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Jean-Baptiste Biot

Jean-Baptiste Biot was a French physicist and mathematician who established the reality of meteorites, made an early balloon flight, studied the polarization of light. The mineral biotite and Cape Biot in Greenland were named in his honor. Jean-Baptiste Biot was born in Paris on 21 April 1774 the son of Joseph Biot, a treasury official, he was educated at Lyceum Louis-le-Grand and École Polytechnique in 1794. Biot served in the artillery before he was appointed professor of mathematics at Beauvais in 1797, he went on to become a professor of physics at the Collège de France around 1800, three years was elected as a member of the French Academy of Sciences. In July 1804, Biot was on board for the first scientific hot-air balloon ride with Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac to measure how the Earth's magnetic field varied with elevation, they reached a height of 4000 metres. In Sept. 1804, Gay-Lussac did a solo flight that took him up to 7010 metres. Biot was a member of the Legion of Honor. In 1815, he was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society of London, in 1816 a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 1822 a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

In addition, Biot received the Rumford Medal in 1840, awarded by the Royal Society in the field of thermal or optical properties of matter.. In 1850 Jean-Baptiste Biot published in the Journal des savants a 7-page memoir from his recollections of the period of the late 1790s and early 1800s concerning his encounters with Laplace. Jean-Baptiste Biot had a single son, Édouard Constant Biot, an engineer and Sinologist, born in 1803. Edouard died in 1850 and it was only thanks to the extraordinary efforts of his father that the second half of Edouard's last book, the Chinese classic Tcheou-li, was readied for publication, it had been left in manuscript, unfinished. To publish it in correct form, Jean-Baptiste Biot wrote, he had to consult Stanislas Julien, the famous Sinologist, but especially for the translation of the most difficult part, the Kaogongji, he himself had to visit many workshops and questioned artisans and craftsmen about their methods and vocabulary in order to verify his son's work.

To this day, Biot's translation remains the only translation into a Western language of this book. He died in Paris on 3 February 1862. Jean-Baptiste Biot made many contributions to the scientific community in his lifetime – most notably in optics and astronomy; the Biot–Savart law in magnetism is named after Biot and his colleague Félix Savart for their work in 1820. In their experiment they showed a connection between electricity and magnetism by "starting with a long vertical wire and a magnetic needle some horizontal distance apart that running a current through the wire caused the needle to move". In 1803 Biot was sent by the Académie française to report back on 3000 meteorites that fell on L'Aigle, France, he found that the meteorites, called "stones" at the time, were from outer space. With his report, Biot helped support Ernst Florens Friedrich Chladni's argument that meteorites were debris from space, which he had published in 1794. Prior to Biot's thorough investigation of the meteorites that fell near l'Aigle, France in 1803 few believed that rocks found on Earth could have extraterrestrial origins.

There were anecdotal tales of unusual rocks found on the ground after fireballs had been seen in the sky, but such stories were dismissed as fantasy. Serious debate concerning the unusual rocks began in 1794 when German physicist Chladni published a book claiming that rocks had an extraterrestrial origin. Only after Biot was able to analyze the rocks at l'Aigle was it accepted that the fireballs seen in the sky were meteors falling through the atmosphere. Since Biot's time, analysis of meteorites has resulted in accurate measurements of the chemical composition of the solar system; the composition and position of meteors in the solar system have given astronomers clues as to how the solar system formed. In 1812, Biot turned his attention to the study of optics the polarization of light. Prior to the 19th century, light was believed to consist of discrete packets called corpuscles. During the early 19th century, many scientists began to disregard the corpuscular theory in favor of the wave theory of light.

Biot began his work on polarization to show that the results he was obtaining could appear only if light were made of corpuscles. In 1815 he demonstrated that "polarized light, when passing through an organic substance, could be rotated clockwise or counterclockwise, dependent upon the optical axis of the material." His work in chromatic polarization and rotary polarization advanced the field of optics, although it was shown that his findings could be obtained using the wave theory of light. Biot's work on the polarization of light has led to many breakthroughs in the field of optics. Liquid crystal displays, such as television and computer screens, use light, polarized by a filter as it enters the liquid crystal, to allow the liquid crystal to modulate the intensity of the transmitted light; this happens as the liquid crystal's polarisation varies in response to an electric control signal applied across it. Polarizing filters are used extensively in photography to cut out unwanted reflections or to enhance reflection.

