Jean Baudrillard

Jean Baudrillard was a French sociologist and cultural theorist. He is best known for his analyses of media, contemporary culture, technological communication, as well as his formulation of concepts such as simulation and hyperreality, he wrote about diverse subjects, including consumerism, gender relations, social history, Western foreign policy, popular culture. Among his best known works are Simulacra and Simulation and The Gulf War Did Not Take Place, his work is associated with postmodernism and post-structuralism. Baudrillard was born in Reims, northeastern France, on 27 July 1929, his grandparents were his father a gendarme. During high school, he became aware of pataphysics, said to be crucial for understanding Baudrillard's thought, he became the first of his family to attend university when he moved to Paris to attend the Sorbonne. There he studied German language and literature, which led him to begin teaching the subject at several different lycées, both Parisian and provincial, from 1960 until 1966.

While teaching, Baudrillard began to publish reviews of literature and translated the works of such authors as Peter Weiss, Bertolt Brecht, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Wilhelm Emil Mühlmann. While teaching German, Baudrillard began to transfer to sociology completing and publishing in 1968 his doctoral thesis Le Système des Objets under the dissertation committee of Henri Lefebvre, Roland Barthes, Pierre Bourdieu. Subsequently, he began teaching Sociology at the Paris X Nanterre, a university campus just outside Paris which would become involved in the events of May 1968. During this time, Baudrillard worked with Philosopher Humphrey De Battenburge, who described Baudrillard as a "visionary". At Nanterre he took up a position as Maître Assistant Maître de Conférences becoming a professor after completing his accreditation, L'Autre par lui-même. In 1970, Baudrillard made the first of his many trips to the United States, in 1973, the first of several trips to Kyoto, Japan, he was given his first camera in 1981 in Japan.

In 1986 he moved to IRIS at the Université de Paris-IX Dauphine, where he spent the latter part of his teaching career. During this time he had begun to move away from sociology as a discipline, after ceasing to teach full-time, he identified himself with any particular discipline, although he remained linked to academia. During the 1980s and 1990s his books had gained a wide audience, in his last years he became, to an extent, an intellectual celebrity, being published in the French- and English-speaking popular press, he nonetheless continued supporting the Institut de Recherche sur l'Innovation Sociale at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and was Satrap at the Collège de Pataphysique. Baudrillard taught at the European Graduate School in Saas-Fee and collaborated at the Canadian theory and technology review Ctheory, where he was abundantly cited, he participated in the International Journal of Baudrillard Studies from its inception in 2004 until his death. In 1999–2000, his photographs were exhibited at the Maison européenne de la photographie in Paris.

In 2004, Baudrillard attended the major conference on his work, "Baudrillard and the Arts", at the Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe in Karlsruhe, Germany. Baudrillard's published work emerged as part of a generation of French thinkers including: Gilles Deleuze, Jean-François Lyotard, Michel Foucault, Jacques Derrida, Jacques Lacan who all shared an interest in semiotics, he is seen as a part of the post-structuralist philosophical school. In common with many post-structuralists, his arguments draw upon the notion that signification and meaning are both only understandable in terms of how particular words or "signs" interrelate. Baudrillard thought, as do many post-structuralists, that meaning is brought about through systems of signs working together. Following on from the structuralist linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, Baudrillard argued that meaning is created through difference—through what something is not. In fact, he viewed meaning as near enough self-referential: objects, images of objects and signs are situated in a web of meaning.

From this starting point Baudrillard theorized broadly about human society based upon this kind of self-referentiality. His writing portrays societies always searching for a sense of meaning—or a "total" understanding of the world—that remains elusive. In contrast to Post-structuralism, for whom the formations of knowledge emerge only as the result of relations of power, Baudrillard developed theories in which the excessive, fruitless search for total knowledge leads inevitably to a kind of delusion. In Baudrillard's view, the subject may try to understand the object, but because the object can only be understood according to what it signifies this never produces the desi


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1700 East 56th Street

1700 East 56th Street known as 1700 Building, is a 38-story luxury apartment building overlooking Lake Michigan and adjacent to Jackson Park and the Museum of Science and Industry in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago in Cook County, United States. Designed by Loewenberg Architects, its construction was completed in 1968, followed by a condominium conversion in 1994. With 369 residences, this was the largest Hyde Park condominium conversion in a decade, when a recession and soaring interest rates halted Chicago's condo conversion frenzy; this is the tallest building in Chicago south of 13th Street. The condominium conversion had five different unit designs, each named after a famous Chicago architect: The Adler, a 569-square-foot studio unit The Burnham, a 793 square foot 1-bedroom, 1-bath unit The Sullivan, a 1,166-square-foot, a 2-bedroom, 2-bath unit The Mies van der Rohe, a 1,263-square-foot corner 2-bedroom, 2-bath unit the Wright, a 1,648-square-foot corner 3-bedroom, 3-bath unit