Jean-Baptiste Lully was an Italian-born French composer and dancer who spent most of his life working in the court of Louis XIV of France. He is considered a master of the French Baroque style. Lully disavowed any Italian influence in French music of the period, he became a French subject in 1661. Lully was born on November 1632, in Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany, to a family of millers, his general education and his musical training during his youth in Florence remain uncertain, but his adult handwriting suggests that he manipulated a quill pen with ease. He used to say that a Franciscan friar taught him guitar, he learned to play the violin. In 1646, dressed as Harlequin during Mardi Gras and amusing bystanders with his clowning and his violin, the boy attracted the attention of Roger de Lorraine, chevalier de Guise, son of Charles, Duke of Guise, returning to France and was looking for someone to converse in Italian with his niece, Mademoiselle de Montpensier. Guise took the boy to Paris, he honed his musical skills by working with Mademoiselle's household musicians and with composers Nicolas Métru, François Roberday and Nicolas Gigault.
The teenager's talents as a guitarist and dancer won him the nicknames "Baptiste", "le grand baladin". When Mademoiselle was exiled to the provinces in 1652 after the rebellion known as the Fronde, Lully "begged his leave... because he did not want to live in the country." The princess granted his request. By February 1653, Lully had attracted the attention of young Louis XIV, dancing with him in the Ballet royal de la nuit. By March 16, 1653, Lully had been made royal composer for instrumental music, his vocal and instrumental music for court ballets made him indispensable. In 1660 and 1662 he collaborated on court performances of Francesco Cavalli's Xerse and Ercole amante; when Louis XIV took over the reins of government in 1661, he named Lully superintendent of the royal music and music master of the royal family. In December 1661, the Florentine was granted letters of naturalization. Thus, when he married Madeleine Lambert, the daughter of the renowned singer and composer Michel Lambert in 1662, Giovanni Battista Lulli declared himself to be "Jean-Baptiste Lully, son of Laurent de Lully, gentilhomme Florentin ".
The latter assertion was an untruth. From 1661 on, the trios and dances he wrote for the court were promptly published; as early as 1653, Louis XIV made him director of his personal violin orchestra, known as the Petits Violons, proving to be open to Lully's innovations, as contrasted with the Twenty-Four Violins or Grands Violons, who only were abandoning the polyphony and divisions of past decades. When he became surintendant de la musique de la chambre du roi in 1661, the Great Violins came under Lully's control, he relied on the Little Violins for court ballets. Lully's collaboration with the playwright Molière began with Les Fâcheux in 1661, when Lully provided a single sung courante, added after the work's premiere at Nicolas Fouquet's sumptuous chateau of Vaux-le-Vicomte, their collaboration began in earnest in 1664 with Le Mariage forcé. More collaborations followed, some of them conceived for fetes at the royal court, others taking the form of incidental music for plays performed at command performances at court and in Molière's Parisian theater.
In 1672 Lully broke with Molière. Having acquired Pierre Perrin's opera privilege, Lully became the director of the Académie Royale de Musique, that is, the royal opera, which performed in the Palais-Royal. Between 1673 and 1687, he produced a new opera yearly and fiercely protected his monopoly over that new genre. After Queen Marie-Thérèse's death in 1683 and the king's secret marriage to Mme de Maintenon, devotion came to the fore at court; the king's enthusiasm for opera dissipated. In 1686, to show his displeasure, Louis XIV made a point of not inviting Lully to perform Armide at Versailles. Lully died from gangrene, having struck his foot with his long conducting staff during a performance of his Te Deum to celebrate Louis XIV's recovery from surgery, he refused to have his leg amputated. This resulted in gangrene propagating through his body and infecting the greater part of his brain, causing his death, he died in Paris and was buried in the church of Notre-Dame-des-Victoires, where his tomb with its marble bust can still be seen.
All three of his sons had musical careers as successive surintendants of the King's Music. Lully himself was posthumously given a conspicuous place on Titon du Tillet's Parnasse François. In the engraving, he stands to the left, on the lowest level, his right arm extended and holding a scroll of paper with which to beat time. Titon honored Lully as: the prince of French musicians... the inventor of that beautiful and grand French music, such as our operas and the grand pieces for voices and instruments that were only imperfectly known before him. He brought it to the peak of perfection and was the father of our most illustrious musicians working i
The Battles and Operations involving the Indian National Army during World War II were all fought in the South-East Asian theatre. These range from the earliest deployments of the INA's preceding units in espionage during Malayan Campaign in 1942, through the more substantial commitments during the Japanese Ha Go and U Go offensives in the Upper Burma and Manipur region, to the defensive battles during the Allied Burma Campaign; the INA's brother unit in Europe, the Indische Legion did not see any substantial deployment although some were engaged in Atlantic wall duties, special operations in Persia and Afghanistan, a small deployment in Italy. The INA was not considered a significant military threat. However, it was deemed a significant strategic threat to the Indian Army, with Wavell describing it as a target of prime importance; the Indian National Army was formed under Mohan Singh Deb consisting of prisoners taken by the Japan in her Malayan campaign and at Singapore. After it was reorganized under Subhas Chandra Bose, it drew a large number of civilian volunteers from Malaya and Burma.
