Alien Resurrection is a 1997 American science-fiction action horror film directed by Jean-Pierre Jeunet, written by Joss Whedon, starring Sigourney Weaver and Winona Ryder. It is the fourth installment in the Alien film series, the final installment in the original series, it was filmed at the 20th Century Fox studios in California. Set 200 years after the preceding installment Alien 3, Ellen Ripley is cloned and an Alien Queen is surgically removed from her body; the United Systems Military hopes to breed Aliens to study and research on the spaceship USM Auriga, using human hosts kidnapped and delivered to them by a group of mercenaries. The Aliens escape their enclosures, while Ripley and the mercenaries attempt to escape and destroy the Auriga before it reaches its destination: Earth. Additional roles are played by Ron Perlman, Dan Hedaya, J. E. Freeman, Brad Dourif, Michael Wincott. Alien Resurrection was released on November 26, 1997 by 20th Century Fox, received mixed reviews from film critics.
Critics praised the performances of Sigourney Weaver and Ron Perlman, Jeunet's directing, the film's visual style and score, while the movie's script, inconsistent tone, attempts at humor, the ending received criticism. Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times felt "there is not a single shot in the movie to fill one with wonder" naming it one of the worst films of 1997, while Desson Thomson of The Washington Post said the film "satisfactorily recycles the great surprises that made the first movie so powerful"; the film grossed $47.7 million in North America, the least successful of the Alien series on that continent. It was well received internationally, with a gross of $113.5 million, bringing its total gross to $161.2 million. It was the 43rd highest-grossing film in North America in 1997, eleven spots lower than Anastasia, another 20th Century Fox film; the film was nominated for six Saturn Awards. A sequel to Resurrection was planned as Joss Whedon had written an Earth-set script for Alien 5, though Sigourney Weaver was not interested in this setting, but has remained open to reprise her role as Ellen Ripley for a fifth installment on the condition that she likes the story.
Although more sequels were planned to follow Resurrection, they were abandoned as the crossover series arrived with the 2004 film Alien vs. Predator, along with the prequel series including the 2012 film Prometheus directed by Ridley Scott, who stated that the film precedes the story of Alien, but is not directly connected to the original film's franchise, that Prometheus explores its own mythology and ideas. In 2379, two hundred years after the events of Alien 3, military scientists on the space vessel USM Auriga create a clone of Ellen Ripley, designated Ripley 8, using DNA from blood samples taken before her death; the xenomorph queen's DNA has been mixed in with Ripley's, so the clone grows up with an embryo inside it. The scientists extract the embryo, raise it, collect its eggs while keeping Ripley 8 alive for further study; as a result of the xenomorphs' DNA inside her, the clone has enhanced strength and reflexes, somewhat acidic blood, a psychic link with the xenomorphs. Additionally, the xenomorph's genetic memory allows the clone to have some of Ripley's memories.
A group of mercenaries comprising Elgyn, Christie, Vriess and Call, arrives at Auriga on their ship Betty. They deliver several kidnapped humans in stasis; the military scientists use the humans as hosts for the aliens, raising several adult xenomorphs for study. The Betty crew soon encounters Ripley 8. Annalee Call recognizes her name and tries to kill her, suspecting that Ripley 8 may be used to create xenomorphs, but the creatures have been cloned; the xenomorphs, having matured, escape confinement by killing off one of their own to use its acidic blood to burn through their enclosures, aware of their blood's acidity from said genetic memory. They capture Dr. Jonathan Gediman and kill a second scientist, they damage the Auriga and kill some of those people who failed to evacuate, including General Perez and Elgyn. Another crew member is cocooned for eggmorphing. Military scientist Dr. Wren reveals that the ship's default command in an emergency is to return to Earth. Realizing that this will unleash the xenomorphs on Earth, Ripley 8, the mercenaries, Wren, a Marine named Distephano, surviving xenomorph host Purvis, decide to head for the Betty and use it to destroy the Auriga.
