi Sokkadidhi, Kamal played two parts; this was his first collaboration with director Suresh Madhavan. He appeared in a snake-horror film and Kalyanaraman. At the end of the 1970s he had six regional Best Actor Filmfare Awards, including four consecutive Best Tamil Actor Awards. Kamal's films during the 1980s included 1980's Tamil-language Varumayin Niram Sivappu, in which he played an unemployed youth. Kamal made his debut in Hindi cinema with Ek Duuje Ke Liye, the remake of his own acted Telugu-language film Maro Charitra directed by K. Balachand
Salem, Tamil Nadu
Salem is a city in Salem district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is located about 160 kilometres northeast of Coimbatore, 186 kilometres southeast of Karnataka state capital Bangalore and about 340 kilometres southwest of the state capital, Chennai. Salem is the fifth largest city in Tamil Nadu by population and covers 124 km2; the town and the surrounding hilly regions were part of the Chera dynasty and was part of the trade route with the Roman empire. It was governed by Poligars, who built temples and forts in and around the city, it was part of the Vijayanagara empire before being captured by Hyder Ali during the early 18th century, after the Mysore-Madurai war. It was ceded to the British in 1768 and the area became part of the struggle between Kongu Nadu led by Dheeran Chinnamalai and the British. Salem became part of Salem district since independence in 1947. Salem is located at 11.67°N 78.14°E / 11.67. The city is surrounded by hills: Nagaramalai on the north, Jarugumalai on the south, Kanjamalai on the west, Godumalai on the east and the Shevaroy Hills on the northeast.
Kariyaperumal Hill is in southwestern Salem. The Thirumanimutharu River flows through the city; the fort area is the oldest part of Salem. Salem has a tropical savanna climate. January and February are pleasant. Pre-monsoon thunderstorms occur during May; the Southwest monsoon season lasts from June to September. The northeast monsoon occurs from October to December. Salem is the headquarters of Salem district; the town was constituted as a municipality in 1867, was upgraded to a special-grade municipality in 1979 and to a municipal corporation on 1 April 1994. The Salem municipal corporation has 72 wards, each with an elected councillor; the functions of the municipal corporation are divided into six departments: general administration and personnel, revenue, public health, city planning and information technology. All six departments are governed by a municipal commissioner. Legislative power is vested in the 60-member council, headed by an elected chairperson and assisted by a deputy chairperson.
Law and order is maintained by the Salem city subdivision of the Tamil Nadu Police, headed by a Deputy superintendent. Special units include prohibition enforcement, district crime, social justice and human rights, district crime records and a district-level special branch headed by a superintendent of police. Salem is a part of the Salem North, Salem West and Salem South assembly constituencies delineated in 2008; the city elects the three members to the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly once every five years. Present MLAs are R. Mohan Raj from Desiya Murpokku Dravidar Kazhagam, M. K. Selvaraju and G. Venkatachalam from All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam; until 2008, the city was part of the Salem Salem II assembly constituencies. Since 1977, the ADMK party won the Salem I assembly seat five times. Since 1977, the ADMK won the Salem II assembly seat three times and the DMK won three times; the city is part of the Salem Lok Sabha constituency consisting of six assembly constituencies: Omalur, Salem North, Salem South, Salem West and Edappadi.
Since 1952, the Salem parliament seat was held by the Indian National Congress eight times, by the ADMK four times, by DMK three times, once each by an independent and the Tamil Maanila Congress. The current Member of Parliament from the constituency is V. Pannerselvam from the ADMK. Salem is a major textile centre in Tamil Nadu, with more than 125 spinning mills, weaving units and garment units; until the 1960s, it had less few spinning mills. Private handloom weaving began to increase in the region after the 1960s and during the 1980s, the textile industry expanded with major spinning mills and dying units established supporting the industry; the area houses a number of sago factories for the production starch. In Salem district, 34,000 hectares of land are devoted to cassava and 650 industrial units are engaged in tapioca processing. In 1981, the Salem Starch and Sago Manufacturers Service Industrial Co-operative Society was established to promote the sago industry and nearly 80 percent of the national demand for sago and starch is met by SAGOSERVE.
