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Jean-Baptiste Dumas

Jean Baptiste André Dumas was a French chemist, best known for his works on organic analysis and synthesis, as well as the determination of atomic weights and molecular weights by measuring vapor densities. He developed a method for the analysis of nitrogen in compounds. Dumas was born in Alès, became an apprentice to an apothecary in his native town. In 1816, he moved to Geneva, where he attended lectures by M. A. Pictet in physics, C. G. de la Rive in chemistry, A. P. de Candolle in botany, before he had reached his majority, he was engaged with Pierre Prévost in original work on problems of physiological chemistry and of embryology. In 1822, he moved to Paris, acting on the advice of Alexander von Humboldt, where he became professor of chemistry at the Lyceum at the École polytechnique, he was one of the founders of the École centrale des arts et manufactures in 1829. In 1832 Dumas became a member of the French Academy of Sciences. From 1868 until his death in 1884 he would serve the academy as the permanent secretary for its department of Physical Sciences.

In 1838, Dumas was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. The same year he became correspondent of the Royal Institute of the Netherlands and, when that became the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1851, he joined as a foreign member. Dumas was president of Société d'encouragement pour l'industrie nationale from 1845 to 1864. After 1848, he exchanged much of his scientific work for ministerial posts under Napoléon III, he became a member of the National Legislative Assembly. He acted as minister of agriculture and commerce for a few months in 1850–1851, subsequently became a senator, president of the municipal council of Paris, master of the French mint, but his official career came to a sudden end with the fall of the Second Empire. Dumas was a devout Catholic who would defend Christian views against critics. Dumas died at Cannes in 1884, is buried at the Montparnasse Cemetery in Paris, in a large tomb near the back wall, his is one of the 72 names inscribed on the Eiffel tower.

Dumas was one of the first to criticise the electro-chemical doctrines of Jöns Jakob Berzelius, which, at the time his work began, were accepted as the true theory of the constitution of compound bodies, opposed a unitary view to the dualistic conception of the Swedish chemist. In a paper on the atomic theory, published in 1826, he anticipated to a remarkable extent some ideas which are supposed to belong to a period; the classification of organic compounds into homologous series was advanced as one consequence of his researches into the acids generated by the oxidation of the alcohols. Dumas showed that kidneys remove urea from the blood. Vapour densities and atomic masses Dumas perfected the method of measuring vapor densities, important in determining atomic weights. A known amount of the substance being analyzed was put into a weighed glass bulb, sealed and heated in water to vaporize the substance; the pressure was recorded with a barometer, the bulb is allowed to cool to determine the mass of the vapor.

The universal gas law was used to determine the moles of gas within the bulb. In an 1826 paper, he described his method for ascertaining vapour densities, the redeterminations which he undertook by its aid of the atomic weights of carbon and oxygen proved the forerunners of a long series which included some thirty of the elements, the results being published in 1858–1860, he showed "in all elastic fluids observed under the same conditions, the molecules are placed at equal distances". He determined the atomic weight of titanium, one of the rare earth elements. Dumas established new values for the atomic mass of thirty elements, setting the value for hydrogen to 1. Determination of nitrogen In 1833, Dumas developed a method for estimating the amount of nitrogen in an organic compound, founding modern analysis methods, he made important revisions to the existing combustion methods with a sophisticated pneumatic trough. These revisions were the flushing of the combustion tube with carbon dioxide and the addition of potassium hydroxide in the pneumatic trough.

Flushing with carbon dioxide eliminated the nitrogen present in the air that occupied the combustion tube, eliminating the need for correction due to nitrogen in the air. The potassium hydroxide dissolved the passing carbon dioxide gas, which left nitrogen as the only gas in the collection tube. Theory of substitution and theory of chemical types At the Tuileries palace in Paris, guests of a soiree began reacting adversely to a gas emitted by the candles. Alexandre Brongniart asked Dumas, to investigate. Dumas found that the dangerous fumes were caused by chlorine present in the candle wax. Chlorine had been used to whiten the candles, Dumas concluded that it must have combined during the candle-making process; this led Dumas to investigate the behavior of chlorine substitution in other chemical compounds. One of the most important research projects of Dumas was that on the action of chlorine on acetic acid to form trichloroacetic acid – a derivative of the same character as the acetic acid itself.