Along the way, Ripley 8 discovers a laboratory containing the grotesque results of the previous seven failed attempts to clone Ellen Ripley. The surviving one begs Ripley 8 to euthanise her; as the group makes their way through the damaged ship, they swim through a flooded kitchen. They are chased by two xenomorphs. One is killed; as they escape the kitchen, the xenomorph returns and blinds Christie, who sacrifices himself to kill the xenomorph so the others can escape. After Wren betrays the group, Call is revealed to be an auton, an improved version of a human created by synthetics. Using her ability to interface with the Auriga's systems, Call sets it on a collision course with Earth, hoping to destroy the xenomorphs in the crash, she directs the xenomorphs towards him. Ripley 8 is captured by a xenomorph. Wren, aboard, shoots Purvis, takes Call hostage and demands that she abort the collision. An injured Purvis attacks Wren and forces Wren's head to his chest just as the xenomorph embryo he is carr
Marc Caro, born 2 April 1956, is a French filmmaker and cartoonist, best known for his co-directing projects with Jean-Pierre Jeunet. Jeunet and Caro met at a film festival in 1974, wrote and directed three short films and the feature films Delicatessen and The City of Lost Children. Caro's first feature film as a solo director was titled Dante 01. L'évasion The Bunker of the Last Gunshots Delicatessen The City of Lost Children Dante 01 Pas de repos pour Billy Brakko Delicatessen The City of Lost Children Dante 01 Delicatessen The City of Lost Children Alien: Resurrection Marc Caro on IMDb
A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that vision; the director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film; the film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the boundaries of the film's budget. There are many pathways to becoming a film director; some film directors started as screenwriters, producers, film editors or actors. Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches; some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely.
Some directors write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners. Some directors appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films. A film director's task is to envisage a way to translate a screenplay into a formed film, to realize this vision. To do this, they oversee the technical elements of film production; this entails organizing the film crew in such a way to achieve their vision of the film. This requires skills of group leadership, as well as the ability to maintain a singular focus in the stressful, fast-paced environment of a film set. Moreover, it is necessary to have an artistic eye to frame shots and to give precise feedback to cast and crew, excellent communication skills are a must. Since the film director depends on the successful cooperation of many different creative individuals with strongly contradicting artistic ideals and visions, he or she needs to possess conflict resolution skills in order to mediate whenever necessary.
Thus the director ensures that all individuals involved in the film production are working towards an identical vision for the completed film. The set of varying challenges he or she has to tackle has been described as "a multi-dimensional jigsaw puzzle with egos and weather thrown in for good measure", it adds to the pressure that the success of a film can influence when and how they will work again, if at all. The sole superiors of the director are the producer and the studio, financing the film, although sometimes the director can be a producer of the same film; the role of a director differs from producers in that producers manage the logistics and business operations of the production, whereas the director is tasked with making creative decisions. The director must work within the restrictions of the film's budget and the demands of the producer and studio. Directors play an important role in post-production. While the film is still in production, the director sends "dailies" to the film editor and explains his or her overall vision for the film, allowing the editor to assemble an editor's cut.
In post-production, the director works with the editor to edit the material into the director's cut. Well-established directors have the "final cut privilege", meaning that they have the final say on which edit of the film is released. For other directors, the studio can order further edits without the director's permission; the director is one of the few positions that requires intimate involvement during every stage of film production. Thus, the position of film director is considered to be a stressful and demanding one, it has been said that "20-hour days are not unusual". Some directors take on additional roles, such as producing, writing or editing. Under European Union law, the film director is considered the "author" or one of the authors of a film as a result of the influence of auteur theory. Auteur theory is a film criticism concept that holds that a film director's film reflects the director's personal creative vision, as if they were the primary "auteur". In spite of—and sometimes because of—the production of the film as part of an industrial process, the auteur's creative voice is distinct enough to shine through studio interference and the collective process.
Some film directors started as screenwriters, film producers or actors. Several American cinematographers have become directors, including Barry Sonnenfeld the Coen brothers' DP. Other film directors have attended a film school to get a bachelors degree studying cinema. Film students study the basic skills used in making a film; this includes, for example, shot lists and storyboards, protocols of dealing with professional actors, reading scripts. Some film schools are equipped with post-production facilities. Besides basic technical and logistical skills, students receive education on the nature of professional relationships that occur during film production. A full degree course can be designed for up to five years of studying. Future directors complete short films during their enrollment; the National Film School of Denmark has the student's final projects presented on national TV. Some film schools retain the rights for their students' works. Many directors prepared for making feature films by working in television.
