François-Édouard Picot was a French painter during the July Monarchy, painting mythological and historical subjects. Born in Paris, Picot won the Prix de Rome painting scholarship in 1813, gained success at the 1819 Salon with his neoclassical L'Amour et Psyché, he painted The Crowning of the Virgin in the church of Notre-Dame-de-Lorette and had large commissions for the Galerie des Batailles. He exhibited at the Paris Salon between 1819 and 1839. Elected to the Paris Academy in 1836, Picot was created an officer of the Legion of Honor in 1832, he studied with François-André Vincent and Jacques-Louis David. L'Amour et Psyché Portrait of Adélaïde-Sophie Cléret Portrait of Nicholas-Pierre Tiolier The Annunciation The Death of Sapphira Church of Saint Séverin. Two ceilings in the Louvre Couronnement de la Vierge (The Crowning of the Virgin L'Etude et le Génie dévoilent l'antique Egypte à la Grèce Cybèle protège contre le Vésuve les villes de Stabiae, Pompéi et Résina Léda The Siege of Calais, Peste de Florence His pupils include: Étienne-Prosper Berne-Bellecour Édouard Théophile Blanchard William-Adolphe Bouguereau Alexandre Cabanel Charles-Alexandre Coëssin de la Fosse Jean-Jacques Henner Louis Héctor Leroux Émile Lévy Gustave Moreau Léon Bazile Perrault Jules-Émile Saintin Jehan Georges Vibert Jean-Achille Benouville François-Léon Benouville Francois-Edouard Picot at the Art Renewal Center
Brisēís known as Hippodámeia, is a significant character in the Iliad. Her role as a status symbol is at the heart of the dispute between Achilles and Agamemnon that initiates the plot of Homer's epic, she was married to Mynes, a son of the King of Lyrnessus, until Achilles sacked her city and enslaved her shortly before the events of the poem. Briseis receives the same minimal physical description as most other minor characters in the Iliad, she is described with the standard metrical epithets that the poet uses to describe a great beauty, though her appearance is left up to the audience's imagination. She was imagined about two millennia by the Byzantine poet John Tzetzes as: According to her mythology, Briseis was the daughter of Briseus, though her mother was unnamed, she had three full brothers. When Achilles led the assault on Lyrnessus during the Trojan War, he captured Briseis and slew her parents and brothers, she was subsequently given to Achilles as a war prize to be his concubine. In the Iliad, as in Mycenaean Greece, captive women like Briseis were slaves and could be traded amongst the warriors.
According to Book 1 of the Iliad, when Agamemnon was compelled by Apollo to give up his own slave, Chryseis, he demanded Briseis as compensation. This prompted a quarrel with Achilles that culminated with Briseis' delivery to Agamemnon and Achilles' protracted withdrawal from battle, his absence had disastrous consequences for the Greeks. Despite Agamemnon's grand offers of treasure and women, he did not return to the fray until the death of Patroclus. Achilles was angry at Agamemnon, seethed with rage in his tent that Agamemnon dared to insult him by stripping him of the prize, awarded to him; when Achilles returned to the fighting to avenge Patroclus' death and Agamemnon returned Briseis to him, Agamemnon swore to Achilles that he had never slept with Briseis. When Odysseus and Phoenix visit Achilles to negotiate her return in book 9, Achilles refers to Briseis as his wife or his bride, he professes to have loved her as much as any man loves his wife, at one point using Menelaus and Helen to complain about the injustice of his'wife' being taken from him.
This romanticized, domestic view of their relationship contrasts with book 19, in which Briseis herself speaks. As she laments Patroclus' death, she wonders what will happen to her without his intercession on her behalf, saying that Patroclus promised her he would get Achilles to make her his legal wife instead of his slave, she remained with Achilles until his death. She soon took it upon herself to prepare Achilles for the afterlife. According to some, following his death, Briseis: "... was given to one of Achilles' comrades-at-arms just as his armor had been", after the fall of Troy. In medieval romances, starting with the Roman de Troie, Briseis becomes Briseida and is the daughter of Calchas, she loves and is loved by Troilus and Diomedes. She is confused with Chryseis and it is under variations of that name that the character is developed further, becoming Shakespeare's Cressida. Iliad, a Greek epic poem attributed to Homer Heroides, a work by the Roman poet Ovid, made up of letters from mythological heroines to their heroes.
