Jean Froissart was a French-speaking medieval author and court historian from the Low Countries, who wrote several works, including Chronicles and Meliador, a long Arthurian romance, a large body of poetry, both short lyrical forms, as well as longer narrative poems. For centuries, Froissart's Chronicles have been recognised as the chief expression of the chivalric revival of the 14th century kingdoms of England and Scotland, his history is an important source for the first half of the Hundred Years' War. What little is known of Froissart's life comes from his historical writings and from archival sources which mention him in the service of aristocrats or receiving gifts from them. Although his poems have been used in the past to reconstruct aspects of his biography, this approach is in fact flawed, as the'I' persona which appears in many of the poems should not be construed as a reliable reference to the historical author; this is why de Looze has characterised these works as'pseudo-autobiographical'.
Froissart came from Valenciennes in the County of Hainaut, situated in the western tip of the Holy Roman Empire, bordering France. Earlier scholars have suggested that his father was a painter of armorial bearings, but there is little evidence for this. Other suggestions include that he began working as a merchant but soon gave that up to become a cleric. For this conclusion there is no real evidence, as the poems which have been cited to support these interpretations are not autobiographical. By about age 24, Froissart left Hainault and entered the service of Philippa of Hainault, queen consort of Edward III of England, in 1361 or 1362; this service, which would have lasted until the queen's death in 1369, has been presented as including a position of court poet and/or official historiographer. Based on surviving archives of the English court, Croenen has concluded instead that this service did not entail an official position at court, was more a literary construction, in which a courtly poet dedicated poems to his'lady' and in return received occasional gifts as remuneration.
Froissart took a serious approach to his work. He traveled in England, Wales, France and Spain gathering material and first-hand accounts for his Chronicles, he traveled with Lionel, Duke of Clarence, to Milan to attend and chronicle the duke's wedding to Violante, the daughter of Galeazzo Visconti. At this wedding, two other significant writers of the Middle Ages were present: Chaucer and Petrarch. After the death of Queen Philippa, he enjoyed the patronage of Joanna, Duchess of Brabant among various others, he received rewards—including the benefice of Estinnes, a village near Binche and became canon of Chimay—sufficient to finance further travels, which provided additional material for his work. He returned to England in 1395 but seemed disappointed by changes that he viewed as the end of chivalry; the date and circumstances of his death are unknown but St. Monegunda of Chimay might be the final resting place for his remains, although still unverified. Much more than his poetry, Froissart's fame is due to his Chronicles.
The text of his Chronicles is preserved in more than 100 illuminated manuscripts, illustrated by a variety of miniaturists. One of the most lavishly illuminated copies was commissioned by Louis of Gruuthuse, a Flemish nobleman, in the 1470s; the four volumes of this copy contain 112 miniatures painted by well-known Brugeois artists of the day, among them Loiset Lyédet, to whom the miniatures in the first two volumes are attributed. He is thought to have been one of the first to mention the use of the verge and foliot, or verge escapement in European clockworks, by 1368; the English composer Edward Elgar wrote an overture entitled Froissart. Froissart's Chronicles L'Horloge amoureux Méliador Peter Ainsworth, "Froissart, Jean", in Graeme Dunphy, Encyclopedia of the Medieval Chronicle, Brill, 2010, pp. 642–645. Cristian Bratu, « Je, auteur de ce livre »: L’affirmation de soi chez les historiens, de l’Antiquité à la fin du Moyen Âge. Medieval Europe Series. Leiden: Brill, 2019. Cristian Bratu, "Je, aucteur de ce livre: Authorial Persona and Authority in French Medieval Histories and Chronicles."
In Authorities in the Middle Ages. Influence and Power in Medieval Society. Sini Kangas, Mia Korpiola, Tuija Ainonen, eds.: 183-204. Cristian Bratu, "Clerc, Aucteur: The Authorial Personae of French Medieval Historians from the 12th to the 15th centuries." In Authority and Gender in Medieval and Renaissance Chronicles. Juliana Dresvina and Nicholas Sparks, eds.: 231-259. Cristian Bratu, "De la grande Histoire à l’histoire personnelle: l’émergence de l’écriture autobiographique chez les historiens français du Moyen Age." Mediävistik 25: 85-117. Jones, Michael. "Froissart, Jean and poet". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/50195. Works by Jean Froissart at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Jean Froissart at Internet Archive Works at Open Library Bibliography Jean Froissart, compiled by Dr. Godfried Croenen, University of Liverpool; the Chronicles of Froissart, from Harvard Classics. The Online Froissart Project, by the University of Sheffield and the University of Liverpool.
