Louisiana (New France)
Louisiana or French Louisiana was an administrative district of New France. Under French control 1682 to 1762 and 1801 to 1803, the area was named in honor of King Louis XIV, by French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle, it covered an expansive territory that included most of the drainage basin of the Mississippi River and stretched from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico and from the Appalachian Mountains to the Rocky Mountains. Louisiana included two regions, now known as Upper Louisiana, which began north of the Arkansas River, Lower Louisiana; the U. S. state of Louisiana is named for the historical region, although it is only a small part of the vast lands claimed by France. French exploration of the area began during the reign of Louis XIV, but French Louisiana was not developed, due to a lack of human and financial resources; as a result of its defeat in the Seven Years' War, France was forced to cede the east part of the territory in 1763 to the victorious British, the west part to Spain as compensation for Spain losing Florida.
France regained sovereignty of the western territory in the secret Third Treaty of San Ildefonso of 1800. But strained by obligations in Europe, Napoleon Bonaparte sold the territory to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, ending France's presence in Louisiana; the United States ceded part of the Louisiana Purchase to the United Kingdom in the Treaty of 1818. This section lies above the 49th parallel north in a part of present-day Saskatchewan. In the 18th century, Louisiana included most of the Mississippi River basin from what is now the Midwestern United States south to the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Within this vast territory, only two areas saw substantial French settlement: Upper Louisiana known as the Illinois Country, which consisted of settlements in what are now the states of Missouri and Indiana. Both areas were dominated numerically by Native American tribes. At times, fewer than two hundred soldiers were assigned to all of the colony, on both sides of the Mississippi.
In the mid-1720s, Louisiana Indians numbered well over 35,000, forming a clear majority of the colony's population."Generally speaking, the French colony of Louisiana bordered the Great Lakes Lake Michigan and Lake Erie towards the north. To the east was territory disputed with the British colonies on the Atlantic seaboard; the Rocky Mountains marked the western extent of the French claim, while Louisiana's southern border was the Gulf of Mexico. The general flatness of the land aided movement through the territory; the topography becomes more mountainous towards the west, with the notable exception of the Ozark Mountains, which are located in the mid-south. Lower Louisiana consisted of lands in the Lower Mississippi River watershed, including settlements in what are now the U. S. states of Arkansas, Louisiana and Alabama. The French first explored it in the 1660s, a few trading posts were established in the following years. A colonial government soon emerged, with its capital at Mobile at Biloxi and at New Orleans.
The government was led by a governor-general, Louisiana became an important colony in the early 18th century. The earliest settlers of Upper Louisiana came from French Canada, but Lower Louisiana was colonized by people from all over the French colonial empire, with various waves coming from Canada and the French West Indies. Upper Louisiana known as the Illinois Country, was the French territory in the upper Mississippi River Valley, including settlements and fortifications in what are now the states of Missouri and Indiana. French exploration of the area began with the 1673 expedition of Louis Joliet and Jacques Marquette, which charted the upper Mississippi; as noted above, Upper Louisiana was settled by colonists from French Canada. There was further substantial integration with the local Illinois peoples. French settlers were attracted by the availability of arable farmland as well as by the forests, abundant with animals suitable for hunting and trapping. Between 1699 and 1760, six major settlements were established in Upper Louisiana: Cahokia, Fort de Chartres, Saint Philippe, Prairie du Rocher, all on the east side of the Mississippi River in present-day Illinois.
Genevieve across the river in today's Missouri. The region was governed as part of Canada, but was declared to be part of Louisiana in 1712, with the grant of the Louisiana country to Antoine Crozat. By the 1720s a formal government infrastructure had formed; the geographical limits of Upper Louisiana were never defined, but the term came to describe the country southwest of the Great Lakes. A royal ordinance of 1722 may have featured the broadest definition: all land claimed by France south of the Great Lakes and north of the mouth of the Ohio River, which would include the Missouri Valley as well as both banks of the Mississipp
New France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763 under the Treaty of Paris. At its peak in 1712, the territory of New France sometimes known as the French North American Empire or Royal New France, consisted of five colonies, each with its own administration: Canada, the most developed colony and divided into the districts of Québec, Trois-Rivières and Montréal. In the sixteenth century, the lands were used to draw from the wealth of natural resources such as furs through trade with the various indigenous peoples. In the seventeenth century, successful settlements began in Acadia, in Quebec by the efforts of Champlain. By 1765, the population of the new Province of Quebec reached 70,000 settlers; the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht resulted in France relinquishing its claims to mainland Acadia, the Hudson Bay and Newfoundland to England.