Potassium tartrate was first discovered inside of a wine container in Iran. The m

Samsville, Illinois

Samsville is an unincorporated community in northern Edwards County, United States. Samsville is located on Illinois Route 130. One of the first families to make a permanent home in Edwards County was Lot Sams, he along with Thomas Carney, John Bell and Isaac Greathouse came in 1815. In 1821, Lot Sams settled in section 25. Lot had been a resident of Kentucky and Tennessee before coming to the state of Illinois with his family. Pack horses carried their belongings all the way to this state. By thrift and endurance, Lot Sams had accumulated a considerable amount of property, the little hamlet of six or seven families in Samsville, in Shelby precinct, has the honor of bearing his name. In 1864 a post office was established there; the old Shiloh Church was established east about one-quarter of a mile with a cemetery. Two other cemeteries and Ebenezer are located near Samsville. In June 2006, strong straight-line winds destroyed the Ebenezer United Methodist Church, located by the Cemetery; the church was rebuilt in 2007 on the same location as the old church.

In the early 1960s Curma Hoeszle purchased the Samsville store in Samsville. He entered into business with Glen Taylor operating the Southern Illinois Tractor & Machine Salvage Company; this was located across the road from the Samsville store. These businesses continued till his death in the 1980s. A History of Edwards County, Illinois Volume One, 1980 Library of Congress Card Number 80-70649

Ben Keighran

Ben Keighran is an Australian born technology entrepreneur and serial entrepreneur. He is the CEO of social broadcasting platform Caffeine. Ben Keighran was born in March 1982 in Australia. By the age of 13, Keighran had taught himself to code C++ and launched a popular bulletin board system that overwhelmed his parents' phone line. In 2006, Ben Keighran relocated from Sydney to San Francisco, where he raised $6.5 million for his mobile social messaging application, Bluepulse. Bluepulse launched in December 2006 as a social messaging app, where Keighran worked on designing a standard for publishing content on mobile, including text messages and other types of communications. A year after founding Bluepulse, in 2007 Keighran was named one of America's Top Entrepreneurs under 25 by BusinessWeek. Keighran's next venture was serving as the lead advisor for social search service Aardvark's mobile strategy. Aardvark was acquired by Google for $50 million in 2010. After Aardvark, Keighran went on to found app search and discovery platform Chomp in 2009 which raised a little over $2.5 million over two rounds of funding from BlueRun Ventures, SV Angel founder Ron Conway, Aydin Senkut, David Lee, Brian Pokorny and Auren Hoffman.

Ashton Kutcher and Digg founder Kevin Rose were advisors to the company. Chomp was one of the earliest startups to offer both app search and personalized app recommendations for the iPhone app. Keighran led the company in developing its unique app search formula and filing 11 patents based on these new app search technologies and user experience. Chomp's iPhone app offered app search and personalized app recommendations as well, making the startup one of the earliest services to offer that mixed functionality. After expanding its services to Android, Chomp partnered with Verizon to offer an app search engine for the mobile network operator's mobile app marketplace, V Cast and all Verizon apps. In 2012, Chomp was acquired by Apple for $50 million and the technology was used to help overhaul the iTunes and App Store search experience. After joining Apple, Keighran spent the next four years overseeing software design on the Apple TV. Keighran helped design the look and feel of the software featured in the 4th generation Apple TV.

Keighran played a role in Apple TV's receival of an Emmy for its Siri integration. In 2016, Keighran left Apple to start his most recent company Caffeine. Caffeine is a social broadcasting platform that delivers live, interactive content at the intersection of gaming and entertainment. Caffeine has raised $146 million to date from investors in 3 rounds led by 21st Century Fox, Andreesen Horowitz, Greylock Partners. Most Caffeine secured a $100 million investment in September 2018 from 21st Century Fox with chairman Lachlan Murdoch joining Caffeine's board, as well as the creation of a newly formed joint venture called Caffeine Studios; the studio produces exclusive gaming, esports and live entertainment content, streamed to Caffeine's audience

Maxine McClean

Maxine McClean is the former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Barbados, in office 2008 to 2018. McClean is a graduate of the University of the West Indies. While she was there she received second class honors in Public Administration. McClean was a lecturer in the Department of Management Studies. In 1999, she established her own consulting firm. A few years in January 2008, Maxine was invited to join the Barbados Cabinet as a minister in the Prime Minister's office. Eleven months after this, she was appointed as Minister of Foreign Trade. List of foreign ministers in 2017 List of current foreign ministers Photo of Minister Senator Maxine McClean at the U. N