The German Film and Television Academy Berlin cooperate
Jean-Michel André Jarre is a French composer and record producer. He is a pioneer in the electronic and new-age genres, known for organising outdoor spectacles featuring his music, vast laser displays and fireworks. Jarre was trained on the piano. From an early age, he was introduced to a variety of art forms, including street performers, jazz musicians and the artist Pierre Soulages, he played guitar in a band, but his musical style was most influenced by Pierre Schaeffer, a pioneer of musique concrète at the Groupe de Recherches Musicales. His first mainstream success was the 1976 album Oxygène. Recorded in a makeshift studio at his home, the album sold an estimated 12 million copies. Oxygène was followed in 1978 by Équinoxe, in 1979, Jarre performed to a record-breaking audience of more than a million people at the Place de la Concorde, a record he has since broken three times. More albums were to follow, but his 1979 concert served as a blueprint for his future performances around the world.
Several of his albums have been released to coincide with large-scale outdoor events, he is now as well known as a performer as he is as a musician. As of 2004, Jarre had sold an estimated 80 million albums, he was the first Western musician invited to perform in the People's Republic of China and holds the world record for the largest-ever audience at an outdoor event. Jean-Michel Jarre was born in Lyon on 24 August 1948, to Francette Pejot, a French Resistance member and concentration camp survivor, composer Maurice Jarre; when Jarre was five, his parents separated and his father moved to the United States, leaving him with his mother. He did not see his father again until reaching the age of 18. For the first eight years of his life, Jarre spent six months each year at his maternal grandparents' flat on the Cours de Verdun, in the Perrache district of Lyon. Jarre's grandfather was an oboe player and inventor, designing an early audio mixer used at Radio Lyon, he gave Jean-Michel his first tape recorder.
From his vantage point high above the pavement, the young Jarre was able to observe street performers at work, an experience he cited as proving influential on his art. Jarre struggled with classical piano studies, although he changed teachers and worked on his scales. A more general interest in musical instruments was sparked by his discovery at the Saint-Ouen flea market, where his mother sold antiques, of a Boris Vian trumpet violin, he accompanied his mother to Le Chat Qui Pêche, a friend's Paris jazz club, where saxophonists Archie Shepp and John Coltrane, trumpet players Don Cherry and Chet Baker were regular performers. These early jazz experiences suggested to him that music may be "descriptive, without lyrics", he was influenced by the work of French artist Pierre Soulages, whose exhibition at the Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris he attended. Soulages' paintings used multiple textured layers, Jarre realised that "for the first time in music, you could act as a painter with frequencies and sounds."
He was influenced by classical, modernist music. I saw the last concert by the great Arabic singer Om Khalsoum, she is the Maria Callas of the Orient. I heard "Georgia on My Mind" by Ray Charles, I realised that music can talk to your tummy. I was so impressed by the organic sensuality coming from Ray Charles's music – there was no intellectual process and it was great; as a young man Jarre earned money by selling his paintings, exhibiting some of his works at the Lyon Gallery – L'Œil écoute, by playing in a band called Mystère IV. While he studied at the Lycée Michelet, his mother arranged for him to take lessons in harmony and fugue with Jeannine Rueff of the Conservatoire de Paris. In 1967 he played guitar in a band called The Dustbins, who appear in the film Des garçons et des filles, he mixed instruments including the flute with tape effects and other sounds. More experimentation followed in 1968, when he began to use tape loops and other electronic devices, but joining the Groupe de Recherches Musicales in 1969 under the direction of Pierre Schaeffer, proved hugely influential.
Jarre was introduced to the Moog modular synthesizer and spent time working at the studio of influential German composer Karlheinz Stockhausen in Cologne. In the kitchen of his flat on Rue de la Trémoille, near the Champs-Élysées, Jarre set up a small recording studio, it included his first synthesiser, an EMS VCS 3, an EMS Synthi AKS, each linked to Revox tape machines. For a 1969 exposition at the Maison de la Culture in Reims, Jarre wrote the five-minute song "Happiness Is a Sad Song", his first commercial release was La Cage/Erosmachine, a mixture of harmony, tape effects and synthesisers in 1969. In 1971 Jarre was commissioned by choreographer Norbert Schmucki to perform a ballet called AOR, at the Palais Garnier, he composed music for ballet, theatre and television programs, as well as music and lyrics for artists like Patrick Juvet and Christophe. Jarre composed the soundtrack for Les Granges Brûlées and in 1972 wrote music for the International Festival of Magic; that year he released his first solo album, Deserted Palace, from 1973–74 wrote music for Françoise Hardy and Gérard Lenorman, wrote lyrics for Christophe and directed Christophe's Olympia show.
