Papua is the largest and easternmost province of Indonesia, comprising most of Western New Guinea. It is bordered by the nation of Papua New Guinea to the east, the province of West Papua to the west, the Pacific Ocean to the north, the Arafura Sea to the south. According to the 2010 census by Statistics Indonesia, Papua had a population of 2,833,381, majority of whom are Christians; the province is divided into one city. Its capital and largest city is Jayapura; the province was called Irian Jaya and comprised the entire Western New Guinea until the inauguration of the province of West Papua in 2003. In 2002, Papua adopted its current name and was granted a special autonomous status by the Indonesian legislation. Puncak Jaya is the province's highest mountain as well as the highest point of Indonesia. "Papua" is internationally recognised name for the province. During the Dutch colonial era the region was known as part of "Dutch New Guinea" or "Netherlands New Guinea". Since its annexation in 1969, it became known as "West Irian" or "Irian Barat" until 1973, thereafter renamed "Irian Jaya" by the Suharto administration.
This was the official name until the name "Papua" was adopted in 2002. Today, the indigenous inhabitants of this province prefer to call themselves Papuans; the name "West Papua" was adopted in 1961 by the New Guinea Council until the United Nations Temporary Executive Authority transferred administration to the Republic of Indonesia in 1963. "West Papua" has since been used by Papuans as a self-identifying term by those demanding self-determination, refers to the whole of the Indonesian portion of New Guinea. The other Indonesian province that shares New Guinea, West Irian Jaya, has been renamed as West Papua, or Papua Barat; the entire western New Guinea is referred to as "West Papua" internationally – among networks of international solidarity with the West Papuan independence movement. The province of Papua is governed by a directly elected governor and a regional legislature, People's Representative Council of province of Papua. A government organisation that only exists in Papua is the Papuan People's Council Papuan People's Council), formed by the Indonesian Government in 2005 as a coalition of Papuan tribal chiefs, tasked with arbitration and speaking on behalf of Papuan tribal customs.
Indonesian sovereignty over Papua dates back to 1969, when Indonesia conducted a referendum on the self-determination of the peoples of Papua under an agreement with the United Nations to respect any result. Instead of conducting a democratic referendum amongst the general population, Indonesian security forces forcibly coerced a small number of tribal elders to vote to join Indonesia; the agreement with the UN was nominally upheld, was recognised by the international community in spite of protests. This intensified the independence movement among indigenous West Papuans, deepening the Papua conflict, which began when the Dutch withdrew from the East Indies in 1963; the conflict has continued to the present, with Indonesian security forces being accused of numerous human rights abuses in their suppression of the independence movement. The Indonesian government maintains tight control over the region, barring foreign journalists or rights monitors from entering. In 1999 it was proposed to split the province into three government-controlled sectors, sparking Papuan protests.
In January 2003 President Megawati Sukarnoputri signed an order dividing Papua into three provinces: Central Irian Jaya and West Papua. The formality of installing a local government for Jaraka in Irian Jaya Barat took place in February 2003 and a governor was appointed in November; the creation of this separate Central Irian Jaya Province was blocked by Indonesian courts, who declared it to be unconstitutional and in contravention of the Papua's special autonomy agreement. The previous division into two provinces was allowed to stand as an established fact; the province of Papua is one of three provinces to have obtained special autonomy status, the others being Aceh and West Papua. According to Law 21/2001 on Special Autonomy Status, the provincial government of Papua is provided with authority within all sectors of administration, except for the five strategic areas of foreign affairs and defense, monetary and fiscal affairs and justice; the provincial government is authorised to issue local regulations to further stipulate the implementation of the special autonomy, including regulating the authority of districts and municipalities within the province.
Due to its special autonomy status, Papua province is provided with significant amount of special autonomy funds, which can be used to benefit its indigenous peoples. But the province has low fiscal capacity and it is dependent on unconditional transfers and the above-mentioned special autonomy fund, which accounted for about 55% of total revenues in 2008. After obtaining its special autonomy status, in order to allow the local population access to timber production benefits, the Papuan provincial government issued a number of decrees, enabling: a Timber Logging Permit for Cus
Manado is the capital city of the Indonesian province of North Sulawesi. Manado is located at the Bay of Manado, is surrounded by a mountainous area; the city had 675,411 inhabitants at the 2010 Census, making it the second-largest city in Sulawesi after Makassar. The latest official estimate is 701,390; the name Manado, derived from the Minahasan language, comes from the word manadou or wanazou meaning "on the far coast" or "in the distance" and referred to the further of two islands which can be seen from the mainland. When the settlement on this island was relocated to the mainland, the name Manado was brought with it, after which the island itself became referred to as Manado Tua; the name for Manado in the Sangir language is Manaro. The first mention of Manado comes from a world map by French cartographer Nicolas Desliens, which shows the island of Manarow. Before Europeans arrived in North Sulawesi, the area was under the rule of the Sultan of Ternate, who exacted tribute and introduced the Muslim religion among some of its inhabitants.