In and around Salem cassava yields are 25 -- 30 tons per one of the highest in the world. The Salem Steel Plant, a unit of the Steel Authority of India, produces cold-rolled stainless steel and a hot-rolled stainless-carbon steel alloy; the plant is being expanded and modernised, with plans for steel-melting and continuous-casting facilities. The Southern Iron and Steel Company have their first integrated steel plant in Salem for the production of TMT corrosion-resistant bars and alloy steels; the Salem region is rich in mineral ores, with some of the largest magnesite and bauxite deposits in India. Public and private magnesite factories include Burn Standard and Company, Dalmia Magnesites and Tata Refractories. Salem Mango belt contributes the economy in large scale by exporting mangoes to foreign countries and supplying mangoes all over India; the Leigh Bazaar is the region's l
M. Kumaran S/O Mahalakshmi
M. Kumaran Son of Mahalakshmi is a 2004 Tamil family drama film directed by M. Raja, starring Jayam Ravi, Asin Thottumkal and Prakash Raj in the lead roles while Vivek and Subbaraju play supporting roles; the film's score and soundtrack are composed by Srikanth Deva. The film was emerged as a blockbuster and one of the most profitable movies of 2004; this movie was a remake of the Telugu film Amma Nanna O Tamila Ammayi. For Kumaran, life is about his mother Mahalakshmi, separated from her husband Eeshwar. Eeshwar goes on to pursue his passion in kickboxing and becomes a world-renowned trainer based in Malaysia. Mahalakshmi devotes her life to bringing up her son. Kumaran is passionate about kickboxing and shares a special relationship with his mother. In between, he falls in love with Malabar. On her deathbed, she tells him to meet Eeshwar, Kumaran goes to Malaysia to meet him. Kumaran gets a job at his father's kickboxing academy but finds him with another wife and a daughter. Kumaran feels betrayed and angry, this causes plenty of friction between him and his father.
Eeshwar trains a boxer Anand, whom he is sure will win the championship. Anand is Eeshwar's devotion, on many occasions, he demonstrates his preference for Anand over Kumaran. Anand makes Eeshwar's daughter dumps her, he joins another team when they offer him a better contract. The rest of the story is about how Eeshwar trains Kumaran against Anand and wins the kickboxing competition, while Kumaran helps his half-sister with her love. Kumaran wins the kickboxing championship; the movie ends with Kumaran seeing a final apparition of his mother looking at him proudly and waving goodbye. After the success of Jayam, Raja decided to remake successful Telugu film Amma Nanna O Tamil Ammayi with his brother Ravi in lead role. Asin, who appeared in the Telugu version made her debut in Tamil cinema with this film. Nadhiya made her acting comeback with this film portraying Ravi's mother as Raja felt that he wanted to portray her as a modern mother as opposed to the usual portrayal of mothers and she was the right choice for the role.
The film was titled M. Kumaran S/O Bhagyalakshmi before reverting to original title; the film was extensively shot in Malaysia. The songs and background score was done by Srikanth Deva; the songs got positive reviews. The satellite rights of the film were sold to Sun TV; the film received positive reviews with Indiaglitz.com saying "If you like films with sentiments, M Kumaran...is for you". Behindwoods.com stated that "Raja has done well for his second film" and "he has well defined the relationship between a mother and a son in this movie", while The Hindu wrote that "casting is a main draw", praising the inclusion of Nadhiya. Rediff.com listed the film amongst the "best Tamil films of 2004", stating that the film was "a big success". The film went on to become a major leap in Jayam Ravi's career; the film collected share of ₹54 lakh in 40 days in Chennai and ₹5 crore throughout Tamil Nadu selling 3 million tickets. M. Kumaran S/O Mahalakshmi on IMDb
Tamil cinema refers to Tamil-language motion pictures, which are made in India. Based in the city of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, the hub of the Tamil film industry is in the Kodambakkam neighbourhood of Chennai. Kollywood is a colloquial term for this industry, the word being a portmanteau of Kodambakkam and Hollywood; the first Tamil silent film, Keechaka Vadham, was made by R. Nataraja Mudaliar in 1918; the first talking motion picture, was a multilingual and was released on 31 October 1931, less than seven months after India's first talking motion picture Alam Ara. By the end of the 1930s, the legislature of the State of Madras passed the Entertainment Tax Act of 1939. Tamil cinema had a profound effect on other filmmaking industries of India, establishing Madras as a secondary hub for Hindi cinema, other South Indian film industries, as well as Sri Lankan cinema. Over the last quarter of the 20th century, Tamil films from India established a global presence through distribution to an increasing number of overseas theatres in Singapore, Sri Lanka, Japan, the Middle East, parts of Africa, Europe, North America and other countries.