Jarre's 1976 lo
Amélie is a 2001 French romantic comedy film directed by Jean-Pierre Jeunet. Written by Jeunet with Guillaume Laurant, the film is a whimsical depiction of contemporary Parisian life, set in Montmartre, it tells the story of a shy waitress, played by Audrey Tautou, who decides to change the lives of those around her for the better while struggling with her own isolation. The film was a co-production between companies in Germany. Taking in over $33 million in a limited theatrical release, it is to date the highest-grossing French-language film released in the United States, one of the biggest international successes for a French movie; the film was a major box office success. Amélie won Best Film at the European Film Awards. Amélie Poulain is born in June 1974 and raised by eccentric parents who – incorrectly believing that she has a heart defect – decide to home school her. To cope with her loneliness, Amélie develops a mischievous personality; when Amélie is six, her mother, Amandine, is killed when a suicidal Canadian tourist jumps from the roof of Notre-Dame de Paris and lands on her.
As a result, her father Raphaël withdraws more from society. Amélie leaves home at the age of 18 and becomes a waitress at the Café des 2 Moulins in Montmartre, staffed and frequented by a collection of eccentrics, she is single but not a virgin. On 31 August 1997, startled by the news of the death of Diana, Princess of Wales, Amélie drops a plastic perfume-stopper which dislodges a wall tile and accidentally reveals an old metal box of childhood memorabilia hidden by a boy who had lived in her apartment decades earlier. Amélie resolves to return the box to him, she promises herself that if it makes him happy, she will devote her life to bringing happiness to others. After asking the apartment's concierge and several old tenants about the boy's identity, Amélie meets her reclusive neighbour, Raymond Dufayel, an artist with brittle bone disease who repaints Luncheon of the Boating Party by Pierre-Auguste Renoir every year, he recalls the boy's name as "Bretodeau". Amélie finds the man, Dominique Bretodeau, surreptitiously gives him the box.
Moved to tears by the discovery and the memories it holds, Bretodeau resolves to reconcile with his estranged daughter and the grandson he has never met. Amélie embarks on her new mission. Amélie secretly executes complex schemes, she escorts a blind man to the Métro station, giving him a rich description of the street scenes he passes. She persuades her father to follow his dream of touring the world by stealing his garden gnome and having a flight attendant friend airmail pictures of it posing with landmarks from all over the world, she starts a romance between her hypochondriacal co-worker Georgette and Joseph, one of the customers in the bar. She convinces Madeleine Wallace, the concierge of her block of flats, that the husband who abandoned her had sent her a final conciliatory love letter just before his accidental death years before, she uses gaslighting tactics on the nasty greengrocer. Mentally exhausted, Collignon no longer abuses his good-natured assistant Lucien. A delighted Lucien takes charge at the grocery stand.
Mr. Dufayel, having observed Amélie, begins a conversation with her about his painting. Although he has copied the same painting 20 times, he has never quite captured the look of the girl drinking a glass of water, they discuss the meaning of this character, over several conversations, Amélie begins projecting her loneliness onto the image. Dufayel recognizes this and uses the girl in the painting to push Amélie to examine her attraction to a quirky young man, Nino Quincampoix, who collects the discarded photographs of strangers from passport photo booths; when Amélie bumps into Nino a second time, she realizes. He accidentally drops a photo album in the street. Amélie retrieves it. Amélie plays a cat-and-mouse game with Nino around Paris before returning his treasured album anonymously. After arranging a meeting at the 2 Moulins, Amélie tries to deny her identity, her co-worker, concerned for Amélie's well-being, screens Nino for her. It takes Dufayel's insight to give her the courage to pursue Nino, resulting in a romantic night together and the beginning of a relationship.
Amélie finds happiness for herself. In his DVD commentary, Jeunet explains that he wrote the role of Amélie for the English actress Emily Watson. However, Watson's French was not strong, when she became unavailable to shoot the film, owing to a conflict with the filming of Gosford Park, Jeunet rewrote the screenplay for a French actress. Audrey Tautou was the first actress he auditioned having seen her on the poster for the 1999 film Venus Beauty Institute; the movie was filmed in Paris. The Café des 2 Moulins where
Chanel No. 5
Chanel No. 5 was the first perfume launched by French couturier Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel. The chemical formula for the fragrance was compounded by French-Russian chemist and perfumer Ernest Beaux; the design of its bottle has been an important part of the product's allure. Traditionally, fragrances worn by women fell into two basic categories: "respectable women" favored the essence of a single garden flower. Sexually provocative perfumes heavy with animal musk or jasmine were associated with women of the demi-monde, prostitutes, or courtesans. Chanel sought a new scent that would appeal to the flapper and celebrate the liberated spirit of the 1920s. At the age of twelve, Chanel was handed over to the care of nuns, for the next six years spent a stark, disciplined existence in a convent orphanage, founded by 12th century Cistercians in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of central France. From her earliest days there, the number five had potent associations for her. For Chanel, the number five was esteemed as signifying the pure embodiment of a thing, its spirit, its mystic meaning.