Robert Sengstacke Abbott

Robert Sengstacke Abbott was an American lawyer, newspaper publisher and editor. Abbott founded The Chicago Defender in 1905, which grew to have the highest circulation of any black-owned newspaper in the country. An early adherent of the Baháʼí religion in the United States, Abbott founded the Bud Billiken Parade and Picnic in August 1929; the parade, which has developed into a celebration for youth and African–American life in Chicago, Illinois. Abbot was born on November 24, 1870, in St. Simons, Georgia to freedman parents, enslaved before the American Civil War; the Sea Islands were a place of the Gullah people, an African-descended ethnic group who continued stronger aspects of African cultures than among African Americans in other areas of the South. His father, Thomas Abbott died, his widowed mother Flora Abbott met and married John Sengstacke, an American mixed-race man of unusual background who had come to the US from Germany. His parents were Tama, a freed slave woman of African descent, her husband Herman Sengstacke, a German sea captain who had a regular route from Hamburg to Savannah.

In the Georgia port city in 1847, Herman saw a slave sale. He was so distressed he bought the freedom of a young woman from West Africa, they married in Charleston, South Carolina, before returning to Georgia, where their interracial marriage was prohibited. Their mixed-race son John was born the next year and a daughter in 1848. Tama died soon after their daughter was born, Herman took the children back to Germany to be raised by family. John met the young black widow Flora, he cared for Robert. Together the couple had seven children. Robert was given the middle name Sengstacke. John Sengstacke had become a Congregationalist missionary as an adult. God made a church, man made denominations. God gave us a Holy Bible, disputing men made different kinds of disciples." Sengstacke became a teacher, determined to improve the education of black children. He became a publisher, founding the Woodville Times, based in what was a town named Woodville. Given the industrialization under way in the country, from 1892 to 1896, Abbott studied the printing trade at Hampton Institute, a black college in Virginia.

At Hampton, he sang with Quartet, which toured nationally. He earned a law degree from Kent College of Law, Chicago, in 1898. Abbott tried working for a few years in Gary, Indiana, he returned home to Georgia for a period went back to Chicago, where he could see changes arriving with thousands of new migrants from the rural South. After settling in Chicago, in 1905 Abbott founded The Chicago Defender newspaper with an initial investment of ¢25, he started printing in a room at his boardinghouse. He wanted to push for job opportunities and social justice, was eager to persuade blacks to leave the segregated, Jim Crow South for Chicago. A key part of his distribution network was made up of African-American railroad porters, who were respected among blacks, by 1925 they organized a union as the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, they sold or distributed the paper on trains. Defender circulation reached 50,000 by 1916. Credited with contributing to the Great Migration of rural southern blacks to Chicago, the Defender became the most circulated black newspaper in the country.

It was known as "America's Black Newspaper." Its success resulted in Abbott becoming one of the first self-made millionaires of African-American descent. From the early 20th century through 1940, 1.5 million blacks moved to major cities in the North and Midwest. They were eager to know about conditions, to find housing, to learn more about their new lives in cities. Most were from rural areas of the South. From 1890 to 1908 all the southern states had passed constitutions or laws that raised barriers to voter registration and disenfranchised most blacks and many poor whites, they were utterly closed out of the political systems. Schools and other public facilities reserved for blacks were underfunded and ill-maintained. Legislatures imposed Jim Crow conditions, producing facilities for blacks that were "separate" but never "equal"; the northern and midwestern industrial centers, where blacks could vote and send children to school, were recruiting workers based on expansion of manufacturing and infrastructure to supply the US's expanding population as well as the war in Europe, which started in 1914.