The Portuguese made the Sultan their vassal, taking possession of the Minahasa and establishing a factory in Wenang. Meanwhile, the Spanish had set themselves up in the Philippines and Minahasa was used to plant coffee that came from South America because of its rich soil. Manado was further developed by Spain as a center of commerce for the Chinese traders who traded the coffee in China. With the help of native allies the Spanish took over the Portuguese fortress in Amurang in the 1550s and Spanish settlers established a fort at Manado so that Spain controlled all of the Minahasa, it was in Manado where one of the first Indo-Eurasian communities in the archipelago developed during the 16th century. The first King of Manado named. Spain renounced to her possessions in Minahasa by means of a treaty with the Portuguese in return for a payment of 350,000 ducats. Minahasan natives made an alliance treaty with the Dutch and expelled the last of the Portuguese from Manado a few years later; the Dutch East India Company or Verenigde Oost Indische Compagnie built a fortress in Manado named Fort Amsterdam in 1658.
As with regions in eastern Indonesia, Manado has undergone Christianization by Dutch missionaries, including Riedel and John Gottlieb Schwarz. The Dutch missionaries built the first Christian church in Manado called Oude Kerk, which still stands and is now called Gereja Sentrum. HMS Dover captured Manado in June 1810; the Javanese prince Diponegoro was exiled to Manado by the Dutch government in 1830 for leading a war of rebellion against the Dutch. In 1859, the English biologist Alfred Wallace praised the town for its beauty. In 1919, the Apostolic Prefecture of Celebes was established in the city. In 1961, it was promoted as the Diocese of Manado; the Japanese captured Manado in the Battle of Manado in January 1942. The city was damaged by Allied bombing during World War II. In 1958, the headquarters of the rebel movement Permesta was moved to Manado; when Permesta confronted the central government with demands for political and regional reform, Jakarta responded by bombing the city in February 1958, invading in June 1958.
Manado experiences tropical rainforest climate according to Köppen Climate Classification as there's no real dry season. The wettest month is January with an annual precipitation of 465 millimetres, while the driest is September with an annual precipitation of 121 millimetres; the abundance of total precipitation seems to be influenced by the monsoon. As its location is near the equator, the temperature seems constant throughout the year; the hottest month is August with an average temperature of 26.6 °C, while the coolest month are January and February with an average temperature of 25.4 °C. Unlike other cities in Indonesia, the temperature seems to be cooler; the city is divided into 11 districts. The table below lists population totals from the 2010 Census, it does not include the districts of Bunaken Kepulauan and Paal 2, which were established in 2012. The boundaries of Manado City are as follows: North = North Minahasa Regency and Mantehage straits South = Minahasa Regency West = Manado Bay East = Minahasa Regency Currently the majority of Manado city residents are from the Minahasa ethnic, because Manado is located in Minahasan lands.
The indigenous people of Manado are sub Tombulu sub-tribes seen from several urban villages in Manado from the Tombulu language, for example: Wenang, Mahakeret, Tikala Ares, Winangun, Pinaesaan, Teling, Tuminting, Wanea, etc. While the Malalayang area has residents from the Bantik tribe, other tribes in Manado today are from the Sangir tribe, the Gorontalo tribe, the Mongondow tribe, Arabian tribe, the Babontehu tribe, the Talaud, the Tionudese, the Siau and the Borgo. Most of the Minahasan people are other European descent. Due to the large number of Arabian peranakan communities, the existence of the Kampung Arab, within a radius near Pasar'45 still survives until now and has become one of the religious tourism destinations. Other ethnicities represented include Javanese, Batak, Mak
Keerom Regency is one of the regencies in Papua Province of Indonesia. It was formed from the eastern districts within Jayapura Regency with effect from 12 November 2002, it covers an area of 8,390 km2, had a population of 48,536 at the 2010 Census. The regency's administrative centre is at Waris; the existing regency comprises seven districts, tabulated below with their populations at the 2010 Census
Salted fish, such as kippered herring or dried and salted cod, is fish cured with dry salt and thus preserved for eating. Drying or salting, either with dry salt or with brine, was the only available method of preserving fish until the 19th century. Dried fish and salted fish are a staple of diets in the Caribbean, North Africa, Southeast Asia, Southern China, parts of Canada including Newfoundland, coastal Russia, in the Arctic. Like other salt-cured meats, it provides preserved animal protein in the absence of refrigeration. Salting is the preservation of food with dry edible salt, it is related to pickling, is one of the oldest methods of preserving food. Salt inhibits the growth of microorganisms by drawing water out of microbial cells through osmosis. Concentrations of salt up to 20% are required to kill most species of unwanted bacteria. Smoking used in the process of curing meat, adds chemicals to the surface of meat that reduce the concentration of salt required. Salting is used because most bacteria and other pathogenic organisms cannot survive in a salty environment, due to the hypertonic nature of salt.