France established the colony of Île Royale, now called Cape Breton Island, where they built the Fortress of Louisbourg. Acadia had a difficult history, with the British causing the Great Upheaval with the forced expulsion of the Acadians in the period from 1755 to 1764; this has been remembered on July 28 each year since 2003. Their descendants are dispersed in the Maritime Provinces of Canada, in Maine and Louisiana in the United States, with small populations in Chéticamp, Nova Scotia and the Magdalen Islands; some went to France. In 1763, France had ceded the rest of New France, except the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, to Great Britain and Spain at the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Seven Years' War. Britain received Canada and the parts of French Louisiana which lay east of the Mississippi River – except for the Île d'Orléans, granted to Spain, along with the territory to the west – the larger portion of Louisiana. In 1800, Spain returned its portion of Louisiana to France under the secret Treaty of San Ildefonso.
However, French leader Napoleon Bonaparte in turn sold it to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, permanently ending French colonial efforts on the North American mainland. New France became absorbed within the United States and Canada, with the only vestige remaining under French rule being the tiny islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon. In the United States, the legacy of New France includes numerous placenames as well as small pockets of French-speaking communities. In Canada, institutional bilingualism and strong Francophone identities are arguably the most enduring legacy of New France. Around 1523, the Florentine navigator Giovanni da Verrazzano convinced King Francis I to commission an expedition to find a western route to Cathay. Late that year, Verrazzano set sail in Dieppe. After exploring the coast of the present-day Carolinas early the following year, he headed north along the coast anchoring in the Narrows of New York Bay; the first European to visit the site of present-day New York, Verrazzano named it Nouvelle-Angoulême in honour of the king, the former count of Angoulême.
Verrazzano's voyage convinced the king to seek to establish a colony in the newly discovered land. Verrazzano gave the names Francesca and Nova Gallia to that land between New Spain and English Newfoundland. In 1534, Jacques Cartier planted a cross in the Gaspé Peninsula and claimed the land in the name of King Francis I, it was the first province of New France. The first settlement of 400 people, Fort Charlesbourg-Royal, was attempted in 1541 but lasted only two years. French fishing fleets continued to sail to the Atlantic coast and into the St. Lawrence River, making alliances with Canadian First Nations that became important once France began to occupy the land. French merchants soon realized the St. Lawrence region was full of valuable fur-bearing animals the beaver, which were becoming rare in Europe; the French crown decided to colonize the territory to secure and expand its influence in America. Another early French attempt at settlement in North America took place in 1564 at Fort Caroline, now Jacksonville, Florida.
Intended as a haven for Huguenots, Caroline was founded under the leadership of René Goulaine de Laudonnière and Jean Ribault. It was sacked by the Spanish led by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés who established the settlement of St. Augustine on 20 September 1565. Acadia and Canada were inhabited by indigenous nomadic Algonquian peoples and sedentary Iroquoian peoples; these lands were full of valuable natural resources, which attracted all of Europe. By the 1580s, French trading companies had been set up, ships were contracted to bring back furs. Much of what transpired between the indigenous population and their European visitors around that time is not known, for lack of historical records. Other attempts at establishing permanent settlements were failures. In 1598, a French trading post was established on Sable Island, off the coast of Acadia, but was unsuccessful. In 1600, a trading post was established at Tadoussac. In 1604, a settlement w
Cat Island (Mississippi)
Cat Island is a barrier island off the Gulf Coast of the United States. The island's namesake comes from French explorers, it is unknown. It is within the jurisdiction of Mississippi; the western half and southern tip of the island is part of the Gulf Islands National Seashore. Cat Island is a unique "T-shaped" island created by colliding Gulf of Mexico currents. Unlike the other Mississippi islands, Cat Island's sand beaches are backed by dense forests of slash pines and live oaks. Due to the dredging of the Gulfport ship channel, Cat Island has lost its natural westward flow of sediment which provided material for the island to combat erosion. Bayous and marshes on Cat Island are home to alligators and refuge to migratory birds. During World War II, the island was base for the Cat Island War Dog Reception and Training Center where Americans sent family dogs to be trained by the U. S. Army Signal Corps for military service; the dogs were trained to sniff out Japanese Americans because of the belief that they had a distinct odor.