The Pennsylvania Railroad and others were expanding at a rapid rate across the North, needing workers for construction and to serve the train passengers. The Defender told stories of earlier migrants to the North, giving hope to disenfranchised and oppressed people in the South of other ways to live. Abbott, through his writings in the Chicago Defender, expressed those stories and encouraged people to leave the South fo

A Night of Horror International Film Festival

A Night of Horror International Film Festival is a horror genre film festival, based in Sydney, Australia. There seems to be some consensus that the event is Australia's premiere, only, horror film festival. In his monthly column in Encore Magazine, columnist Harvey Shore referred to the festival as "Australia's first horror film festival recognises the past and gives the horror genre a platform for the future." In an article in Sydney's Drum Media magazine, journalist Liz Guiffre refers to the horror festival as "a one of a kind in our parts". The festival was founded in 2006, by Dean Bertram, Lisa Mitchell, Grant Bertram, it was a short film festival, but has since expanded to include feature films and horror themed music videos. Indeed, now that the festival runs for a longer duration, the festival's name, "A Night of Horror", is something of a misnomer; the principal screening venue for the 2008 festival was the Dendy Newtown Cinema. Additional special events included a horror filmmaking forum, a zombie walk, a number of horror-themed parties.

In addition to the principal annual event in Sydney, a "best of" program of films from the festival tours within Australia and internationally. Some of these screenings take place at other festivals under the "A Night of Horror" banner, have included programs at: It Came From Lake Michigan Film Festival, Weekend de la Peur, Revelation Perth International Film Festival. In 2007, A Night of Horror International Film Festival programmed a special selection of Canadian produced horror films for Possible Worlds: Sydney's Canadian Film Festival; the festival is competitive and films compete for several awards and prizes. A panel of judges decide these winners. 2009 judges included: Antony I. Ginnane, Jon Dalgaard, Jason Di Rosso, Lewis Alsamari. Previous year's judges have included film author and curator Jack Sargeant, People magazine editor Martin Vine and radio personalities Jaimie Leonarder and Aspasia Leonarder, FBi Radio presenter and journalist Chris Ruhle. 2007 Winning films Best of Fest: The Ancient Rite Of Corey McGillis Best Film: Happy Birthday 2 You Best Animation: The Tell Tale Heart Best Lovecraft Film: From Beyond Best Zombie Film: Love is a Shotgun Best Director: Paul Campion, Night Of The Hell Hamsters Best Performance: Emma Caulfield, Hollow Best Scream Queen: Kaja Trøa, The New Life Best Special Effects: Stuart Rowsell, The Ancient Rite Of Corey McGillis Best Score: Milan Rusko, Nazdravicko!

2008 Winning Films Best Film: Brain Dead Best Foreign Film: La Antena Best Short Film: Pumpkin Hell Best Australian Film: When Sally Met Frank Best Lovecraft Film: The Call of Cthulhu Best Animation: Egg Ghost Best Music Video: Torture Device, featuring Dawn of Ashes Best Director: Paco Limon, Best Performance: Sammi Davis, The Double Born Best Scream Queen: Tess McVicker, Brain Dead Best Special Make-Up Effects: Brain Dead Best Special Visual Effects: Eel Girl Directors' Choice Award: Murder Loves Killers Too Directors' Choice Award: Kirksdale 2009 Winning Films Best Film: Splinter Best Foreign Language Film: No Morire Sola Best Australian Film: I Know How Many Runs You Scored Last Summer Best Director: Adrián García Bogliano Best Australian Director: Ursula Dabrowsky Best Female Performance: Olga Fedori Best Male Performance: Shea Whigham Best Special Effects: Splinter Best Special Effects: Treevenge Best Short Film: Una Storia Di Lupi Best Short Animation: The Facts in the Case of Mister Hollow Best Lovecraft Film: AM 1200 Best Short Australian Film: A Break in the Monotony Best Music Video: More Control - The Heist and the Accomplice Directors' Choice: Reel Zombies Directors' Choice: Allure Independent Spirit Award: Finale Independent Spirit Award: The Red Hours Independent Spirit Award: Taber Corn The 2009 Sydney festival is scheduled for 25 March to 3 April 2009.

On 2 June 2008, the festival announced its call for entries for the 2009 festival. The festival accepts films in several different categories, including: feature films, short films, films inspired by the writings of H. P. Lovecraft, horror-themed music videos, it has introduced a screenplay competition to take place in conjunction with the 2009 festival, is calling for unproduced feature length and short horror scripts. 2009 Feature Screenplay Winners: 1st - Terminal - 2nd - Children of the Night - 3rd - Footage - 2009 Short Screenplay Winners: 1st - Brother Moose's Broken Shorts - 2nd - Fragments of Normal - 3rd - Mr. Roach - A Night of Horror International Film Festival website A Night of Horror at Revelation Perth International Film Festival