The industry inspired independent filmmaking in Sri Lanka and Tamil diaspora populations in Malaysia and the Western Hemisphere. In 1897, M. Edwards first screened a selection of silent short films at the Victoria Public Hall in Madras; the films all featured non-fictional subjects. The film scholar Stephen Hughes points out that within a few years there were regular ticketed shows in a hall in Pophams Broadway, started by one Mrs. Klug, but this lasted only for a few months. Once it was demonstrated as a commercial proposition, a Western entrepreneur, Warwick Major, built the first cinema theatre, the Electric Theatre, which still stands, it was a favourite haunt of the British community in Madras. The theatre was shut down after a few years; this building is now part of a post office complex on Anna Salai. The Lyric Theatre was built in the Mount Road area; this venue boasted a variety of events, including plays in English, Western classical music concerts, ballroom dances. Silent films were screened as an additional attraction.
Swamikannu Vincent, a railway draftsman from Tiruchirapalli, became a travelling exhibitor in 1905. He showed short movies in a tent in Esplanade, near the present Parry's Corner, using carbide jet-burners for projection, he bought the film projector and silent films from the Frenchman Du Pont and set up a business as film exhibitor. Soon, he tied up with Path, a well-known pioneering film-producing company, imported projectors; this helped new cinema houses to sprout across the presidency. In years, he produced talkies and built a cinema in Coimbatore. To celebrate the event of King George V's visit in 1909, a grand exhibition was organized in Madras, its major attraction was the screening of short films accompanied by sound. A British company imported a Crone megaphone, made up of a film projector to which a gramophone with a disc containing prerecorded sound was linked, both were run in unison, producing picture and sound simultaneously. However, there was no synched dialogue. Raghupathy Venkiah Naidu, a successful photographer, took over the equipment after the exhibition and set up a tent cinema near the Madras High Court.
With this equipment, he screened the short films Pearl Fish and Raja's Casket in the Victoria Public Hall. When this proved successful, he screened the films in a tent set up in Esplanade; these tent events were the true precursors of the cinema shows. Venkiah traveled with this unit to Burma and Sri Lanka, when he had gathered enough money, he put up a permanent cinema house in Madras—Gaiety, in 1914, the first cinema house in Madras to be built by an Indian, he soon added Crown Theatre in Mint and Globe in Purasawalkam. Swamikannu Vincent, who had built the first cinema of South India in Coimbatore, introduced the concept of "Tent Cinema" in which a tent was erected on a stretch of open land close to a town or village to screen the films; the first of its kind was established in Madras, called "Edison's Grand Cinemamegaphone". This was due to the fact. Most of the films screened were shorts made in the United States and Britain. In 1909, an Englishman, T. H. Huffton, founded Peninsular Film Services in Madras and produced some short films for local audiences.
But soon, hour-long films, which narrated dramatic stories known as "drama films", were imported. From 1912 onwards, feature films made in Bombay were screened in Madras; the era of short films had ended. The arrival of drama films established cinema as a popular entertainment form. More cinema houses came up in the city. Fascinated by this new entertainment form, an automobile dealer in the Thousand Lights area of Madras, R. Nataraja Mudaliyar, decided to venture into film production. After a few days’ training in Pune with the cinematographer Stewart Smith, the official cinematographer of Lord Curzon's 1903 Durbar, he started a film production concern in 1916; the man who laid the foundations of south Indian cinema was A. Narayanan. After a few years in film distribution, he set up a production company in Madras, the General Pictures Corporation, popularly known as GPC. Beginning with The Faithful Wife/Dharmapathini, GPC made about 24 feature films. GPC functioned as a film school and its alumni included names such as Sundara Rao Nadkarni and Jiten Banerji.