Dumas extended this to a theory which states that in an organic compound, a hydrogen at

Uley

Uley is a village and civil parish in the county of Gloucestershire, England. The village is situated in a wooded valley in the Cotswold escarpment, on the B4066 road between Dursley and Stroud; the placename signifies'clearing in a yew wood'. The civil parish includes the hamlets of Shadwell and Bencombe, all to the south of the village of Uley, the hamlet of Crawley to the north; the population of the civil parish is around 1,100, but was much greater during the early years of the industrial revolution, when the village was renowned for producing blue cloth. The Romans built a temple at West Hill, near Uley, on the site of an earlier prehistoric shrine. Following the laying of a water main pipe there in 1976, many discoveries were made including numerous Roman writing tablets or lead curse tablets from the temple area; these writing tablets appear to relate to theft, here the mention of animals and farm implements is a regular theme. There is an online project to catalogue all those found at West Hill.

Other remains from this temple, including a fine stone head of Mercury, can now be seen in the British Museum. There were significant Roman villas nearby at Frocester and Woodchester, there is a little-known Roman villa beneath Cam Peak on the road into Dursley. St Giles's Church near the village green was designed by the 19th-century architect Samuel Sanders Teulon, his building replaced an earlier church dating back to Norman times, which had in its turn replaced a Saxon church. The nearby church of the Holy Cross at Owlpen has Saxon origins: the church there was rebuilt in 1828 by Samuel Manning and enlarged and decorated in 1876 by James Piers St Aubyn. There were non-conformist chapels at South St and Whitecourt until the early 1970s; the village was once famous for its large number of pubs reduced to a single hostelry. Until the 1970s there was a butcher's shop and a petrol station, these were subsequently replaced by antique shops and occasional restaurants, now only a small village shop remains.

The area surrounding Whitecourt appears to have some considerable historical significance, with long associations to the Osborne family and a possible Roman road transecting from Kingscote to the East via Bencombe, crossing the Ewelme brook close to the previous mill buildings opposite Stouts hill and transiting what is now Lampern View before exiting W towards Cam/Coaley. The increased mechanisation of agriculture in the area led to a gradual decline during the inter-war periods and this led to the construction of three local authority housing estates - South Street, Lampern View and Raglan Way. However, increased mobility following the construction of the M4 and the Severn Bridge in the mid-1960s, together with an influx of skilled/managerial/professional workers following the establishment of such facilities as the Berkeley power station, led to a steady gentrification of the village, witnessed by the construction of substantial detached homes, for example at Court Gardens, South Street and Green Close.

Uley Brewery was established in the 1980s, in a Grade II listed building, part of the 1833 Price Brewery which closed at the end of the 19th century. The brewery was purchased and refitted by current owner Chas Wright, complete with custom-made brewing vessels; the brewery is situated above a natural spring, uses Maris Otter barley malt and Goldings hops, a traditional method of top fermentation. Its range of ales includes Old Spot Prize Ale, a 5% abv old ale, Uley Bitter, a 4% abv cask bitter; the following amenities and attractions are available in and around the village: North of the village is a Neolithic burial mound known as Hetty Pegler's Tump or Uley Long Barrow. Uley's only remaining pub, the Old Crown, is situated opposite the church; the Prema Arts Centre, founded in the 1970s, is located in a former Baptist Chapel in the village and offers educational courses in the arts and crafts, musical evenings, cultural events and evening classes in many subjects. Uley CofE VC primary school has around 100 pupils.

Uley Primary School can be found in Woodstock Terrace. The school was rated'good' by Ofsted and'outstanding' by SIAS, both in 2012. A Reading Room has not been replaced. An ancient Iron Age hill fort called; the Cotswold Way, a popular trail path, runs close by. Downham Hill lies just to the west: it is known locally as'Smallpox Hill' because of the smallpox isolation facility that stood on the top of the hill many years ago, it is believed to have been one of the earliest isolation hospitals in England. Masonry from the buildings remains visible at the site. Near the summit of the hill lie the remains of an ancient tower-like cottage built in the reign of king Edward III, around the time of the Black Death, in 1346. To the east is Owlpen Manor, a Tudor manor house connected with the arts and crafts movement built from the mid-fifteenth to early seventeenth centuries, but dating back to Saxon times, it was repaired by Norman Jewson in 1925–6, after one hundred years of neglect. Today it is a home of the Mander family.

