Republicanism is an ideology of being a citizen in a state as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty. Many countries are republics in the sense that they are not monarchies, this article covers only the ideology of republicanism. This form of government collapsed in the part of the 1st century BCE, giving way to what was a monarchy in form. Republics revived subsequently, for example, Renaissance Florence or early modern Britain, the concept of a republic became a powerful force in Britains North American colonies where it led to the American Revolution. In Europe, it gained influence through the French Revolution. In Ancient Greece, several philosophers and historians analysed and described elements we now recognize as classical republicanism, the Greek concept of politeia was rendered into Latin as res publica. Consequently, political theory until relatively recently often used republic in the sense of regime. There is no single written expression or definition from this era that exactly corresponds with an understanding of the term republic.
However, most of the features of the modern definition are present in the works of Plato, Aristotle. These include theories of mixed government and of civic virtue, for example, in The Republic, Plato places great emphasis on the importance of civic virtue together with personal virtue on the part of the ideal rulers. Indeed, in Book V, Plato asserts that until rulers have the nature of philosophers or philosophers become the rulers, there can be no civic peace or happiness. Aristotle considered Carthage to have been a republic as it had a system similar to that of some of the Greek cities, notably Sparta. Some of this history, composed more than 500 years after the events, with scant written sources to rely on, Polybius exerted a great influence on Cicero as he wrote his politico-philosophical works in the 1st century BCE. In one of works, De re publica, Cicero linked the Roman concept of res publica to the Greek politeia. However, the term republic, despite its derivation, is not synonymous with the Roman res publica.
This Roman Republic would, by an understanding of the word, still be defined as a true republic. Thus, Enlightenment philosophers saw the Roman Republic as an ideal system, several offices from the republican era, held by individuals, were combined under the control of a single person. These changes became permanent, and gradually conferred sovereignty on the Emperor, ciceros description of the ideal state, in De re publica, does not equate to a modern-day republic, it is more like enlightened absolutism
Bank of France
The Bank of France known in French as the Banque de France, headquartered in Paris, is the central bank of France, it is linked to the European Central Bank. Founded in 1800, it helped resolve the crisis of 1848. Its main charge is to implement the interest rate policy of the European System of Central Banks. In 1800, financial power in France was in the hands of ten to fifteen banking houses whose founders, in most cases. These bankers, mostly Protestant, were involved in the agitations leading up to the French Revolution. When the revolutionary violence got out of hand, they orchestrated the rise of Napoleon, as a reward for their support, Napoleon, in 1800, gave the bankers a monopoly over French finance by giving them control of the new Bank of France. For the first fifteen years it was the issuer of bank notes in Paris, and this privilege was extended to other financially important towns. On 1 June 1998, a new institution was created, the European Central Bank, the body formed by the ECB, and the national central banks of all the member states of the European Union, constitute the European System of Central Banks.
The ESCB is a framework of a single monetary policy for the euro. According to the Bank of Frances website, the sharing of responsibilities between the ECB and the NCBs is based upon significant decentralization of the conduct of the ESCBs single monetary policy,22 April 1806, a new law replaced the Central Committee with a Governor and two Deputy Governors. All three were appointed by the Emperor, decree dated 16 January 1808 set out the Basic Statutes, which were to govern the Banks operations until 1936. Decree on 6 March 1808 authorized the Bank to purchase the mansion of the Count of Toulouse in the rue de la Vrillière in Paris for its headquarters. This reform cleared the path for the European monetary union, economy of France Euro French franc Governor of the Bank de France Bouvier, Jean. The Banque de France and the State from 1850 to the Present Day, in Fausto Vicarelli, et al. eds. Central banks independence in historical perspective pp 73–104, crises et Apprentissage, La Banque de France en 1848, Entreprises et Histoire Issue 69, pp 27–37 Plessis, Alain.
The history of banks in France, in Pohl and Sabine Freitag, eds. Handbook on the history of European banks pp, 185-296, online Official site of Bank of France Beginnings of Banque de France The directors of Bank of France between 1800 and 1815
Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, is the ministry in the government of France that handles Frances foreign relations. Its headquarters are located on the Quai dOrsay in Paris, close to the National Assembly of France and its cabinet minister, the Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Development is responsible for the foreign relations of France. The current minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, was appointed in February 2016, in 1547, secretaries to the King became specialized, writing correspondence to foreign governments, and negotiating peace treaties. The four French secretaries of state where foreign relations were divided by region, in 1589, the Ancien Régime position of Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs became Foreign Minister around 1723, and was renamed Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1791 after the French Revolution. All ministerial positions were abolished in 1794 by the National Convention, for a brief period in the 1980s, the office was retitled Minister for External Relations
Prime Minister of France
The French Prime Minister in the Fifth Republic is the head of government and of the Council of Ministers of France. During the Third and Fourth Republics, the head of government position was called President of the Council of Ministers, the Prime Minister proposes a list of ministers to the President of the Republic. Decrees and decisions of the Prime Minister, like almost all decisions, are subject to the oversight of the administrative court system. Few decrees are taken after advice from the Council of State, all prime ministers defend the programs of their ministry, and make budgetary choices. The extent to which those decisions lie with the Prime Minister or President depends upon whether they are of the same party, manuel Valls was appointed to lead the government in a cabinet reshuffle in March 2014, after the ruling Socialists suffered a bruising defeat in local elections. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President of the Republic, the President can choose whomever they want.