The studio of GPC was housed in the Chellapalli bungalow on Thiruvottiyur High Road in Madras. This company, which produced the most number of Tamil silent films, had branc
Unakkum Enakkum is a 2006 Tamil-language romantic comedy film directed by M. Raja. A remake of Telugu film Nuvvostanante Nenoddantana, it stars Jayam Ravi and Trisha Krishnan in the lead roles and an ensemble cast, including Richa Pallod, veterans Prabhu, Bhagyaraj and comedians Santhanam and Ganja Karuppu in supporting roles; the score and soundtrack was composed by Devi Sri Prasad, who scored the music in the original version of the film, whilst cinematography was handled by A. Venkatesh and editing by S. Suraj Kavee. Muthupandi takes care of his only sister Kavitha, following their mother’s early death when they were young. Muthupandi brings up his sister with lot of care and affection. In the meantime, Muthupandi has an aversion towards arrogant, rich people in the society, as his father, rich, abandoned his mother, following which she died. Santhosh is the only of son of Janaki, he comes to Chennai along with Janaki to attend his cousin Lalitha’s wedding. Lalitha is Kavitha's best friend, she too comes to Chennai a few days before the wedding.
Santhosh, a fun-loving person, develops an attraction after seeing Kavitha, but Kavitha does not reciprocate, she maintains distance with Santhosh. Santhosh and Kavitha become good friends, love blossoms between them. Shalini is the daughter of Santhosh’s family friend JP, she too loves Santhosh. Janaki gets furious knowing about Santhosh and Kavitha’s love affair, as she thinks Kavitha is poor and from low societal status. On the day of Lalitha’s wedding when Santhosh is away, Janaki and JP speak ill of Kavitha and ask her leave the place before Santhosh returns; when Kavitha is about to leave the place, Muthupandi arrives and is shocked to see her condition. He gets angry, scolds everyone there for hurting his sister, takes her with him back to the village. Santhosh is shocked knowing about the events and leaves to the village with the hope of convincing Kavitha. Muthupandi does not like Santhosh seeing Janaki’s attitude and thinks that he too will ill-treat Kavitha. Santhosh apologizes to Muthupandi for the misunderstandings and requests to get Kavitha married to him.
Now Muthupandi comes with a challenge. He asks him to do farming there. Muthupandi challenges Santhosh to cultivate more than him using the land allotted. Santhosh accepts the challenge. Santhosh tries hard to do farming, somehow, he manages to learn cultivation. JP and Shalini do not want him to win the challenge, they rope in a local goon Mark Mayandi to distract Santhosh. There is Sivaji, a local rich man in the village, his son wants to marry Kavitha at any cost. The cultivation is completed, rice grains are bundled in both Santhosh and Muthupandi’s farms. One day and his son set fire to Muthupandi’s home with plans of killing Santhosh, but Santhosh gets alerted and escapes, he saves Kavitha’s horse doll, which she considers to be precious as it was made by Muthupandi when they were young. On the day before the counting, Mayan takes a few bundles from Santhosh and places it along with Muthupandi’s so that Santhosh will lose the challenge. On the other hand, Muthupandi understands Santhosh’s true love towards Kavitha and believes that he is the right match for his sister.
At night, Muthupandi visits Santhosh’s land and places a few additional rice grain bundles so that Santhosh can win. Santhosh wins the challenge as he has cultivated more compared to Muthupandi, following which he agrees for their wedding. Sivaji and his son get angry seeing this, they decide to kill Santhosh and marry Kavitha. JP and Mayan get angry, they plot to murder Muthupandi, they beat up Santhosh and Muthupandi. A fight erupts as Mayan and Sivaji’s son are killed by Santhosh, who saves Kavitha, while JP and Sivaji are violently defeated by Muthupandi. Knowing this, Shalini dies; when police arrives at the spot, Muthupandi takes the blame for the murder and requests Santhosh to marry Kavitha and lead a happy life. Muthupandi gets jailed for two years and gets released, with the hope of seeing Kavitha and Santhosh leading a happy married life, but he is surprised seeing them in wedding attire in front of the jail when he comes out. Santhosh and Kavitha were waiting to conduct the marriage.