Abduction of Briseis, a papyrus drawing of Ancient Egyptian origin, depicting Briseis being abducted by Agamemnon's heralds and Eurybates The Fury of Achilles, 1962 film directed by Marino Girolami, portrayed by Gloria Milland The Firebrand, a 1987 novel by Marion Zimmer Bradley Daughter of Troy, a 1998 novel by Dave Duncan Cassandra, a 1983 novel by Christa Wolf Troy, a 2004 film by Wolfgang Petersen, portrayed by Rose Byrne The Song of Achilles, a 2011 novel by Madeline Miller Hand of Fire, a 2014 novel by Judith Starkson Troy: Fall of a City, a 2018 miniseries by BBC The Silence of the Girls, a 2018 novel by Pat Barker Media related to Briseis at Wikimedia Commons
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres was a French Neoclassical painter. Ingres was profoundly influenced by past artistic traditions and aspired to become the guardian of academic orthodoxy against the ascendant Romantic style. Although he considered himself a painter of history in the tradition of Nicolas Poussin and Jacques-Louis David, it is his portraits, both painted and drawn, that are recognized as his greatest legacy, his expressive distortions of form and space made him an important precursor of modern art, influencing Picasso and other modernists. Born into a modest family in Montauban, he travelled to Paris to study in the studio of David. In 1802 he made his Salon debut, won the Prix de Rome for his painting The Ambassadors of Agamemnon in the tent of Achilles. By the time he departed in 1806 for his residency in Rome, his style—revealing his close study of Italian and Flemish Renaissance masters—was developed, would change little for the rest of his life. While working in Rome and subsequently Florence from 1806 to 1824, he sent paintings to the Paris Salon, where they were faulted by critics who found his style bizarre and archaic.
He received few commissions during this period for the history paintings he aspired to paint, but was able to support himself and his wife as a portrait painter and draughtsman. He was recognized at the Salon in 1824, when his Raphaelesque painting of the Vow of Louis XIII was met with acclaim, Ingres was acknowledged as the leader of the Neoclassical school in France. Although the income from commissions for history paintings allowed him to paint fewer portraits, his Portrait of Monsieur Bertin marked his next popular success in 1833; the following year, his indignation at the harsh criticism of his ambitious composition The Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian caused him to return to Italy, where he assumed directorship of the French Academy in Rome in 1835. He returned to Paris for good in 1841. In his years he painted new versions of many of his earlier compositions, a series of designs for stained glass windows, several important portraits of women, The Turkish Bath, the last of his several Orientalist paintings of the female nude, which he finished at the age of 83.
Ingres was born in Montauban, Tarn-et-Garonne, the first of seven children of Jean-Marie-Joseph Ingres and his wife Anne Moulet. His father was a successful jack-of-all-trades in the arts, a painter of miniatures, decorative stonemason, amateur musician. From his father the young Ingres received early encouragement and instruction in drawing and music, his first known drawing, a study after an antique cast, was made in 1789. Starting in 1786 he attended the local school École des Frères de l'Éducation Chrétienne, but his education was disrupted by the turmoil of the French Revolution, the closing of the school in 1791 marked the end of his conventional education; the deficiency in his schooling would always remain for him a source of insecurity. In 1791, Joseph Ingres took his son to Toulouse, where the young Jean-Auguste-Dominique was enrolled in the Académie Royale de Peinture, Sculpture et Architecture. There he studied under the sculptor Jean-Pierre Vigan, the landscape painter Jean Briant, the neoclassical painter Guillaume-Joseph Roques.
