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Jean-Pierre Boyer

Jean-Pierre Boyer was one of the leaders of the Haitian Revolution, President of Haiti from 1818 to 1843. He reunited the north and south of Haiti in 1820 and annexed the newly independent Spanish Haiti, which brought all of Hispaniola under one Haitian government by 1822. Boyer managed to rule for the longest period of time of any of the revolutionary leaders of his generation. Boyer was born in Port-au-Prince and was the mulatto son of a French tailor and an African mother, a former slave from Congo, he was sent to France by his father to become educated. During the French Revolution, he fought as a battalion commander, fought against Toussaint Louverture in the early years of the Haitian Revolution, he allied himself with André Rigaud of mulatto ancestry, in the latter's abortive insurrection against Toussaint to try to keep control of the southern region of Saint-Domingue. After going into exile in France and Alexandre Pétion, returned in 1802 with the French troops led by General Charles Leclerc.

After it became clear the French were going to try to reimpose slavery and restrictions on free gens de couleur, Boyer joined the patriots under Pétion and Jean-Jacques Dessalines, who led the colony to independence. After Pétion rose to power in the Republic of Haiti in the South, he chose Boyer as his successor, he was under the influence of his lover, Marie-Madeleine Lachenais, who acted as his political adviser. When Santo Domingo became independent late in 1821, Boyer was quick to occupy and gain control, uniting the entire island under his rule by 9 February 1822. Boyer ruled the island of Hispaniola until 1843, when he lost the support of the ruling elite and was ousted. After the uprising of African slaves in the north of Saint-Domingue in 1791, Boyer joined with the French Commissioners and went there to fight against the grand blancs and royalists. In 1794, Saint-Domingue was invaded by British forces trying to capitalize on the unrest in the wealthy colony. Boyer went to Jacmel, where he joined forces with General André Rigaud.

While other mulatto leaders surrendered to Toussaint Louverture in southern Saint-Domingue, Boyer escaped to France with Rigaud and Alexandre Pétion. At the time, the United States supported French efforts to re-establish control, although it sent 20,000 troops. Boyer traveled to Paris, where he stayed until 1801. Next, he returned to Haiti to protest the independence. By early 1802, Rigaud and other leaders learned that the French intended to take away the civil rights of mulattoes and re-institute slavery for former slaves in Saint-Domingue They sent General LeClerc to defeat the rebels, over the next 21 months, added to his forces by 20,000 troops. Boyer collaborated with other native leaders to defeat the French. In November 1803, France withdrew its surviving 7,000 troops, less than one-third of the forces sent to the island. Most had died as a result of yellow fever, endemic to the island. Jean-Jacques Dessalines, a former slave from the North, declared Haitian independence on 1 January 1804.

He established himself as Emperor Jacques I. He was assassinated by opponents in 1806. Alexandre Pétion and Henri Christophe competed to rule Haiti, represented the split between the urban mulatto elite of the South and the black former slaves of the North, respectively. After years of warfare, they established separate states: Pétion continuing the Republic of Haiti in the southern part of Haiti, Christophe creating the State of Haiti in the north. In 1818 Pétion died and Boyer replaced him as the second President of the Republic of Haiti; this was an arranged transition since Pétion had selected Boyer for his succession and the Senate approved his choice. The 1816 revised constitution provided for the President to select his successor as a measure to protect the nation from foreign intrusion. Joseph Balthazar Inginac continued as the President's secretary and right hand. Boyer believed Haiti had to be acknowledged as an independent nation, that this could be established only by cutting a deal with France.

On 11 July 1825, Boyer signed an indemnity treaty stipulating that Haiti would pay France a certain amount of money to compensate for the lost property in slaves and trade in exchange for formal diplomatic recognition of its independence. As soon as Boyer came to power, he was confronted with the continuing competition with Henri Christophe and the Kingdom of Haiti in the north. Christophe's autocratic rule created continued unrest in the Kingdom of Haiti. After his soldiers rebelled against him in 1820, in failing health and fearing assassination, Christophe committed suicide. Boyer reunited Haiti without a single battle. On 30 November 1821, several frontier towns near the border with Santo Domingo raised the Haitian flag as a show of independence; the new nation was known as the Republic of Spanish Haiti. On 1 December 1821, the leaders of the new nation resolved to unite it with Gran Colombia. But, some politicians and military officers in Santo Domingo favored unification with the Republic of Haiti.

Former slaves sought to secure emancipation under the Haitian President Jean-Pierre Boyer. Another faction based in Dajabon, near the border, opposed union with Gran Colombia and supported Boyer. Boyer sought to protect his country from the danger of France or Spain re-taking Santo Domingo and attacking or re-conquering Haiti, he wanted to secure the freedom of the slaves in Santo Domingo. After promising protection to several Dominican frontier governors and securing their allegiance, in February 1822 Boyer annexed the newly indepe

NYS Coalition of Special Act School Districts

The Coalition of Special Act School Districts is a support group for special act school districts operating in New York State. Its chief purpose is to facilitate the views of a branch of New York State public schools that adhere to the guidelines established by legislative special acts that created them to meet the unique needs of students falling under Title I D of NCLB and offer a full or partial residential placement while providing the educational needs of this struggling population. Many of the residents from these communities are assigned to these districts through the court system, committees on special education referrals and social service placements from nearby orphanages and group homes; these districts are not considered charter schools but instead state-funded public school districts. In addition, they are not the same as State-Run schools; each of the Special Act School Districts has its own Board of Education which convenes to regulate district policy and procedures. There were 20 districts in all.