This particular experiment was unsuccessful though dogs proved effective as an aid to sentries and advance scouts. This period of the island's history was featured on a June 2009 episode of the PBS series History Detectives; the western half and southern tip of the island became part of the Gulf Islands National Seashore in 2002. The remainder of the island, including most of the beach, is still owned; the eastern beach is owned by BP, who purchased it in April 2011 to use in assisting cleanup of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. In 2005 Hurricane Katrina shrank the island by eliminating the southern tip. During the foul weather associated with Hurricane Patricia a commercial fisherman reported abundant redfish in the flooded bayous of the island. Mississippi Sound Cuevas, John. Cat Island: The History of a Mississippi Gulf Coast Barrier Island. McFarland. P. 205. "Cat Island". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2006-04-13. "Initial Purchase of Land on Cat Island".
Gulf Islands National Seashore. National Park Service. March 28, 2002. Archived from the original on February 14, 2005. Retrieved 2006-05-04. "Hurricane Katrina Erodes the U. S. Gulf Coast". NASA Earth Observatory. Retrieved 2006-05-04
New Orleans is a consolidated city-parish located along the Mississippi River in the southeastern region of the U. S. state of Louisiana. With an estimated population of 393,292 in 2017, it is the most populous city in Louisiana. A major port, New Orleans is considered an economic and commercial hub for the broader Gulf Coast region of the United States. New Orleans is world-renowned for its distinct music, Creole cuisine, unique dialect, its annual celebrations and festivals, most notably Mardi Gras; the historic heart of the city is the French Quarter, known for its French and Spanish Creole architecture and vibrant nightlife along Bourbon Street. The city has been described as the "most unique" in the United States, owing in large part to its cross-cultural and multilingual heritage. Founded in 1718 by French colonists, New Orleans was once the territorial capital of French Louisiana before being traded to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. New Orleans in 1840 was the third-most populous city in the United States, it was the largest city in the American South from the Antebellum era until after World War II.
The city's location and flat elevation have made it vulnerable to flooding. State and federal authorities have installed a complex system of levees and drainage pumps in an effort to protect the city. New Orleans was affected by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which resulted in flooding more than 80% of the city, thousands of deaths, so much displacement because of damaged communities and lost housing as to cause a population decline of over 50%. Since Katrina, major redevelopment efforts have led to a rebound in the city's population. Concerns about gentrification, new residents buying property in closely knit communities, displacement of longtime residents have been expressed; the city and Orleans Parish are coterminous. As of 2017, Orleans Parish is the third most-populous parish in Louisiana, behind East Baton Rouge Parish and neighboring Jefferson Parish; the city and parish are bounded by St. Tammany Parish and Lake Pontchartrain to the north, St. Bernard Parish and Lake Borgne to the east, Plaquemines Parish to the south, Jefferson Parish to the south and west.
The city anchors the larger New Orleans metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 1,275,762 in 2017. It is the most populous metropolitan area in Louisiana and the 46th-most populated MSA in the United States; the city is named after the Duke of Orleans, who reigned as Regent for Louis XV from 1715 to 1723. It has many illustrative nicknames: Crescent City alludes to the course of the Lower Mississippi River around and through the city; the Big Easy was a reference by musicians in the early 20th century to the relative ease of finding work there. It may have originated in the Prohibition era, when the city was considered one big speakeasy due to the government's inability to control alcohol sales, in open violation of the 18th Amendment; the City that Care Forgot has been used since at least 1938, refers to the outwardly easy-going, carefree nature of the residents. La Nouvelle-Orléans was founded in the Spring of 1718 by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, on land inhabited by the Chitimacha.
It was named for Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Regent of the Kingdom of France at the time. His title came from the French city of Orléans; the French colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire in the Treaty of Paris, following France's defeat by Great Britain in the Seven Years' War. During the American Revolutionary War, New Orleans was an important port for smuggling aid to the rebels, transporting military equipment and supplies up the Mississippi River. Beginning in the 1760s, Filipinos began to settle around New Orleans. Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez launched a southern campaign against the British from the city in 1779. Nueva Orleans remained under Spanish control until 1803, when it reverted to French rule. Nearly all of the surviving 18th-century architecture of the Vieux Carré dates from the Spanish period, notably excepting the Old Ursuline Convent. Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Thereafter, the city grew with influxes of Americans, French and Africans.