On the other hand, because the National Assembly does have the power to force the resignation of the government, for example, right after the legislative election of 1986, President François Mitterrand appointed Jacques Chirac prime minister. Chirac was a member of the RPR and an opponent of Mitterrand. Despite the fact that Mitterrands own Socialist Party was the largest party in the Assembly, the RPR had an alliance with the UDF, which gave them a majority. Such a situation, where the President is forced to work with a minister who is an opponent, is called a cohabitation. So far, Édith Cresson is the woman to have ever held the position of prime minister. Aristide Briand holds the record for most nomination as Prime Minister with 11 between 1909 and 1929 with some terms as short as 26 days, other members of Government are appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister can engage the responsibility of his or her Government before the National Assembly and this process consists of placing a bill before the Assembly, and either the Assembly overthrows the Government, or the bill is passed automatically.
In addition to ensuring that the Government still has support in the House, the Prime Minister may submit a bill that has not been yet signed into law to the Constitutional Council. Before he is allowed to dissolve the Assembly, the President has to consult the Prime Minister, the office of the prime minister, in its current form, dates from the formation of the French Third Republic. Under the French Constitutional Laws of 1875, he was imbued with the powers as his British counterpart. In practice, the minister was a fairly weak figure. Most notably, the legislature had the power to force the cabinet out of office by a vote of censure
University of Paris
The University of Paris, metonymically known as the Sorbonne, was a university in Paris, France. Emerging around 1150 as an associated with the cathedral school of Notre Dame de Paris. Vast numbers of popes, royalties and intellectuals were educated at the University of Paris, following the turbulence of the French Revolution, education was suspended in 1793 whereafter its faculties were partly reorganised by Napoleon as the University of France. In 1896, it was renamed again to the University of Paris, in 1970, following the May 1968 events, the university was divided into 13 autonomous universities. Others, like Panthéon-Sorbonne University, chose to be multidisciplinary, in 1150, the future University of Paris was a student-teacher corporation operating as an annex of the Notre-Dame cathedral school. The university had four faculties, Medicine, the Faculty of Arts was the lowest in rank, but the largest, as students had to graduate there in order to be admitted to one of the higher faculties.
The students were divided into four nationes according to language or regional origin, Normandy, the last came to be known as the Alemannian nation. Recruitment to each nation was wider than the names might imply, the faculty and nation system of the University of Paris became the model for all medieval universities. Under the governance of the Church, students wore robes and shaved the tops of their heads in tonsure, students followed the rules and laws of the Church and were not subject to the kings laws or courts. This presented problems for the city of Paris, as students ran wild, students were often very young, entering the school at age 13 or 14 and staying for 6 to 12 years. Three schools were especially famous in Paris, the palatine or palace school, the school of Notre-Dame, the decline of royalty brought about the decline of the first. The other two were ancient but did not have much visibility in the early centuries, the glory of the palatine school doubtless eclipsed theirs, until it completely gave way to them.
These two centres were much frequented and many of their masters were esteemed for their learning, the first renowned professor at the school of Ste-Geneviève was Hubold, who lived in the tenth century. Not content with the courses at Liège, he continued his studies at Paris, entered or allied himself with the chapter of Ste-Geneviève, and attracted many pupils via his teaching. Distinguished professors from the school of Notre-Dame in the century include Lambert, disciple of Fulbert of Chartres, Drogo of Paris, Manegold of Germany. Three other men who added prestige to the schools of Notre-Dame and Ste-Geneviève were William of Champeaux, Abélard, humanistic instruction comprised grammar, dialectics, geometry and astronomy. To the higher instruction belonged dogmatic and moral theology, whose source was the Scriptures and it was completed by the study of Canon law. The School of Saint-Victor arose to rival those of Notre-Dame and Ste-Geneviève and it was founded by William of Champeaux when he withdrew to the Abbey of Saint-Victor
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy and social inequality. The term left wing can refer to the radical, use of the term Left became more prominent after the restoration of the French monarchy in 1815 when it was applied to the Independents. The word wing was appended to Left and Right in the late 19th century, usually with disparaging intent, throughout the 19th century in France, the main line dividing left and right was between supporters of the French Republic and those of the Monarchy. The June Days Uprising during the Second Republic was an attempt by the Left to assert itself after the 1848 Revolution, in the mid-19th century, socialism and anti-clericalism became features of the French Left. After Napoleon IIIs 1851 coup and the subsequent establishment of the Second Empire, Marxism began to rival radical republicanism, the influential Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, published in 1848, asserted that all human history is the history of class struggle.