Stouts Hill, a neo-Gothic country house just outside the village, was the birthplace of the Gloucestershire historian, Samuel Rudder, of the distinguished Persian scholar Edward Granville Browne. Built for

Amar Bose

Amar Gopal Bose was an American academic and entrepreneur. An electrical engineer and sound engineer, he was a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for over 45 years, he was the founder and chairman of Bose Corporation. In 2011, he donated a majority of the company to MIT in the form of non-voting shares to sustain and advance MIT's education and research mission. Bose was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to a Bengali Hindu father, Noni Gopal Bose and an American mother of French and German ancestry, Charlotte, his father was an Indian freedom revolutionary who, having been imprisoned for his political activities, fled Bengal in the 1920s in order to avoid further persecution by the British colonial police. His mother, Charlotte, is described as an American schoolteacher of French and German ancestry, but Bose described her as "more Bengali than me", she was a vegetarian and interested in Vedanta and Hindu philosophy. Bose first displayed his entrepreneurial skills and his interest in electronics at age thirteen when, during the World War II years, he enlisted school friends as co-workers in a small home business repairing model trains and home radios, to supplement his family's income.

After graduating from Abington Senior High School in Abington, Bose enrolled at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, graduating with an SB in Electrical Engineering in the early 1950s. Bose spent a year at Philips Natuurkundig Laboratorium in Netherlands, he completed his PhD in Electrical Engineering from MIT, writing a thesis on non-linear systems under the supervision of Norbert Wiener and Yuk-Wing Lee. Following graduation, Amar Bose became an assistant professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. During his early years as a professor, Bose bought a high-end stereo speaker system in 1956 and he was disappointed to find that speakers with impressive technical specifications failed to reproduce the realism of a live performance; this would motivate his extensive speaker technology research, concentrating on key weaknesses in the high-end speaker systems available at the time. His research on acoustics led him to develop a stereo loudspeaker that would reproduce, in a domestic setting, the dominantly reflected sound field that characterizes the listening space of the audience in a concert hall.

His focus on psychoacoustics became a hallmark of his company's audio products. For initial capital to fund his company in 1964, Bose turned to angel investors, including his MIT thesis advisor and professor, Y. W. Lee. Bose was awarded significant patents in two fields that continue to be important to the Bose Corporation; these patents were in the area of loudspeaker design and non-linear, two-state modulated, Class-D power processing. The company Bose founded employed 11,700 people worldwide as of 2016 and produces products for home and professional audio, as well as conducting basic research in acoustics and other fields. Bose never took his company public, since the company was held Bose was able to pursue risky long-term research. In a 2004 interview in Popular Science magazine, he said: "I would have been fired a hundred times at a company run by MBAs, but I never went into business to make money. I went into business so that I could do interesting things that hadn't been done before."Starting in the 1980s, Bose developed an electromagnetic replacement for automotive shock absorbers, intended to radically improve the performance of automotive suspension systems, absorbing bumps and road shock while controlling car body motions and sway.

Bose said that his best ideas came to him in a flash. "These innovations are not the result of rational thought. In 2009, he was no longer on the billionaires list, but returned to the list in 2011, with a net worth of $1.0 billion. He married Prema Bose but they divorced, they had two children and Maya. He had Kamala. Amar Bose did not practice any religion. Vanu Bose was the CEO of a software-defined radio technology company. Bose died on July 2013 at the age of 83 in Wayland, Massachusetts. In addition to running his company, Bose remained a professor at MIT until 2001, he earned the Baker Teaching Award in 1963–64, further teaching awards over the years. The Bose Award for Excellence in Teaching, the Junior Bose Award were established in his honor, to recognize outstanding teaching in the MIT School of Engineering. Former students have stated that his classes helped them gain life skills and problem solving skills that have served them throughout their careers. In 2011, Bose donated a majority of the company's non-voting shares to MIT on the condition that the shares never be sold.