Any living cell in such an environment will become dehydrated through osmosis and die or become temporarily inactivated. The water activity, aw, in a fish is defined as the ratio of the water vapour pressure in the flesh of the fish to the vapour pressure of pure water at the same temperature and pressure, it ranges between 0 and 1, is a parameter that measures how available the water is in the flesh of the fish. Available water is necessary for the enzymatic reactions involved in spoilage. There are a number of techniques that have been or are used to tie up the available water or remove it by reducing the aw. Traditionally, techniques such as drying and smoking have been used, have been used for thousands of years. In more recent times, freeze-drying, water binding humectants, automated equipment with temperature and humidity control have been added. A combination of these techniques is used. Cantonese salted fish Cured fish Salted squid Brining Dried and salted cod, one of the main preserved sources of protein for centuries around the Atlantic nations Gibbing Pickling salt Surströmming Schwartz, RK "All roads lead to Rome: Roman food production in North Africa" Repast, 20: 5–6 and 8–9
Sorong is the largest city of the Indonesian province of West Papua. The city is located on the western tip of the island of New Guinea with its only land borders being with Sorong Regency, it is the gateway to Indonesia's Raja Ampat Islands, species rich coral reef islands in an area considered the heart of the world's coral reef biodiversity. It is the logistics hub for Indonesia's thriving eastern oil and gas frontier. Sorong has experienced exponential growth since 2010, further growth is anticipated as Sorong becomes linked by road to other frontier towns in Papua's Bird's Head Peninsula; the city had a population of 190,625 at the 2010 Census. It is served by Dominique Edward Osok Airport; the origin of Sorong's name comes from the word Soren, which means "deep and wavy ocean" in the Biak language. The name was first used by the Biak-Numfor people who sailed to different islands before they decided to settle down in Raja Ampat Islands; when the Biak-Numfor people came to the place called "Daratan Maladum", they decided to call it Soren.
After centuries of contact with Chinese merchants, European missionaries, people from Maluku and Sangihe-Talaud, the name underwent further change into Sorong. Sorong experiences the tropical rainforest climate, as there is no real dry season throughout the year; the wettest month is June, with a total precipitation of 373 millimetres, while the driest month is February, with a total precipitation of 180 millimetres. The excessive precipitation is caused by the monsoon; the temperature variation remains constant throughout the year. The temperature difference between the hottest month and the coolest month is 1.2 °C. The hottest month is November, with an average temperature of 27.8 °C, while the coolest month is July, with an average temperature of 26.6 °C. Sorong City comprises six districts, tabulated below with their populations at the 2010 Census: A container port was built in Sorong with an annual container-handling capacity of 500,000 twenty-foot equivalent units and cost Rp.800 billion.
Construction began in early 2012 and was expected to be complete in mid-2013
New Guinea is a large island separated by a shallow sea from the rest of the Australian continent. It is the world's third-largest island, after Australia and Greenland, covering a land area of 785,753 km2, arguably the largest wholly or within the Southern Hemisphere and Oceania; the eastern half of the island is the major land mass of the independent state of Papua New Guinea. The western half, referred to as either Western New Guinea or West Papua, has been administered by Indonesia since 1963 and comprises the provinces of Papua and West Papua; the island has been known by various names: The name Papua was used to refer to parts of the island before contact with the West. Its etymology is unclear; the name came from papo and ua, which means "not united" or, "territory that geographically is far away". Ploeg reports that the word papua is said to derive from the Malay word papua or pua-pua, meaning "frizzly-haired", referring to the curly hair of the inhabitants of these areas. Another possibility, put forward by Sollewijn Gelpke in 1993, is that it comes from the Biak phrase sup i papwa which means'the land below' and refers to the islands west of the Bird's Head, as far as Halmahera.