Immigrants were Irish, Germans and Italians. Major commodity crops of sugar and cotton were cultivated with slave labor on nearby large plantations. Thousands of refugees from the 1804 Haitian Revolution, both whites and free people of color, arrived in New Orleans. While Governor Claiborne and other officials wanted to keep out additional free black people, the French Creoles wanted to increase the French-speaking population; as more refugees were allowed into the Territory of Orleans, Haitian émigrés who had first gone to Cuba arrived. Many of the white Francophones had been deported by officials in Cuba in retaliation for Bonapartist schemes. Nearly 90 percent of these immigrants settled in New Orleans; the 1809 migration brought 2,731 whites, 3,102 free people of color, 3,226 slaves of African descent, doubling the city's population. The city became a greater proportion than Charleston, South Carolina's 53 percent. During the final campaign of the War of 1812, the British sent a force of 11,000 in a
Montreal is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada. Called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city; the city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city, a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of, Île Bizard. It has a distinct four-season continental climate with cold, snowy winters. In 2016, the city had a population of 1,704,694, with a population of 1,942,044 in the urban agglomeration, including all of the other municipalities on the Island of Montreal; the broader metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,927. French is the city's official language and is the language spoken at home by 49.8% of the population of the city, followed by English at 22.8% and 18.3% other languages. In the larger Montreal Census Metropolitan Area, 65.8% of the population speaks French at home, compared to 15.3% who speak English.
The agglomeration Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with over 59% of the population able to speak both English and French. Montreal is the second-largest French-speaking city in the world, after Paris, it is situated 258 kilometres south-west of Quebec City. The commercial capital of Canada, Montreal was surpassed in population and in economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s, it remains an important centre of commerce, transport, pharmaceuticals, design, art, tourism, fashion, gaming and world affairs. Montreal has the second-highest number of consulates in North America, serves as the location of the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization, was named a UNESCO City of Design in 2006. In 2017, Montreal was ranked the 12th most liveable city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit in its annual Global Liveability Ranking, the best city in the world to be a university student in the QS World University Rankings. Montreal has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the 1967 International and Universal Exposition and the 1976 Summer Olympics.
It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics. In 2018, Montreal was ranked as an Alpha− world city; as of 2016 the city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One, the Montreal International Jazz Festival and the Just for Laughs festival. In the Mohawk language, the island is called Tiohtià:ke Tsi, it is a name referring to the Lachine Rapids to the island's Ka-wé-no-te. It means "a place where nations and rivers unite and divide". In the Ojibwe language, the land is called Mooniyaang which means "the first stopping place" and is part of the seven fires prophecy; the city was first named Ville Marie by European settlers from La Flèche, or "City of Mary", named for the Virgin Mary. Its current name comes from the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. According to one theory, the name derives from mont Réal,. A possibility by the Government of Canada on its web site concerning Canadian place names, is that the name was adopted as it is written nowadays because an early map of 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, Monte Real.
Archaeological evidence demonstrates that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD 1000, they had started to cultivate maize. Within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages; the Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, an ethnically and culturally distinct group from the Iroquois nations of the Haudenosaunee based in present-day New York, established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal two centuries before the French arrived. Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at other locations in the valley since at least the 14th century; the French explorer Jacques Cartier visited Hochelaga on October 2, 1535, estimated the population of the native people at Hochelaga to be "over a thousand people". Evidence of earlier occupation of the island, such as those uncovered in 1642 during the construction of Fort Ville-Marie, have been removed. Seventy years the French explorer Samuel de Champlain reported that the St Lawrence Iroquoians and their settlements had disappeared altogether from the St Lawrence valley.
This is believed to be due to epidemics of European diseases, or intertribal wars. In 1611 Champlain established a fur trading post on the Island of Montreal, on a site named La Place Royale. At the confluence of Petite Riviere and St. Lawrence River, it is where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands. On his 1616 map, Samuel de Champlain named the island Lille de Villemenon, in honour of the sieur de Villemenon, a French dignitary, seeking the viceroyship of New France. In 1639 Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obtained the Seigneurial title to the Island of Montreal in the name of the Notre Dame Society of Montreal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to evangelize natives. Dauversiere hired Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve 30, to lead a group of colonists to build a mission on his new seigneury; the colonists left France in 1641 for Quebec, arrived on the island the following year. On May 17, 1642, Ville-Marie was founded on the southern shore of Montreal is
Ocean Springs, Mississippi
Ocean Springs is a city in Jackson County, United States 2 miles east of Biloxi and west of Gautier. It is part of Mississippi Metropolitan Statistical Area; the population was 17,225 at the 2000 U. S. Census; as of the 2010 U. S. Census, the city of Ocean Springs had a population of 17,442; the town has a reputation as an arts community. The town was voted as a top 10 Happiest Seaside Town by Coastal Living in 2015, its historic and secluded down town area, with streets lined by live oak trees, is home to several art galleries and shops. It is home to a number of ethnic restaurants uncommon in surrounding communities. Ocean Springs was the home town of the late Walter Inglis Anderson, a nationally renowned painter and muralist who died in 1965 from lung cancer; the town plays host to several festivals, including its Peter Anderson Festival and The Herb Festival. Ocean Springs was damaged on August 29, 2005, by Hurricane Katrina, which destroyed many buildings along the shoreline, including the Ocean Springs Yacht Club, the wooden replica of Fort Maurepas, gutted or flooded other buildings.