Because these shares are non-voting, MIT does not participate in operations or governance of Bose Corporation. Fellow, IEEE, 1972 – for contributions to loudspeaker design, two-state amplifier-modulators, nonlinear systems. Honorary member, Audio Engineering Society, 1985. Honorary Doctorate of Music from Berklee College of Music, 1994 Bose was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 2008; the 2010 IEEE/RSE Wolfson James Clerk Maxwell Award, for "outstanding contributions to consumer electronics in sound reproduction, industrial leadership, engineering education". In 2011, he was listed at #9 on the MIT150 list of the top 150 innovators and ideas from MIT. Beryllium Lifetime Achievement Award, Association of Loudspeaker Manufacturing & Aco

Poor posture

Poor posture is the posture that results from certain muscles tightening up or shortening while others lengthen and become weak which occurs as a result of one's daily activities. There are different factors which can impact on posture and they include occupational activities and biomechanical factors such as force and repetition. Risk factors for poor posture include psychosocial factors such as job stress and strain. Workers who have higher job stress are more to develop neck and shoulder symptoms. Poor posture can give back injuries such as lordosis and scoliosis. Poor posture can present in several ways: It can present with rounded and elevated shoulders and a pushed-forward head position; this position places stress on the spine between the top of the neck and skull and the base of the neck and upper shoulders. There is a reduction in the stability of the shoulder blades resulting in changes to the movement pattern of the upper extremities, it can present with a forward tilting of the hips, an increase in the curve of the lumbar spine, a protruding stomach.

This position places stress over lower back. Poor posture is the result of musculoskeletal distortion in the neck, lower and upper back. Most people think of poor posture as slumping over, but, not the case. Due to the variety of body types, incorrect posture differs from person to person. One person's proper posture can be incorrect posture for vice versa. There are ways to determine poor posture; some of the classic signs of poor posture include having a pot belly, rounded shoulders, a jutted out neck and chin. Pot bellies result when the lower back experiences an exaggerated curve, thus pushing the internal organs, in the abdominal region of the body, toward the anterior of the body. Rounded shoulders and postural neck problems result from the excessive anterior curve of the cervical and thoracic spine. There are numerous risks associated with poor posture. Poor posture can impede the ability of the lungs to expand. Posture, when correct, helps to increases one's ability to breathe, allows muscles to work at optimum capacity.

When slumped over, the lungs have less room to contract and inflate, decreasing its capacity to obtain the maximum amount of oxygen needed. Poor posture is a main risk factor in many injuries. Many athletic injuries are the result of poor posture. For example, the Journal of Athletic Training. According to Segen's Medical Dictionary the term overhead athletes refers to amateur or professional athletes who participate in overhead sports and are thus at risk of traumatic or degenerative injuries to the shoulder girdle. Overhead athletes are not the only ones at risk. Poor posture injuries can be found everywhere. Weight lifting, if not done can be detrimental to posture, causes a lot of the neck and shoulder problems in countless athletes. Vern Gambetta, in his article Perfect Posture, states; the rounding of the shoulders can cause pain as stated in the University of California at Berkeley Wellness Letter. Although the thoracic and lumbar spines are crucial factors in postural problem, they tend to overshadow the head or the cervical spine.

An article in the February 2006 Consumer Reports on Health remarked that "Research has found, for example that letting your head jut forward is associated with neck and jaw pain." Some headaches are the result of poor head posture. The decrease and loss of shoulder movement along with chronic pain, neck-related headaches and the decline in the ability to exercise as well as many other problems stem from poor posture. Injuries and pain caused by poor posture span a wide variety of people. All areas of the spine are important when it comes to posture. Poor posture is a physical as well as an emotional problem, it affects mood and how one is viewed by others. In the January 1999 issue of Vegetarian Times, Karin Sullivan in her article "Perfect Posture" states, "Someone with collapsed or withdrawn body posture doesn't invite the same kind of interaction " Most communication is associated with body language. Posture is a key aspect of body language. Slumping over closes one off to others. Someone, depressed can fall farther into depression because no one will come up to them because their posture indicates they don't want to be disturbed.