The paths that led Chanel to the cathedral for daily prayers were laid out in circular patterns repeating the number five. Her affinity for the number five co-mingled with the abbey gardens, by extension the lush surrounding hillsides abounding with Cistus. In 1920, when presented with small glass vials containing sample scents numbered 1 to 5 and 20 to 24 for her assessment, she chose the fifth vial. Chanel told her master perfumer, Ernest Beaux, whom she had commissioned to develop a new fragrance, "I present my dress collections on the fifth of May, the fifth month of the year and so we will let this sample number five keep the name it has it will bring good luck." Chanel envisioned a design that would be an antidote for the over-elaborate, precious fussiness of the crystal fragrance bottles in fashion popularized by Lalique and Baccarat. Her bottle would be "pure transparency...an invisible bottle". It is considered that the bottle design was inspired by the rectangular beveled lines of the Charvet toiletry bottles, outfitted in a leather traveling case, were favored by her lover, Arthur "Boy" Capel.
Some say it was the whiskey decanter he used that she admired and wished to reproduce in "exquisite, delicate glass". The first bottle produced in 1922, differed from the Chanel No. 5 bottle known today. The original container had small, rounded shoulders and was sold only in Chanel boutiques to select clients. In 1924, when "Parfums Chanel" incorporated, the glass proved too thin to survive shipping and distribution; the bottle was modified with its only significant design change. In a 1924 marketing brochure, Parfums Chanel described the bottle as, "the perfection of the product forbids dressing it in the customary artifices. Why rely on the art of the glassmaker... Mademoiselle is proud to present simple bottles adorned only by...precious teardrops of perfume of incomparable quality, unique in composition, revealing the artistic personality of their creator."Unlike the bottle, which has remained the same since the 1924 redesign, the stopper has gone through numerous modifications. The original stopper was a small glass plug.
The octagonal stopper, which became a brand signature, was created in 1924, when the bottle shape was changed. The 1950s gave the stopper a larger, thicker silhouette. In the 1970s the stopper became more prominent but, in 1986, it was re-proportioned so its size was more harmonious with the scale of the bottle; the "pocket flaçon", designed to be carried in a purse, was introduced in 1934. The price and container size were reduced to appeal to a broader customer base; the bottle, over the decades, has itself become an identifiable cultural artifact, so much so that Andy Warhol chose to commemorate its iconic status in the mid-1980s with his pop art, silk-screened, Ads: Chanel. A limited-edition, crimson red crystal glass bottle in the three editions of Chanel No. 5, Eau de Parfum, L'Eau, is slated to be launched for Christmas 2018.. In 1924, Chanel made an agreement with the Wertheimer brothers and Paul, directors of the perfume house Bourjois, creating a new corporate entity, Parfums Chanel.
The Wertheimers agreed to manage production and distribution of Chanel No. 5. The Wertheimers would receive a 70 percent share of the company, Théophile Bader, founder of the Paris department store Galeries Lafayette, would receive 20 percent. Bader had been instrumental in brokering the business connection by introducing Chanel to Pierre Wertheimer at the Longchamps races in 1922. For 10 percent of the stock, Chanel licensed her name to Parfums Chanel and removed herself from involvement in all business operations. Unhappy with the arrangement, Chanel worked for more than twenty years to gain full control of Parfums Chanel, she said that Pierre Wertheimer was "the bandit who screwed me". World War II brought with it the Nazi seizure of all Jewish-owned property and businesses, providing Chanel with the opportunity to gain control of Parfums Chanel and its most profitable product, Chanel No. 5. The directors of Parfums Chanel, the Wertheimers, were Jewish, Chanel used her position as an "Aryan" to petition German officials to legalize her right to sole ownership.
