Jean Cavaillès was a French philosopher and logician who specialized in philosophy of mathematics and philosophy of science. He took part in the French Resistance within the Libération movement and was arrested by the Gestapo on February 17, 1944 and shot on April 4, 1944. Cavaillès was born in Deux-Sèvres. After passing his first baccalauréat in 1919 and baccalauréats in mathematics and philosophy the following year, he studied at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand, including two years of fr:classes préparatoires, before entering the École Normale Supérieure in 1923, reading philosophy. In 1927 he passed the agrégation competitive exam, he began graduate studies in Philosophy in 1928 under the supervision of Léon Brunschvicg. Cavaillès won a Rockefeller Foundation scholarship in 1929-1930. In 1931 he travelled extensively in Germany, he was a teaching assistant at the École Normale Supérieure between 1929 and 1935 teacher at the Lycée d'Amiens in 1936. In 1937, he defended his doctoral theses at the University of Paris and became a Doctor of Letters in Philosophy.
He was appointed fr:maître de conférences in Logic and in General Philosophy at the University of Strasbourg. After the outbreaks of World War II, he was mobilized in 1939 as an infantry lieutenant with the 43rd Regiment, was attached to the Staff of the 4th Colonial Division, he was honoured for bravery twice, was captured on June 11, 1940. At the end of July 1940 he escaped from Belgium and fled to Clermont-Ferrand, where the university of Strasbourg was re-organized. At the end of December 1940, he met Emmanuel d'Astier de la Vigerie, with whom he created a small group of resistance fighters, known as "the Last Column". To reach a broader audience, it was decided to create a newspaper, to become Libération, the mouthpiece of both Libération-Sud and Libération-Nord. Cavaillès took an active part in editing the paper; the first edition appeared in July 1941. He was appointed professor at the Sorbonne in 1941, left Clermont-Ferrand for Paris, where he helped form the Libération-Nord resistance group, becoming part of its management committee.
In April 1942, at the instigation of Christian Pineau, the central Office of Information and Action of London charged him with the task of forming an intelligence network in the Northern Zone, known as "Cohors". He was ordered by Christian Pineau to pass into the Southern Zone, Cavaillès headed the network and formed similar groups in Belgium and the north of France. In Narbonne he was arrested with Pineau by the French police in September 1942. After a failed attempt at escaping to London, he was interned in Montpellier at the Saint-Paul d' Eyjeaux prison camp from where he escaped at the end of December 1942; the book Cavaillès wrote in prison in Montpellier in 1942 was published posthumously in 1946, edited by the epistemologist Georges Canguilhem and the mathematician Charles Ehresmann under the title Sur la logique et la theorie de la science. Denounced as a public enemy by the Vichy regime, sought by the police, he fled clandestinely to London in February 1943. There he met General Charles de Gaulle on several occasions.
Back in France on April 15 he resigned from the management Committee of the Libération movement in order to dedicate himself to direct action. He was in charge of the sabotage of the stores of the Kriegsmarine in Brittany and German radio installations on the coast. Betrayed by one of his liaison officers, he was arrested on August 28, 1943 in Paris with his sister and her brother-in-law. Tortured, imprisoned in Fresnes in Compiègne, he was transferred to the Citadel from Arras and was arrested on February 17, 1944; this date was chosen for his death until 2015 when it appeared that he was shot on Avril 4. Buried in Arras under a wooden cross marked "unknown n°5", his body was exhumed in 1946 to be buried in the Crypt in the Sorbonne, in Paris; the Centre Cavaillès de l'École Normale Supérieure was established in Paris in 1969, at 3e étage au 29 rue d'Ulm, as Centre for the Study of the History and Philosophy of Science. At the formal opening, philosopher Georges Canguilhem said, "A philosopher-mathematician loaded with explosives and reckless, resolute without optimism.