Katrina's 28 ft storm surge destroyed the Biloxi Bay Bridge, which connected Biloxi to Ocean Springs. The settlement of Fort Maurepas or Old Biloxi, in colonial French Louisiana, began in April 1699 at present-day Ocean Springs, under the authority of King Louis XIV, as Fort Maurepas by Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville, it was the first permanent French outpost in French Louisiana and was established as a foothold to prevent Spanish encroachment on France's colonial claims. The site was maintained well into the early 18th century; the name Ocean Springs was coined by Dr. William Glover Austin in 1854, he believed. Ocean Springs became a prosperous resort town and after several years reinvented itself as a historically-oriented residential community; the history of the town is celebrated annually in re enactments depicting d'Iberville's landing near a replica of Fort Maurepas. The authorities had authorized John Egan to construct and operate a public wharf near this ancient fort site at the foot of Jackson Avenue prior to the Civil War.
From colonial times to present day, seafood has been celebrated. The abundance of seafood allowed French and French-Canadian explorers and settlers to thrive within the Fort Maurepas/Old Biloxi area. In the late nineteenth century, the development of ice plant industries along the coast increased seafood sales. Locals and tourists can still purchase freshly harvested shrimp, fish and oysters to this day because of this thriving industry. Ocean Springs was in the international spotlight following Hurricane Katrina's landfall on August 29, 2005; the city, part of the Mississippi Gulf Coast directly hit by the storm, sustained significant damage. The Biloxi-Ocean Springs bridge, part of Highway 90 along the beach, was destroyed and was a broadcast visual testament to the hurricane's impact. Hurricane Katrina's 28-foot storm surge destroyed the Biloxi Bay Bridge, which connected Biloxi to Ocean Springs; the bridge was completed in 1962, damaged in 1969 by Hurricane Camille. The Biloxi Bay Bridge replaced the aging War Memorial Bridge which opened in 1930.
As of 2007, the majority of the bridge's remains have been removed via cranes based on barges located next to the bridge debris. The bridge ruins, capturing the breathtaking results of the force of Hurricane Katrina, had become a popular spot of photographers both professional and amateur; the construction for the new bridge was completed in April 2008. The new Biloxi Bay Bridge is 95' in height at its main span, supports six lanes of traffic. Two lanes of the six-lane bridge opened November 1, 2007; the new bridge has a curving roadway due to the implemented design-build process. In order to speed the process of rebuilding, the main body of the bridge was moved outside of the previous bridge's debris area; the landing points for each side of U. S. Route 90 correspond with the previous bridge. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 15.2 square miles, of which 11.6 square miles is land and 3.6 square miles is water. The city is classified as having a subtropical climate.
This has a hot humid monsoon season beginning in late spring and ending in Early Autumn with frequent common afternoon and evening thunderstorms with torrential downpours thunderstorms don't last long but can be strong or severe. The area is prone to Tropical Cyclones such as tropical depressions tropical storms and hurricanes. Autumns are cool to warm as well as Spring's being cool to warm. Winters are warm with cool spells. Cool spells are accompanied with strong Northerly dry winds which are unexpectedly chilly but do not last more than just a couple or few days. Summers are hot and humid both day and night with high temperatures in the low nineties and low temperatures oftentimes just below 80 degrees; as of the 2010 census, there were 17,442 people, 6,393 households, 4,717 families residing within the city. The population density was 1,513.5 people per square mile. There were 7,814 housing units at an average density of 678.3 per square mile. The ethnic makeup of the city was 85.4% White, 7.4% African American, 0.40% Native American, 3.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.3% from other races, 2.2% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.2% of the population. Of the 6,393 households, 31.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.2% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.5% were non-families. 27.1% of all households had householders living alone and 12.5
Fort Ville-Marie was a French fortress and settlement established in May, 1642 by a company of French settlers led by Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve of Champagne on the Island of Montreal in the St. Lawrence Seaway at the confluence of the Ottawa River, in what is today the Province of Quebec, Canada, its name was French for "City of Mary", a reference to the Blessed Virgin Mary. It is the historic nucleus. Ville Marie became a centre for the fur trade and French expansion into New France until the Treaty of Paris in 1763 which ended the French and Indian War, ceding the territory of New France to Britain. Given its importance, the site of the fort was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1924. Extensive archaeological work in Montreal has revealed the 1,000-year history of human habitation in the area. In his second expedition to North America in 1535, Jacques Cartier observed the indigenous village of Hochelaga in the vicinity of modern-day Montreal. Cartier’s description suggests that the village of Hochelaga was linked to the occupation of the area by the St. Lawrence Iroquoians, a group of Indigenous sedentary farmers who inhabited the St. Lawrence Valley between 1200 and 1600 CE.