Muthupandi feels proud of them. Janaki apologizes to Muthupandi. In the end and Kavitha are married, it is hinted that Muthupandi and Valli, their servant develop love for each other. After two successful remakes, Raja opted to remake successful Telugu film Nuvvostanante Nenoddantana with his brother Ravi in lead role alongside Trisha reprised her role from original. Prabhu was signed on to play Trisha's brother after unsuccessful negotiations with several other actors. Mohan was offered the role of Jayam Ravi's father, but he declined the offer and the role went to K. Bhagyaraj; the film was titled Something Something Unakkum Enakkum, but removed the English prefixes to exploit the Tamil Nadu Government's rule of entertainment tax exemption for films with Tamil titles. The film has six songs composed by Devi Sri Prasad who retained all the tunes from the original Telugu film. Aagayam – S. P. Balasubrahmanyam Kiliye Kiliye – Jassie Gift Kozhi Veda Kozhi – Naveen & Priya Pooparikka Neeyum – Shankar Mahadevan Something Something – Tippu Unn Paarvaiyil – Karthik & Sumangali The film opened to positive reviews in July 2006, with Behindwoods.com noting Raja "
Chennai is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Located on the Coromandel Coast off the Bay of Bengal, it is the biggest cultural and educational centre of south India. According to the 2011 Indian census, it is the sixth most populous city and fourth-most populous urban agglomeration in India; the city together with the adjoining regions constitute the Chennai Metropolitan Area, the 36th-largest urban area by population in the world. Chennai is among the most visited Indian cities by foreign tourists, it was ranked the 43rd most visited city in the world for the year 2015. The Quality of Living Survey rated Chennai as the safest city in India. Chennai attracts 45 percent of health tourists visiting India, 30 to 40 percent of domestic health tourists; as such, it is termed "India's health capital". As a growing metropolitan city in a developing country, Chennai confronts substantial pollution and other logistical and socio-economic problems. Chennai had the third-largest expatriate population in India at 35,000 in 2009, 82,790 in 2011 and estimated at over 100,000 by 2016.
Tourism guide publisher Lonely Planet named Chennai as one of the top ten cities in the world to visit in 2015. Chennai is ranked as a beta-level city in the Global Cities Index, was ranked the best city in India by India Today in the 2014 annual Indian city survey. In 2015 Chennai was named the "hottest" city by the BBC, citing the mixture of both modern and traditional values. National Geographic mentioned Chennai as the only South Asian city to feature in its 2015 "Top 10 food cities" list. Chennai was named the ninth-best cosmopolitan city in the world by Lonely Planet. In October 2017, Chennai was added to the UNESCO Creative Cities Network list for its rich musical tradition; the Chennai Metropolitan Area is one of the largest municipal economies of India. Chennai is nicknamed "The Detroit of India", with more than one-third of India's automobile industry being based in the city. Home to the Tamil film industry, Chennai is known as a major film production centre. Chennai has been selected as one of the 100 Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under Smart Cities Mission.
The name Chennai is of Telugu origin. It was derived from the name of a Telugu ruler Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu, father of Damarla Venkatapathy Nayak, a Nayak ruler who served as a general under Venkata III of the Vijayanagar Empire from whom the British acquired the town in 1639; the first official use of the name Chennai is said to be in a sale deed, dated 8 August 1639, to Francis Day of the East India Company before the Chennakesava Perumal Temple was built in 1646 while some scholars argue for the contrary. The name Madras is of native origin, has been shown to be in use before the British presence in India. A Vijayanagar-era inscription dated to the year 1367 that mentions the port of Mādarasanpattanam, along with other small ports on the east coast was discovered in 2015 and it was theorised that the aforementioned port is the fishing port of Royapuram. According to some sources, Madras was derived from Madraspattinam, a fishing-village north of Fort St George. However, it is uncertain.
The British military mapmakers believed Madras was Mundir-raj or Mundiraj,which was the name of a telugu community of rulers of nayakasThere are suggestions that it may have originated from a Portuguese phrase Mãe de Deus or Madre de Dios, which means "mother of God", due to Portuguese influence on the port city referring to a Church of St. Mary. In 1996, the Government of Tamil Nadu changed the name from Madras to Chennai. At that time many Indian cities underwent a change of name. However, the name Madras continues in occasional use for the city, as well as for places named after the city such as University of Madras, IIT Madras, Madras Institute of Technology, Madras Medical College, Madras Veterinary College, Madras Christian College. Stone age implements have been found near Pallavaram in Chennai. According to the Archaeological Survey of India, Pallavaram was a megalithic cultural establishment, pre-historic communities resided in the settlement; the region around Chennai has served as an important administrative and economic centre for many centuries.