If that's not a hero, what is a hero?" Cavaillès is honored in the Heroes of the Resistance postage stamp set. In L'Armée des ombres, a 1969 film directed by Jean-Pierre Melville, the character of Luc Jardie was in part inspired by Cavaillès. Jardie's chief operative, recuperating from injuries in a hideaway, has only five books. Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur Compagnon de la Libération – decree of 20 November 1944 Croix de guerre 39/45 Médaille de la Résistance Officier de l'Ordre de la Couronne de Belgique Médaille de la Résistance Sur la deuxième définition des ensemble finis donnée par Dedekind, Fundamenta Mathematicae, XIX, 1932, pp. 143-148. L'école de Vienne au Congrès de Prague, Revue de métaphysique et de morale, XLII, 1935, pp. 137–149. Briefwechsel Cantor-Dedekind, ed. by E. Noether and J. Cavaillès, Actualités scientifiques et industrielles, 518, Hermann, 1937. French translation by Charles Ehresmann in Cavaillès, Philosophie mathématique, Hermann, 1962, pp. 177-252. Remarques sur la formation
Type 59G Durjoy is an upgrade of the Type 59 tank. The Bangladesh Army's obsolete Type 59 tanks are being upgraded to Type 59G Durjoy locally with Chinese assistance; the name of the tank Durjoy means Invincible in Bengali. Since the year 2015 Bangladesh has been upgrading its Type 59 tanks, that were bought from China in the early 2000s. In that period of time, the army bought 780 tanks, that for many years were in service for the Bangladesh army but after a few years were starting to be older compared to its modern relatives. That's why the Bangladesh Army started a project to upgrade only 300 type 59 tanks by the time because they were still functional. In the first batch, the army rebuilt 174 as MK Is, by now the army has been rebuilding other 300 type 59 tanks as MK IIs. China says that if Bangladesh buys VT5: lightweight main battle tanks China will give 300 type 59 tanks for free; the Type 59G Durjoy is one of the former MBTs of the Bangladesh Army, the MK I is just as strong as the T 72 and it's able to deliver serious damages into the latest versions of the T 72s, because he does not have a sufficient armor to match with the latest T 72s, although it has much firepower than its closest relatives, such as the Indian Anjun tank or the Ukrainian Oplot tank, in fact the Durjoy's APFSDS can penetrate 500 mm of armor with 2 kms of distance, but in the same distance the Arjun tank can penetrate only 200 mm of armor and the Ukrainian Oplot tank can penetrate 400 mm of armor.
This process of rebuilding the type 59 tanks consists of the change of armor and the latest technology systems. In the process, only the hull and the chassis remains the same, because the metal of which the tank is made of can last for over 70 years, that's why great nations such as USA, France, Germany and others still use the chassis and the hull of their older tanks; the tank measures 6,04 meters in length, 3,27 meters in width and 2,59 meters in height all packed up with a weight of 40 tons for the MK I and 42 tons for the MK II. So first of all, Bangladesh is a fertile land with many swamps and rivers, that's why the army needs vehicles that move from a base to another without losing its efficiency and if necessary the element of surprise. In fact, as for the Forces Goal 2030 we saw the army buying AFVs and APCs and as for the tanks, the army is deciding to buy whether Chinese VT5 tanks or the Turkish/Indonesian Kaplan MT tanks; the Durjoy tanks will be assigned to secure the Bangladesh-Myanmar borders.
Between the Durjoy MK I and the Durjoy MK II there are many big differences, such as the armor, the speed, the weight etc... As for the MK I: The main gun is settled on a new turret on the Type 96 turret, it has a 125 mm main gun as the primary armament. As the secondary armament it's equipped with 2 7,62 mm Type 80 coaxial machine gun and a 12,7 mm W85 heavy machine gun, these machine guns are powerful and efficient in close combats; the Durjoys APFSDS can penetrate 500 mm of reactive armor at 2 km. To increase crew comfort and protection in the tank are settled air conditioning systems and complete NBC protection. Chinese 3rd generation ERA, modular Composite Cage armor to protect it from RPG hits. Collective Fire suppression system. Laser warning receiver, Laser designator, Fire control system, Combat data link, Thermal imaging system. 730 H. P. Diesel engine Barrel launched ATGM firing capability. [ XDZ-1 SATCOM and VRC-2000L radio contact system. MK II: The armaments are the same. Russian 5th generation ERA to protect it from all four sides, such as the T-14 Armata.