A force of under 40,000 was formed, although only two divisions participated in battle. In 1943, intelligence and special services groups from the INA were instrumental in destabilizing the British Indian Army in the early stages of the Arakan offensive, it was during this time that the British Military Intelligence began propaganda work to shield the true numbers who joined the INA, described stories of Japanese brutalities that indicated, falsely, INA involvement. Further, the Indian press was prohibited from publishing any accounts whatsoever of the INA; the prestige of The Raj had suffered a blow with the fall of Malaya and the massive surrender at Singapore. In February 1942, the Indian prisoners of war from the British Indian Army captured there came under the influence of Indian nationalists, notably Mohan Singh Deb, a large number volunteered to form the Indian National Army with support from Japan and had the stated aim of overthrowing The Raj from India. Of the formation of this army however, the British intelligence was unaware of until around July 1942, then was unclear on the scale and organisation of the INA.
Intelligence summaries did not believe the INA to be a substantial force or have any purpose more than propaganda and espionage purposes. However, by the end of 1942, they had become aware of trained Indian espionage agents who had infiltrated into India for the purpose of collecting intelligence, subversion of the army and the subversion of civilian loyalty; these information were derived to a large extent from some of the agents themselves who gave themselves up to the authorities after reaching India. However, the intelligence was aware at this point of misinformation being spread about the INA itself by the agents who concealed their purpose and professed to pass on intelligence from local knowledge. More troubling for the military command were the activities of the INA agents in the battle fields of India's eastern frontier in Burma. Around this time, the Quit India movement had reached a crescendo within India, while the continuing British reversals at Burma further affected the morale of the army.
The Irwin's First Campaign had been contained and beaten back by inferior Japanese forces at Donbaik. Intelligence analysis of the failure, as well as Irwin's own personal analysis of the campaign attributed significant demoralisation and rising discontent amongst Indian troops due to the subversive activity of INA agents at the frontline, as well as rising nationalist sentiments; the activities of these agents were addressed at the Sepoys and these found enough support to encourage defection without attracting the attention of the officers commanding the units. Soon, defection by British Indian troops had become a problem significant and regular enough in the Burma theatre to form a regular part of the intelligence summaries in the first half of 1943; the strategy of operation of the Indian National Army, in relation to the opening Japanese offensive, was to be of a guerrilla force that would initiate defections among the British Indian troops, as well as garner support and sympathy among the local population for the INA.
The INA's own strategy was to avoid set-piece battles for which it lacked arms, armament as well as man-power. It sought to obtain arms as well as increase its ranks from Indian soldiers expected to defect. Once across the hills of North-East India and into the Gangetic plain, it was expected to live off the land and garner support and ranks from amongst the local populace to touch off a revolution. Prem Kumar Sahgal, an officer of the INA once Military secretary to Subhas Chandra Bose and tried in the first Red Fort trials, explained that although the war itself hung in balance and nobody was sure if the Japanese would win, initiating a popular revolution with grass-root support within India would ensure that if Japan lost the war Britain would not be in a position to re-assert its colonial authority, the aim of the INA and Azad Hind; the plans for operation decided between Bose and Kawabe specified that the Japanese and INA forces were to follow a common strategy. The INA was to be assigned an independent sector of its own and no INA unit was to operate less than a battalion strength.
For operational purposes, the Subhas Brigade was assigned under the command of the Japanese general headquarters in Burma. The general operations plan envisaged the INA units pushing to Kohima and Imphal with Japanese forces, as the latter fell, the INA was to cross the Brahmaputra and enter Bengal, beginning the n
Niel "Junjun" Causing Tupas Jr. is a Filipino lawyer and politician. Tupas served as the Representative of the 5th District of Iloilo and a member of the Philippine Judicial and Bar Council, he is a member of Liberal Party under the leadership of former President Benigno Aquino III. He was the Chairman of the Committee on Justice in the House of the Representatives, he was one of the prosecutors in the Impeachment Trial of Chief Justice Renato Corona. Rep. Niel "Junjun" Tupas graduated from the University of the Philippines College of Law in 1998, he graduated in the top 20 of his batch. After graduating from law school, he promptly took the bar exams for the first and only time in September 1998 and passed it with a strong general average of 83.05 per cent. During the impeachment trial of Chief Justice Renato Corona, he displayed his legal prowess as a litigation lawyer having been trained in the craft during his stint with the Belo Gozon Elma Asuncion & Lucila Law Offices in Makati, he obtained his degree in B.
A. Political Science from the University of the Philippines, Diliman in 1993 and graduated magna cum laude, he was a member of the Pi Gamma Mu Honor Society. After passing the bar, he worked as an associate lawyer at the Belo Gozon Elma Parel Asuncion & Lucila Law Offices in Makati specializing in litigation and labor law, he was promoted junior partner before he left the law firm to seek public office in 2004. He was elected no. 1 Board Member of the 5th District of Iloilo in 2004. In 2004, he was elected President of the National Movement of Young Legislators, Western Visayas Chapter, he was elected Congressman of the 5th District of Iloilo in 2007 and was re-elected as such in 2010. He is the husband of Atty. Yvonne Angeli Lee Tupas, he is the son of former Iloilo governor Niel Tupas Sr, brother of Barotac Viejo mayor Niel Tupas III, brother of Iloilo City councilor Lex Tupas. He has been assigned to be lead prosecutor for the impeachment of Supreme Court Chief Justice Renato Corona. Trial started on January 16, 2012 and ended May 29, 2012.
Despite his poor performance as lead prosecutor and constant fishing of evidence, an overwhelming majority of the senators voting 20-3, impeaching the former Chief Justice for when he was found guilty of "committing culpable violation of the Constitution and betraying the public trust." Official website