During the 1st century CE, a poet and weaver named. From the 1st–12th century the region of present Tamil Nadu and parts of South India was ruled by the Cholas; the Pallavas of Kanchi built the areas of Mahabalipuram and Pallavaram during the reign of Mahendravarman I. They defeated several kingdoms including the Cheras and Pandyas who ruled over the area before their arrival. Sculpted caves and paintings have been identified from that period. Ancient coins dating to around 500 BC have been unearthed from the city and its surrounding areas. A portion of these findings belonged to the Vijayanagara Empire, which ruled the region during the medieval period; the Portuguese first arrived in 1522 and built a port called São Tomé after the Christian apostle, St. Thomas, believed to have preached in the area between 52 and 70 CE. In 1612, the Dutch established themselves near Pulicat, north of Chennai. On 20 August 1639 Francis Day of the East India Company along with the Nayak of Kalahasti Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu, travelled to the Chandragiri palace for an audience with the Vijayanager Emperor Peda Venkata Raya.
Day was seeking to obtain a grant for land on the Coromandel coast on which the Company could build a factory and warehouse for their trading activities and was successful i
Varsham (2004 film)
Varsham is a 2004 Tollywood romantic action film produced by M. S. Raju on his Sumanth Art Productions banner and directed by Sobhan. Prabhas, Trisha Krishnan, Gopichand play lead roles, the music was composed by Devi Sri Prasad; the film was remade in Tamil as Mazhai starring Jayam Ravi and Shriya Saran and in Odia as Barsa My Darling. The film has been loosely remade into Hindi as Baaghi starring Tiger Shroff and Shraddha Kapoor Venkat, an unemployed youngster, meets Shailaja, a middle-class beauty, in a train journey, they get attracted to each other after dancing in a rain shower. At the same time, Shailaja catches the eye of Bhadranna, a dangerous, ruthless landlord who fell in love with her. Venkat keeps bumping into Sailaja every time it rains, they fall in love. Ranga Rao, Sailaja's dad, is a typical black sheep with all kinds of bad habits. Bhadranna approaches him with the marriage proposal, Ranga Rao jumps on that and agrees. A film producer Seenaiah approaches Ranga Rao with an offer for Shailaja to act in a movie.
Ranga Rao thinks. He first creates clashes between lovers, convinces Shailaja to act in a movie, leaves with her to the city. Venkat leaves for Vizag to his uncle's place. In Vizag, Sailaja becomes a leading lady in the movies, Venkat works with his uncle in a quarry as a demolition expert. Months Bhadranna is cheated some money by Ranga Rao, he finds out where Shailaja now lives, kidnaps her, tries to change her mind about marrying him. Seenaiah gets tensed as shooting was paused, Ranga Rao advises him to approach Venkat, as he believes that Venkat still loves Shailaja. Venkat fights with Bhadranna for Shailaja. Shailaja comes to know that she misunderstood Venkat and apologizes, they reconcile and both start loving again. That night, Bhadranna kills his brother Kaasi for not bringing Shailaja. Bhadranna is coming back from Hyderabad to marry Shailaja. During the festival, Bhadranna is stopped by his uncle Sivaiah. After the fight, Venkat embraces Shailaja and Venkat's friends. Bhadranna regains conscious but dies when a statue covered in fire collapses towards him.
The movie ends with Shailaja reuniting. Music was composed by Devi Sri Prasad and all Lyrics were Penned by Sirivennela Sitarama Sastry. All songs are blockbusters. Music released on Aditya Music. Throughout the movie, there is a strong allusion to the Hindu epic Ramayana. Indeed, the story parallels the Ramayana in many ways, Venkat being an analogous Rama, Sailaja his Sita and Bhadranna being Ravana analog. Towards the beginning of the movie, as Ranga Rao enter's Bhadranna's residence for the first time, he proclaims - "లంక లాగ ఉన్నదే" - "this looks just like Lanka". During a live play of the Ramayana at his house, upon seeing Rama take Sita back from Ravana, Bhadranna stops the actors from continuing the play and demands the script be changed by having Ravana tie the mangalasutra around Sita's neck. At the end of the movie, during another live play of the Ramayana, Rama shoots a large Ravana effigy with a burning arrow, it is this burning collapsing Ravana that kills Bhadranna, leaving us with the final allegory of Rama killing Ravana and rescuing Sita.
Venkat and Sailaja confirm their love at a Temple. This vital scene was shot at the Nandi statue of Thousand Pillar Temple in Warangal city. "Mellaga" song was shot at the same temple. The film celebrated a 50-day run in 200 centers 100 days in 79 centers film did ₹18 - 20 crore business. Http://www.aptalks.com/varsham-film-director-late-shobhans-son-debuts-as-hero/ Varsham on IMDb