Whatever its origin, the name Papua came to be associated with this area, more with Halmahera, known to the Portuguese by this name during the era of their colonization in this part of the world. When the Portuguese and Spanish explorers arrived in the island via the Spice Islands, they referred to the island as Papua. However, the name New Guinea was used by Westerners starting with the Spanish explorer Yñigo Ortiz de Retez in 1545, referring to the similarities of the indigenous people's appearance with the natives of the Guinea region of Africa; the name is one of several toponyms sharing similar etymologies meaning "land of the blacks" or similar meanings, in reference to the dark skin of the inhabitants. The Dutch, who arrived under Jacob Le Maire and Willem Schouten, called it Schouten island, but this name was used only to refer to islands off the north coast of Papua proper, the Schouten Islands or Biak Island; when the Dutch colonized it as part of Netherlands East Indies, they called it Nieuw Guinea.
The name Irian was used in the Indonesian language to refer to the island and Indonesian province, as "Irian Jaya Province". The name was promoted in 1945 by brother of the future governor Frans Kaisiepo, it is taken from the Biak language of Biak Island, means "to rise", or "rising spirit". Irian is the name used in the Biak language and other languages such as Serui and Waropen; the name was used until 2001, when the name Papua was again used for the province. The name Irian, favored by natives, is now considered to be a name imposed by the authority of Jakarta. New Guinea is an island to the north of the Australian mainland, but south of the equator, it is isolated by the Arafura Sea to the west, the Torres Strait and Coral Sea to the east. Sometimes considered to be the easternmost island of the Indonesian archipelago, it lies north of Australia's Top End, the Gulf of Carpentaria and Cape York peninsula, west of the Bismarck Archipelago and the Solomon Islands Archipelago. Politically, the western half of the island comprises two provinces of Indonesia: Papua and West Papua.
The eastern half forms the mainland of the country of Papua New Guinea. The shape of New Guinea is compared to that of a bird-of-paradise, this results in the usual names for the two extremes of the island: the Bird's Head Peninsula in the northwest, the Bird's Tail Peninsula in the southeast. A spine of east–west mountains, the New Guinea Highlands, dominates the geography of New Guinea, stretching over 1,600 km from the'head' to the'tail' of the island, with many high mountains over 4,000 m; the western-half of the island of New Guinea contains the highest mountains in Oceania, rising up to 4,884 m high, higher than Mont Blanc in Europe, ensuring a steady supply of rain from the equatorial atmosphere. The tree line is around 4,000 m elevation and the tallest peaks contain permanent equatorial glaciers—which have been retreating since at least 1936. Various other smaller mountain ranges occur both west of the central ranges. Except in high elevations, most areas possess a warm humid climate throughout the year, with some seasonal variation associated with the northeast monsoon season.
The highest peaks on the island of New Guinea are: Puncak Jaya, sometimes known by its former Dutch name Carstensz Pyramid, is a mist-covered limestone mountain peak on the Indonesian side of the border. At 4,884 metres, Puncak Jaya makes New Guinea the world's fourth-highest landmass after Afro-Eurasia and Antarctica. Puncak Mandala located in Papua, is the second-highest peak on the island at 4,760 metres. Puncak Trikora in Papua, is 4,750 metres. Mount Wilhelm is the highest peak on the PNG side of the border at 4,509 metres, its granite peak is the highest point of the Bismarck Range. Mount Giluwe 4,368 metres is the second-highest summit in PNG, it is the highest volcanic peak in Oceania. Another major habitat featur
Indonesia the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, at 1,904,569 square kilometres, the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population; the sovereign state is a constitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world; the country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity.
The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin and gold. Agriculture produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan and India. History of the Indonesian archipelago has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources, it has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese and British, the Dutch were the foremost European power for much of its 350-year presence in the archipelago. In early 20th century, the concept of "Indonesia" as a nation state emerged, independence movements began to take shape.
During the decolonisation of Asia after World War II, Indonesia achieved independence in 1949 following an armed and diplomatic conflict with the Netherlands. Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika", articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia's economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the UN, WTO, IMF and G20, it is a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indos and the word nesos, meaning "Indian islands". The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago". In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894; the first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara, when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.
Fossils and the remains of tools show that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by Homo erectus, known as "Java Man", between 1.5 million years ago and 35,000 years ago. Homo sapiens reached the region around 45,000 years ago. Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan, they arrived around 4,000 years ago, as they spread through the archipelago, confined the indigenous Melanesians to the far eastern regions. Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE allowed villages and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE; the archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, which were established several centuries BCE. Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it.
Between the 8th and 10th century CE, the agricultural Buddhist Saile