They predicted that a revolution would eventually overthrow bourgeois capitalism and create a classless, stateless. It was in period that the word wing was appended to both Left and Right. Following a split between supporters of Marx and Mikhail Bakunin, anarchists formed the International Workers Association, the Second International became divided over the issue of World War I. Those who opposed the war, such as Vladimir Lenin and Rosa Luxemburg, in the United States after Reconstruction, the phrase the Left was used to describe those who supported trade unions, the civil rights movement and the anti-war movement. More recently in the United States, left-wing and right-wing have often used as synonyms for Democratic and Republican. Since the Right was populist, both in the Western and the Eastern Bloc, anything viewed as art was called leftist in all Europe. The following positions are typically associated with left-wing politics, during the industrial revolution, leftists supported trade unions.
At the beginning of the 20th century, many leftists advocated strong government intervention in the economy, leftists continue to criticize what they perceive as the exploitative nature of globalization, the race to the bottom, and unjust lay-offs. Other leftists believe in Marxian economics, which are based on the theories of Karl Marx. Marxian economics does not exclusively rely upon Marx, it draws from a range of Marxist and non-Marxist sources, the political relevance of farmers has divided the left. In Das Kapital, Marx scarcely mentioned the subject, Mao Zedong believed that it would be rural peasants, not urban workers, who would bring about the proletarian revolution. Both Karl Marx and the early socialist William Morris arguably had a concern for environmental matters, according to Marx, Even an entire society, a nation, or all simultaneously existing societies taken together. Are not owners of the earth and they are simply its possessors, its beneficiaries, and have to bequeath it in an improved state to succeeding generations
Eugène Henri Brisson was a French statesman, Prime Minister of France for a period in 1885-1886 and again in 1898. He was born at Bourges, and followed his father’s profession of advocate, having made his mark in opposition during the last days of the empire, he was appointed deputy-mayor of Paris after the government was overthrown. He was elected to the Assembly on 8 February 1871, as a member of the extreme Left, while not approving of the Commune, he was the first to propose amnesty for the condemned, but the proposal was voted down. He strongly supported compulsory primary education, and was firmly anti-clerical, as a leader of the radicals he actively supported, the ministries of Waldeck-Rousseau and Combes, especially concerning the laws on the religious orders and the separation of church and state. In 1899 he was a candidate for the presidency but lost to Felix Faure, in May 1906 he was elected president of the chamber of deputies by 500 out of 581 votes. Charles Demôle succeeds Carnot as Minister of Public Works,9 November 1885 - Pierre Gomot succeeds Mangon as Minister of Agriculture.
Lucien Dautresme succeeds Legrand as Minister of Commerce, jules Godin succeeds Tillaye as Minister of Public Works. 25 October 1898 - Édouard Locroy succeeds Chanoine as interim Minister of War, attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Brisson, Eugène Henri
Louis Philippe I
Louis Philippe I was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 as the leader of the Orléanist party. He spent 21 years in exile after he left France in 1793 and he was proclaimed king in 1830 after his cousin Charles X was forced to abdicate in the wake of the events of the July Revolution of that year. His government, known as the July Monarchy, was dominated by members of a wealthy French elite and he followed conservative policies, especially under the influence of the French statesman François Guizot during the period 1840–48. He promoted friendship with Britain and sponsored colonial expansion, notably the conquest of Algeria and his popularity faded as economic conditions in France deteriorated in 1847, and he was forced to abdicate after the outbreak of the French Revolution of 1848. He lived out his life in exile in Great Britain, Louis Philippe was born in the Palais Royal, the residence of the Orléans family in Paris, to Louis Philippe, Duke of Chartres, and Louise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon.
As a member of the reigning House of Bourbon, he was a Prince of the Blood and his mother was an extremely wealthy heiress who was descended from Louis XIV of France through a legitimized line. Louis Philippe was the eldest of three sons and a daughter, a family that was to have erratic fortunes from the beginning of the French Revolution to the Bourbon Restoration. Louis Philippes father was exiled from the court, and the Orléans confined themselves to studies of the literature. Louis Philippe was tutored by the Countess of Genlis, beginning in 1782 and she instilled in him a fondness for liberal thought, it is probably during this period that Louis Philippe picked up his slightly Voltairean brand of Catholicism. When Louis Philippes grandfather died in 1785, his father succeeded him as Duke of Orléans, from October 1788 to October 1789, the Palais Royal was a meeting-place for the revolutionaries. Louis Philippe grew up in a period that changed Europe as a whole and, following his fathers support for the Revolution.
In his diary, he reports that he took the initiative to join the Jacobin Club. In June 1791, Louis Philippe got his first opportunity to become involved in the affairs of France, in 1785, he had been given the hereditary appointment of Colonel of the 14th Regiment of Dragoons. With war on the horizon in 1791, all proprietary colonels were ordered to join their regiments, Louis Philippe showed himself to be a model officer, and he demonstrated his personal bravery in two famous instances. The young colonel broke through the crowd and extricated the two priests, who fled, at a river crossing on the same day, another crowd threatened to harm the priests. Louis Philippe put himself between a peasant armed with a carbine and the priests, saving their lives, the next day, Louis Philippe dove into a river to save a drowning local engineer. For this action, he received a crown from the local municipality. His regiment was moved north to Flanders at the end of 1791 after the Declaration of Pillnitz, Louis Philippe served under his fathers crony, the Duke of Biron, along with several officers who gained distinction in Napoleons empire and afterwards