Increased speed from 30 mph to 37 mph. Increased weight from 40 to 42 tons. Latest systems. Bangladesh: 174 MK Is and 300 are being upgraded in MK IIs
Krajowa Rada Narodowa in Polish was a parliament-like political body created during the period of World War II in German-occupied Warsaw, Poland. It was intended as a communist-controlled center of authority, challenging organs of the legitimate and mainstream Polish Underground State; the existence of the KRN was accepted by the Soviet Union and the council became to a large extent subjugated and controlled by the Soviets. The KRN was established on the night of 31 December 1943 on the initiative of the Polish communist party, the Polish Workers' Party led by Władysław Gomułka, it was the implementation of the party's Central Committee decision of 7 November 1943. The council was declared to be the "actual political representation of the Polish nation, empowered to act on behalf of the nation and manage its affairs until the time of Poland's liberation from the occupation". From the beginning, the KRN viewed the prewar Sanation government and the contemporary Polish government in exile as illegitimate, based on the "elitist-totalitarian" April Constitution, "whose legality had never been recognized by the nation", as representative of narrow reactionary interests.
The new government formation would be based on the "worker-peasant alliance" and on the alliance with the Soviet Union. The Armia Ludowa was established as the KRN's armed force; the exile government and the Polish Underground State the Armia Krajowa command, were worried by this development and by the progressing social radicalization in Poland by Soviet strings. They accelerated the formation of the planned Council of National Unity, their own parliament, created on 9 January 1944; the Soviet regime under Stalin unaware of the establishment of the KRN because of the non-existent at that time communications, became critical of it until, according to the evolving international situation, the Soviets developed new ideas in respect to Poland and found the KRN to be a convenient entity. A KRN delegation went to Moscow for talks with Stalin on 22 May 1944 and the body's existence was upheld; the KRN was installed and dominated by pro-Soviet and pro-communist activists from various Polish far-left prewar parties.
Attempts to broaden the KRN's base by absorbing other leftist and popular groups were unsuccessful. The left-wing of the Polish Socialist Party had in mind a future People's Republic of Poland, but of a different variety than the communists and Soviets; the KRN included some members of the PPS, the Polish People's Party, the People's Party, the Democratic Party, the Labour Party, non-aligned and Jewish politicians. Bolesław Bierut of the PPR became the KRN's chairman. Bierut was opposed to Gomułka's efforts to broaden the KRN's participation and a sharp conflict between the two ensued. Bierut believed in future communist rule based on the presence of the Soviet Red Army in Poland and did not want to dilute the PPR's identity and influence by the inclusion of too many other forces; the KRN's vice-chairmen were Stanisław Grabski and Stanisław Szwalbe. On 22 July 1944, the KRN delegation and the Union of Polish Patriots, having deliberated in Moscow, took it upon themselves to form a new governmental structure, the Polish Committee of National Liberation, established in the Lublin province.
PKWN gave rise to communist-dominated governments, which included some former members of the Polish-government-in-exile, led by Stanisław Mikołajczyk, represented a half-hearted attempt by the communists to meet the Yalta Conference requirements of forming a coalition government and carrying out free elections. On 31 December of that year, the KRN transformed the PKWN into the Provisional Government of the Republic of Poland. Both early governments were headed by the socialist Edward Osóbka-Morawski; until the elections to parliament, the KRN held both legislative and executive powers, Bolesław Bierut was the head of state. In July 1945, the KRN had 273 members. In October 1946 it was expanded to 444 members; the 1947 Polish legislative elections were rigged by the communists, who conducted the illegitimate Polish people's referendum of 1946. The unchallenged rule of the communists that followed, combined with extensive repressions and persecution, forced many opposition leaders to leave the country.
The new Sejm, which replaced the KRN, was dominated by the communists and their allies until the collapse of communism in Poland in 1989. Davies, Norman, 1982 and several reprints. God's Playground. 2 vols. New York: Columbia Univ. Press. ISBN 0-231-05353-3 and ISBN 0-231-05351-7 Boris Shub and Bernard Quint, Since Stalin, a photo history of our time, anthology published by Swen Publications, New York, Manila, 1951, hardcover