Roques' veneration of Raphael was a decisive influence on the young artist. Ingres won prizes in several disciplines, such as composition, "figure and antique", life studies, his musical talent was developed under the tutelage of the violinist Lejeune, from the ages of thirteen to sixteen he played second violin in the Orchestre du Capitole de Toulouse. From an early age he was determined to be a history painter, which, in the hierarchy of artists established by the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture under Louis XIV, continued well into the 19th Century, was considered the highest level of painting, he did not want to make portraits or illustrations of real life like his father. In March 1797, the Academy awarded Ingres first prize in drawing, in August he traveled to Paris to study in the studio of Jacques-Louis David, France's—and Europe's—leading painter during the revolutionary period, in whose studio he remained for four years. Ingres followed his master's neoclassical example. In 1797 David was working on his enormous masterpiece, The Intervention of the Sabine Women, was modifying his style away from Roman models of rigorous realism to the ideals of purity and simplicity in Greek art.
One of the other students of David, Étienne-Jean Delécluze, who became an art critic, described Ingres as a student: He was distinguished not just by the candor of his character and his disposition to work alone... he was one of the most studious... he took little part in the all the turbulent follies around him, he studied with more perseverance than most of his co-disciples... All of the qualities which characterize today the talent of this artist, the finesse of contour, the true and profound sentiment of the form, a modeling with extraordinary correctness and firmness, could be seen in his early studies. While several of his comrades and David himself signaled a tendency toward exaggeration in his studies, everyone was struck by his grand compositions and recognized his talent, he was admitted to the painting department of the École des Beaux-Arts in October 1799. In 1800 and 1801, he won the grand prize for figure paintin
Palace of Versailles
The Palace of Versailles was the principal royal residence of France from 1682, under Louis XIV, until the start of the French Revolution in 1789, under Louis XVI. It is located in the department of Yvelines, in the region of Île-de-France, about 20 kilometres southwest of the centre of Paris; the palace is now a Monument historique and UNESCO World Heritage site, notable for the ceremonial Hall of Mirrors, the jewel-like Royal Opera, the royal apartments. The Palace was stripped of all its furnishings after the French Revolution, but many pieces have been returned and many of the palace rooms have been restored. In 2017 the Palace of Versailles received 7,700,000 visitors, making it the second-most visited monument in the Île-de-France region, just behind the Louvre and ahead of the Eiffel Tower; the site of the Palace was first occupied by a small village and church, surrounded by forests filled with abundant game. It was owned by the priory of Saint Julian. King Henry IV went hunting there in 1589, returned in 1604 and 1609, staying in the village inn.
His son, the future Louis XIII, came on his own hunting trip there in 1607. After he became King in 1610, Louis XIII returned to the village, bought some land, in 1623-24 built a modest two-story hunting lodge on the site of the current marble courtyard, he was staying there in November 1630 during the event known as the Day of the Dupes, when the enemies of the King's chief minister, Cardinal Richelieu, aided by the King's mother, Marie de' Medici, tried to take over the government. The King sent his mother into exile. After this event, Louis XIII decided to make his hunting lodge at Versailles into a château; the King purchased the surrounding territory from the Gondi family, in 1631–1634 had the architect Philibert Le Roy replace the hunting lodge with a château of brick and stone with classical pilasters in the doric style and high slate-covered roofs, surrounding the courtyard of the original hunting lodge. The gardens and park were enlarged, laid out by Jacques Boyceau and his nephew, Jacques de Menours, reached the size they have today.
Louis XIV first visited the château on a hunting trip in 1651 at the age of twelve, but returned only until his marriage to Maria Theresa of Spain in 1660 and the death of Cardinal Mazarin in 1661, after which he acquired a passion for the site. He decided to rebuild and enlarge the château and to transform it into a setting for both rest and for elaborate entertainments on a grand scale; the first phase of the expansion was supervised by the architect Louis Le Vau. He added two wings to the forecourt, one for servants quarters and kitchens, the other for stables. In 1668 he added three new wings built of stone, known as the envelope, to the north and west of the original château; these buildings had nearly-flat roofs covered with lead. The king commissioned the landscape designer André Le Nôtre to create the most magnificent gardens in Europe, embellished with fountains, basins, geometric flower beds and groves of trees, he added two grottos in the Italian style and an immense orangerie to house fruit trees, as well as a zoo with a central pavilion for exotic animals.