After a time, poor posture continues to regress further from correct posture. Sullivan says this is "a cycle where slouching and slumping pull the spine's vertebrae out of alignment, which in turn leads to muscle tension that can cause more slumping and slouching"; when poor posture feels normal it becomes harder to correct because the muscle memory now stores the information needed for poor posture, disposed of the memory for correct posture. Some ways of correcting poor posture do more damage than good; the old standard of soldiers with their shoulders thrust back, heads up while standing at attention causes the back to tense up and is hard to sustain for long periods of time. Posture is somewhat of a precision based practice. If one is not in correct alignment, poor posture is the consequence. If not amended one's posture can be further harmed and can lead to painful experiences. Any distress in the spine, as well as other parts of the body can be increased due to prolong

Secretary-general of the Communist Party of China

The Secretary-general of the Communist Party of China was a senior leadership position of the Communist Party of China to assist in the daily work of the Central Committee. The Secretary-general was established at the beginning of the founding of the Chinese Communist Party. However, due to the loss of information during the Long March and the Chinese Civil War, the records of the early Secretary-generals were incomplete. Deng Xiaoping, the second-generation leader of China, served 3 times in the early years as the secretary-general of the Central Committee; the position of the Secretary-general was renamed as General Secretary from 1956 to 1966 and from 1980 to 1982. At that time, the leader of the Communist Party was Chairman of the Central Committee; the General Secretary assisted the Party Chairman and Vice Chairmen in handling works of the Secretariat. Deng Xiaoping and Hu Yaobang successively served as the Secretary-general and General Secretary during the period of Chairman Mao Zedong and Chairman Hua Guofeng respectively.

Party Committee Secretary Secretariat of the Communist Party of China General Secretary of the Communist Party of China Chairman of the Communist Party of China Leader of the Communist Party of China

Kärkna Abbey

Kärkna Abbey, now ruined, was a former Cistercian monastery in Estonia. The monastery was sited about 8 km north of Tartu in the village of Lammiku near the point where the Amme River flows into the Emajõgi River; the monastery was founded before 1233 by the Bishop of Dorpat, Hermann von Buxhoeveden, settled by monks from Pforta Abbey, of the filiation of Morimond. An early destruction by heathen inhabitants of the district is mentioned in 1234. After attacks by Russian forces from the principality of Vladimir-Suzdal and the Novgorod Republic it was rebuilt in about 1240 as a fortress surrounded by a moat and a rectangular granite wall. In 1305 it was placed under Stolpe Abbey on the Peene in Pomerania, which had joined the Cistercian order the previous year. In August 1558 the monastery was destroyed at the beginning of the Livonian War. There are remains of the foundations and of the perimeter walls; the rectangular church was about 47 metres long, consisted of a single nave of five vaulted bays.

Unusually for a Cistercian church it had a crypt of 10 bays containing two aisles, used not only as a place of burial but as a place of shelter during hostilities. To the south of the church were attached the conventual buildings in the usual form of three ranges arranged in a square round a cloister and a central courtyard, with the chapter house in the east range. P. - 1234 Godefridus - 1253 B. - 1264 Winandus - 1277–1288 Daniel - 1295–1298 Johannes de Hapsele - before 1304 Dithmarus - 1304–1308 Hermannus - 1327–1336 Everhardus - 1346 Johannes - 1354 Albertus - 1388–1397 Bertoldus - 1411–1433 Gotfrid Mäke - 1462–1466 Johannes - 1484 Lambert - 1504–1525 Christoph Hogenstein - 1528–1535 Gerardus - 1538–1540 Hermann Wesel - 1544–1558 List of Christian religious houses in Estonia Dimier, M.-Anselme, 1971: L'art cistercien hors de France, p. 49, with plan. La Pierre-qui-Vire: Zodiaque Schneider, Ambrosius, 1986: Lexikale Übersicht der Männerklöster der Cistercienser im deutschen Sprach- und Kulturraum, in: Schneider, Ambrosius.

Cologne: Wienand Verlag ISBN 3-87909-132-3 Tuulse, A. 1942: Die Burgen in Estland und Lettland, pp. 270-274. Dorpat