By Samuel de Champlain's arrival and in 1608, he found no trace of the St. Lawrence Iroquoians and settlements visited by Cartier some 75 years earlier. Historians and other scholars have developed several theories about their disappearance: devastating wars with the Iroquois tribes to the south, the impact of epidemics of Old World diseases, or their migration westward toward the shores of the Great Lakes. Harold Innis surmised that the northern hunting Indians around Tadoussac traded furs for European weapons and used these to push the farming Indians south. By the time Champlain arrived, the Algonquins and Mohawks were both using the Saint-Lawrence Valley for hunting grounds, as well as a route for war parties and raiding. Neither nation had any permanent settlements upriver above Tadoussac. Samuel de Champlain built a temporary fort in 1611, he established a fur-trading post where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands as part of a project to create a French colonial empire. He and his crew spent a few weeks clearing a site that he named Place Royale, dug two gardens and planted seed that grew well, confirming the fertility of the soil.
In 1613, Samuel de Champlain returned to Place Sault-au-Récollet. In 1641, some fifty French settlers, both men and women - recruited in France by Jérôme Le Royer de la Dauversière, of Anjou, on behalf of the Société de Notre-Dame de Montréal - set sail for New France, they hoped to create a model Catholic community. After a long crossing and a number of stops, the small group, led by Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve, of Champagne, arrived in Quebec with 40 men, three arriving with their wives; the Godés are referred to as the "First Family of Montreal". There was an unmarried woman, Catherine Lezeau. Winter was spent on the land of Pierre de Puiseaux near Sillery. Between 1642 and 1676, this was the location of annual fur-trading meets, as Amerindians brought their pelts to trade for various goods with the French; when the settlement was being laid out by the Sulpicians in the late 1600s, they reserved a small plot of land along the river’s shore for use as a public market, it was known as the Place du Marché.
In May 1642, the group left Quebec to go to the Island of Montreal in spite of the efforts by the Montmagny governor to have them settle on the Island of Orleans. They arrived on May 17. Mrs. De la Peltrine, her lady-in-waiting Charlotte Barre, as well as Jeanne Mance, were part of this trip. Francois Godé did not make the inaugural journey to Montreal; the new arrivals set to work to build the Ville-Marie fort on the spot where Champlain had once stayed. The fort housed as many as 50 early colonists; the first governor was Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve. The French and the Dutch were interested in fur trading; the Iroquois had allied with the Dutch of New Amsterdam, who supplied arms to them. In 1641 the war with the Iroquois began. By 1643, Ville-Marie had been hit by Iroquois raids. In 1649, the situation was so critical. In 1653, to confront this Iroquois danger, a group of 100 settler-soldiers came to stay in Ville-Marie. With them were 15 King's Daughters placed under the care of Marguerite Bourgeoys.
Jeanne Mance would set up the Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal hospital in Montreal. In the first years, the Hôtel-Dieu was hosted inside the fort. By 1685, Ville-Marie had a population of some 600 colonists, most of them living in modest wooden houses; the parish church and the seminary of the Sulpician fathers, seigneurs of the Island, dominated the little town. Most business was transacted in the Marketplace, located just next to the mouth of the little river. Here Montrealers and Amerindians would meet to trade; the fort, in use between 1642-1674, was demolished in 1688 and the entire settlement was walled and bastioned during the Indian war. The Louis-Hector de Callière residence was built on this place in 1695. In 1705, the settlement was renamed Montreal. In 2007 an archeological dig uncovered the remains of Ville-Marie under a maritime warehouse in Montreal. In 2015, an archaeological dig uncovered one of the corner posts of the fort. History of Montreal La Salle expeditions Old Montreal The Citadel, Montreal "375 years Montreal's lost Fort Ville-Marie resurfaces"