Recent changes in state funding and budgetary reform have resulted in only ten special act school districts left to handle the needs of all special act student populations within New York State. They are as follows. Randolph Academy Union Free School District Berkshire Union Free School District Little Flower Union Free School District George Junior Republic Union Free School District Greenburgh-Graham Union Free School District Greenburgh Eleven Union Free School District Greenburgh-North Castle Union Free School District Hawthorne-Cedar Knolls Union Free School District Mount Pleasant-Cottage Union Free School District Mount Pleasant-Blythdale Union Free School DistrictMore than a few of the New York State Special Act Schools have closed since the 1980's; the Wiltwyk School was attended by Claude Brown, author of the 1965 best seller'Manchild in the Promised land' which chronicled his time at the school. He credits The Wiltwyk school, overseen by the psychologist Ernst Papanek for his turnaround from juvenile delinquent to serious student and eventual work as mentor to young people in Newark.

The Special Act school districts have a small student to teacher ratio and counseling available to students. Sadly many of these districts are funding for the districts is limited. Lists of school districts in New York No Child Left Behind Defining progress at Special Act schools - a NYSUT article outlining the unique issues faced by Special Act districts around the state National Evaluation and Technical Assistance Center for the Education of Children and Youth Who Are Neglected, Delinquent, or At Risk The "Special Act" public school districts in New York State) - a highbeam article about special act districts in New York State STATE MUST ADDRESS NEEDS OF SPECIAL ACT SCHOOLS VESID Listing of New York State Special Act School Districts New York State Department of Education VESID

Zombie (computing)

In computing, a zombie is a computer connected to the Internet, compromised by a hacker, computer virus or trojan horse program and can be used to perform malicious tasks of one sort or another under remote direction. Botnets of zombie computers are used to spread e-mail spam and launch denial-of-service attacks. Most owners of "zombie" computers are unaware; because the owner tends to be unaware, these computers are metaphorically compared to fictional zombies. A coordinated DDoS attack by multiple botnet machines resembles a "zombie horde attack", as depicted in fictional zombie films. Zombie computers have been used extensively to send e-mail spam; this allows spammers to avoid detection and reduces their bandwidth costs, since the owners of zombies pay for their own bandwidth. This spam greatly furthers the spread of Trojan horses, as Trojans are not self-replicating, they rely on the movement of e-mails or spam to grow. For similar reasons zombies are used to commit click fraud against sites displaying pay-per-click advertising.

Others can host money mule recruiting websites. Zombies can be used to conduct distributed denial-of-service attacks, a term which refers to the orchestrated flooding of target websites by large numbers of computers at once; the large number of Internet users making simultaneous requests of a website's server is intended to result in crashing and the prevention of legitimate users from accessing the site. A variant of this type of flooding is known as distributed degradation-of-service. Committed by "pulsing" zombies, distributed degradation-of-service is the moderated and periodical flooding of websites intended to slow down rather than crash a victim site; the effectiveness of this tactic springs from the fact that intense flooding can be detected and remedied, but pulsing zombie attacks and the resulting slow-down in website access can go unnoticed for months and years. Notable incidents of distributed denial- and degradation-of-service attacks in the past include the attack upon the SPEWS service in 2003, the one against Blue Frog service in 2006.

In 2000, several prominent Web sites were clogged to a standstill by a distributed denial of service attack mounted by ‘MafiaBoy’, a Canadian teenager. An attack on grc.com is discussed at length, the perpetrator, a 13-year-old from Sardis, was identified on the Gibson Research Web site. Steve Gibson disassembled a'bot', a zombie used in the attack, traced it to its distributor. In his account about his research, he describes the operation of a'bot'-controlling IRC channel. Beginning in July 2009, similar botnet capabilities have emerged for the growing smartphone market. Examples include the July 2009 in the "wild" release of the Sexy Space text message worm, the world's first botnet capable SMS worm, which targeted the Symbian operating system in Nokia smartphones; that month, researcher Charlie Miller revealed a proof of concept text message worm for the iPhone at Black Hat Briefings. In July, United Arab Emirates consumers were targeted by the Etisalat BlackBerry spyware program. In the 2010s, the security community is divided as to the real world potential of mobile botnets.

But in an August 2009 interview with The New York Times, cyber security consultant Michael Gregg summarized the issue this way: "We are about at the point with phones that we were with desktops in the'80s." BASHLITE Botnet Denial-of-service attack Low Orbit Ion Cannon Malware RDP shop Trojan horse Botnet operation controlled 1.5 million PCs Is Your PC a Zombie? on About.com Intrusive analysis of a web-based proxy zombie network A detailed account of what a zombie machine looks like and what it takes to "fix" it Correspondence between Steve Gibson and Wicked Zombie networks, comment spam, referer spam The New York Times: Phone Hacking Threat is Low, But It Exists Hackers Target Cell Phones, WPLG-TV/ABC-10 Miami Researcher: BlackBerry Spyware Wasn’t Ready for Prime Time Forbes: How to Hijack Every iPhone in the World Hackers Plan to Clobber the Cloud, Spy on Blackberries SMobile Systems release solution for Etisalat BlackBerry spyware LOIC IRC-0 - An Open-Source IRC Botnet for Network Stress Testing An Open-Source IRC and Webpage Botnet for Network Stress Testing