After Le Vau's death in 1670, the work was taken over and completed by his assistant François d'Orbay. The main floor of the new palace contained two symmetrical sets of apartments, one for the king and the other for the queen, looking over the gardens; the two apartments were separated by a marble terrace, overlooking the garden, with a fountain in the center. Each set of apartments was connected to the ground floor with a ceremonial stairway, each had seven rooms, aligned in a row. On the ground floor under the King's apartment was another apartment, the same size, designed for his private life, decorated on the theme of Apollo, the Sun god, his personal emblem. Under the Queen's apartment was the apartment of the Grand Dauphin, the heir to the throne; the interior decoration was assigned to Charles Le Brun. Le Brun supervised the work of a large group of sculptors and painters, called the Petite Academie, who crafted and painted the ornate walls and ceilings. Le Brun supervised the design and installation of countless statues in the gardens.
The grand stairway to the King's apartment was soon redecorated as soon as it was completed with plaques of colored marble and trophies of arms and balconies, so the members of the court could observe the processions of the King. In 1670, Le Vau added a new pavilion northwest of the chateau, called the Trianon, for the King's relaxation in the hot summers, it was surrounded by flowerbeds and decorated with blue and white porcelain, in imitation of the Chinese style. The King spent his days in Versailles, the government and courtiers, numbering six to seven thousand persons, crowded into the buildings; the King ordered a further enlargement, which he entrusted to the young architect Jules Hardouin-Mansart. Hadouin-Mansart added two large new wings on either side of the original Cour Royale, he replaced Le Vau's large terrace, facing the garden on the west, with what bec
Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the country's most populated comune, it is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber; the Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been defined as capital of two states. Rome's history spans 28 centuries. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe; the city's early population originated from a mix of Latins and Sabines.
The city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, is regarded by some as the first metropolis. It was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the "Caput Mundi". After the fall of the Western Empire, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome fell under the political control of the Papacy, in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870. Beginning with the Renaissance all the popes since Nicholas V pursued over four hundred years a coherent architectural and urban programme aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world. In this way, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city.
In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, which, in 1946, became the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. In 2016, Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy, its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The famous Vatican Museums are among the world's most visited museums while the Colosseum was the most popular tourist attraction in world with 7.4 million visitors in 2018. Host city for the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rome is the seat of several specialized agencies of the United Nations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development; the city hosts the Secretariat of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean as well as the headquarters of many international business companies such as Eni, Enel, TIM, Leonardo S.p. A. and national and international banks such as Unicredit and BNL.
Its business district, called EUR, is the base of many companies involved in the oil industry, the pharmaceutical industry, financial services. Rome is an important fashion and design centre thanks to renowned international brands centered in the city. Rome's Cinecittà Studios have been the set of many Academy Award–winning movies. According to the founding myth of the city by the Ancient Romans themselves, the long-held tradition of the origin of the name Roma is believed to have come from the city's founder and first king, Romulus. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was derived from Rome itself; as early as the 4th century, there have been alternative theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. Several hypotheses have been advanced focusing on its linguistic roots which however remain uncertain: from Rumon or Rumen, archaic name of the Tiber, which in turn has the same root as the Greek verb ῥέω and the Latin verb ruo, which both mean "flow". There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from 14,000 years ago, but the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites.
Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence. Several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum. Between the end of the bronze age and the beginning of the Iron age, each hill between the sea and the Capitol was topped by a village. However, none of them had yet an urban quality. Nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the city developed through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine; this aggregation was facilitated by the increase of agricultural productivity above the subsistence level, which allowed the establishment of secondary and tertiary activities. These in turn boosted the development of trade with the Greek colonies of southern Italy; these developments, which according to archaeological ev
Pierre Lacour was a French painter. He was born and died in Bordeaux Lacour took second prize in the Prix de Rome of 1769. In 1801, he founded the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Bordeaux; the following year, he worked on restoring the Palais Rohan. The painters Pierre-Nolasque Bergeret and Jean Alaux were among his students. Lacour is buried in the Cimetière de la Chartreuse. Achilles Deposits Hector's Corpse at the Feet of Patroclus, École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts St. Roch displayed in 1776 Arrivée du comtte d'Estaing à Brest, displayed at the Salon in 1782 Reunited Portrait of Judges and Consuls of Bordeaux in 1786, displayed in 1787 Ambassador Sully in London, displayed in 1787 Étienne de Baecque Portrait of Mme. Pierre Guibert Works in the Musée des beaux-arts de Bordeaux: L’Artiste peignant un portrait de famille Vue d'une partie du port et des quais de Bordeaux: dit Les Chartrons et Bacalan Portrait de Pierre Lacour fils Cléopâtre se désolant dans le tombeau de Marc-Antoine Château de Versailles and Trianon: René-Augustin de Maupeou, chancellor of France Robert Mesuret, Pierre Lacour, 1745-1814, published by Delmas 1937 Pierre Lacour and memories of an octogenarian artist, 1778-1798, edition prepared by Philippe Le Leyzour and Dominque Cant, Museum of Fine Arts in Bordeaux and William Blake publishers, Périgueux, Fanlac 1989, ISBN 2-902067-13-5
Pierre-Jean David was a French sculptor and active freemason. He adopted the name David d'Angers, following his entry into the studio of the painter Jacques-Louis David in 1809 as a way of both expressing his patrimony and distinguishing himself from the master painter, he was born in Angers in 1788. His father was a wood carver and ornamental sculptor, who had joined the volunteer Republican army as a musketeer, fighting against the Chouans of La Vendée, he studied in the studio of Jean-Jacques Delusse and in 1808 traveled to Paris to study in the studio of Philippe-Laurent Roland. While in Paris he did work both on the Arc de Triomphe and the exterior of the Louvre. In 1810 he succeeded in taking the second place prize at the École des Beaux-Arts for his Othryades. In 1811 David's La Douleur won the École's competition for tête d'expression followed by his taking of the Prix de Rome for his Epaminondas in the same year, he spent five years in Rome, during which time he frequented the studio of Antonio Canova and made small trips around Italy to Venice and Florence.
Returning from Rome around the time of the restoration of the Bourbons and their accompanying foreign conquerors and returned royalists, David d'Angers would not remain in the neighborhood of the Tuileries, opting instead to travel to London. Here John Flaxman and others took him to task for the political sins of David the painter, to whom he was erroneously supposed to be related. With great difficulty he made his way to Paris again, where a comparatively prosperous career opened before him, his medallions and busts were in much request, as well as orders for monumental works. One of the most famous of these was that of Gutenberg at Strassburg. David's busts and medallions were numerous, among his sitters may be found not only the illustrious men and women of France, but many others both of England and Germany countries which he visited professionally in 1827 and 1829, his medallions number over 500. David's fame rests on his pediment of the Pantheon, his marble Wounded Philopoemen in the Louvre and his equestrian monument to General Jacques-Nicolas Gobert in Père Lachaise Cemetery.
In addition to that of Gobert, he did sculptures for seven other tombs at Père Lachaise, including the bronze busts of the writer, Honoré de Balzac and physician Samuel Hahnemann. In the Musée David in Angers is an complete collection of his works either in the form of copies or in the original moulds; as an example of his benevolence of character may be mentioned his rushing off to the sickbed of Rouget de Lisle, the author of the Marseillaise Hymn and carving him in marble without delay, making a lottery of the work, sending to the poet in the extremity of need the proceeds. Of Reviving Greece, his monument to the Greek liberator Markos Botsaris, showing a Greek child reading his name, Victor Hugo said, "It is difficult to see anything more beautiful in the world. David d'Angers gallery, Musée des Beaux-Arts, Angers Musée Carnavalet, Paris Musée de la Vie romantique, Paris Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "David, Pierre Jean".
Encyclopædia Britannica. 7. Cambridge University Press. P. 862. David d'Angers in American public collections, on the French Sculpture Census website