On 5 May 1941, Chanel wrote to the government administrator charged with ruling on the disposition of Jewish financial assets. Her grounds for proprietary ownership were based on the claim that Parfums Chanel "is still the property of Jews" and had been "abandoned" by the owners. I have an indisputable right of priority... the profits that I have received from my creations since the foundation of this business... are disproportionate... you can help
The Loire is the longest river in France and the 171st longest in the world. With a length of 1,012 kilometres, it drains an area of 117,054 km2, or more than a fifth of France's land area, while its average discharge is only half that of the Rhône, it rises in the highlands of the southeastern quarter of the French Massif Central in the Cévennes range at 1,350 m near Mont Gerbier de Jonc. Its main tributaries include the rivers Nièvre and the Erdre on its right bank, the rivers Allier, Indre and the Sèvre Nantaise on the left bank; the Loire gives its name to six departments: Loire, Haute-Loire, Loire-Atlantique, Indre-et-Loire, Maine-et-Loire, Saône-et-Loire. The central part of the Loire Valley, located in the Pays de la Loire and Centre-Val de Loire regions, was added to the World Heritage Sites list of UNESCO on December 2, 2000. Vineyards and châteaux are found along the banks of the river throughout this section and are a major tourist attraction; the human history of the Loire river valley begins with the Middle Palaeolithic period of 90–40 kya, followed by modern humans, succeeded by the Neolithic period, all of the recent Stone Age in Europe.
Came the Gauls, the historical tribes in the Loire during the Iron Age period 1500 to 500 BC. Gallic rule ended in the valley in 56 BC when Julius Caesar conquered the adjacent provinces for Rome. Christianity was introduced into this valley from the 3rd century AD, as missionaries, converted the pagans. In this period, settlers began producing wines; the Loire Valley has been called the "Garden of France" and is studded with over a thousand châteaux, each with distinct architectural embellishments covering a wide range of variations, from the early medieval to the late Renaissance periods. They were created as feudal strongholds, over centuries past, in the strategic divide between southern and northern France; the name "Loire" comes from Latin Liger, itself a transcription of the native Gaulish name of the river. The Gaulish name comes from the Gaulish word liga, which means "silt, deposit, alluvium", a word that gave French lie, as in sur lie, which in turn gave English lees. Liga comes from the Proto-Indo-European root *legʰ-, meaning "to lie, lay" as in the Welsh word Lleyg, which gave many words in English, such as to lie, to lay, law, etc.
Studies of the palaeo-geography of the region suggest that the palaeo-Loire flowed northward and joined the Seine, while the lower Loire found its source upstream of Orléans in the region of Gien, flowing westward along the present course. At a certain point during the long history of uplift in the Paris Basin, the lower, Atlantic Loire captured the "palaeo-Loire" or Loire séquanaise, producing the present river; the former bed of the Loire séquanaise is occupied by the Loing. The Loire Valley has been inhabited since the Middle Palaeolithic period from 40–90 ka. Neanderthal man navigated the river. Modern man inhabited the Loire valley around 30 ka. By around 5000 to 4000 BC, they began clearing forests along the river edges and cultivating the lands and rearing livestock, they built megaliths to worship the dead from around 3500 BC. The Gauls arrived in the valley between 1500 and 500 BC, the Carnutes settled in Cenabum in what is now Orléans and built a bridge over the river. By 600 BC the Loire had become a important trading route between the Celts and the Greeks.
A key transportation route, it served as one of the great "highways" of France for over 2000 years. The Phoenicians and Greeks had used pack horses to transport goods from Lyon to the Loire to get from the Mediterranean basin to the Atlantic coast; the Romans subdued the Gauls in 52 BC and began developing Cenabum, which they named Aurelianis. They began building the city of Caesarodunum, now Tours, from AD 1; the Romans used the Loire as far as Roanne, around 150 km downriver from the source. After AD 16, the Loire river valley became part of the Roman province of Aquitania, with its capital at Avaricum. From the 3rd century, Christianity spread through the river basin, many religious figures began cultivating vineyards along the river banks. In the 5th century, the Roman Empire declined and the Franks and the Alemanni came to the area from the east. Following this there was ongoing conflict between the Franks and the Visigoths. In 408, the Iranian tribe of Alans crossed the Loire and large hordes of them settled along the middle course of the Loire in Gaul under King Sangiban.
Many inhabitants around the present city of Orléans have names bearing witness to the Alan presence – Allaines. In the 9th century, the Vikings began invading the west coast of France, using longships to navigate the Loire. In 853 they attacked and destroyed Tours and its famous abbey destroying Angers in raids of 854 and 872. In 877 Charles the Bald died. After considerable conflict in the region, in 898 Foulques le Roux of Anjou gained power. During the Hundred Years' War from 1337 to 1453, the Loire marked the border between the French and the English, who occupied territory to the north. One-third of the inhabitants died in the epidemic of the Black D