Jean Froissart at the Encyclopædia Britannica The Chronicles of Froissart Full 12 Volumes Edition online
Josh Strauss is a South African-born Scotland international rugby union footballer who plays for South African Super Rugby side Bulls. His regular playing position is either eighthman. Strauss - like all professional players in Scotland - was assigned to play for amateur clubs each season when not in use with Glasgow Warriors. After signing for Glasgow in 2012 he was assigned to Dundee HSFP in the Pro-Player draft, he was assigned to Aberdeen GSFP in the Glasgow Warriors pro-player draft of 2013-14. In 2014-15 he was assigned to Stirling County. In 2016-17 season he was assigned to Currie. Strauss has played for the Boland Cavaliers and Maties, he has captained the Lions in the Golden Lions in the Currie Cup. It was announced on 11 September 2012, he became a regular in the Warriors' side, captaining them and was an integral part of their 2014–2015 Pro12 title triumph. He was named in the Pro12 Dream Team at the end of the 2014/15 season. However, Strauss left Glasgow Warriors in the summer of 2017.
On 28 February 2017, Strauss signed a three-year contract with Aviva Premiership club Sale Sharks prior to the 2017-18 season. He moved to Stade Francais before signing for the Bulls. Strauss became eligible to play for Scotland in September 2015, was named in the 31-man squad for the 2015 Rugby World Cup, he made his much-anticipated debut from the bench in the team's opening match victory over Japan. "SA Rugby Player Profile – Josh Strauss". South African Rugby Union. Retrieved 30 May 2016. Lions profile itsrugby.co.uk profile
"Every Night I Say a Prayer" is a song by English recording artist Little Boots, released as the second single from her second studio album, Nocturnes. Written with Hercules and Love Affair's Andy Butler, the song was released as a limited edition 12" vinyl to commemorate Record Store Day on 21 April 2012, Little Boots performed a set at Rough Trade East on the same day; the song was released as a free download on 23 April. "Every Night I Say a Prayer" was included on Little Boots's mixtape Into the Future as its title track, until the title changed. To further promote the new single, Little Boots and Trax Records sent four remixes of the song to Nylon magazine, who published them for streaming on their website which will be used as the American promotional release; the single was regarded by Michael Cragg as one of the Top 5 modern disco tracks. Genevieve Oliver of Pretty Much Amazing called the song a "sexy disco track" with elements of "euro-pop deconstructed and stark piano chords, a beat so irresistible it might as well have been constructed in a lab, awesomely edited vocals, this is the kind of dark-pop jam-of-all-jams that comes along only once in a while".
Katherine St. Asaph of Popdust gave a mixed review stating, " can't quite deliver the chorus like a true diva—her voice's too composed, not quite big enough—but that's the only time she tries." St. Asaph continued, "The verses suit her much better; this style has its predecessors, too—Kylie Minogue, Sophie Ellis-Bextor and Sarah Cracknell alone make up an imposing list—but it complements Little Boots." Bradley Stern of MuuMuse stated the track "tip-toes in between warm washes of'90's club pulsations, weird ambient noises bubbling in the background and a gorgeous piano melody It's like stepping back in time, Rhythm of Love style!" The music video for "Every Night I Say a Prayer", directed by Zaiba Jabbar, premiered on 1 May 2012 on Little Boots's YouTube account. The video sees Little Boots singing alongside a troupe of ultra-trendy, sexually ambigiuous young dancers. Michael Roffman of Consequence of Sound described the video as a combination of "Van Halen's Crystal Pepsi commercial for'Right Now' with anything Madonna did during her Erotica-era."
Digital download"Every Night I Say a Prayer" – 3:38 "Every Night I Say a Prayer" – 6:26Limited edition vinylA1. "Every Night I Say a Prayer" – 3:39 B1. "Every Night I Say a Prayer" – 6:26 B2. "Every Night I Say a Prayer" – 4:35Remix EP"Every Night I Say a Prayer" – 5:26 "Every Night I Say a Prayer" – 4:35 "Every Night I Say a Prayer" – 5:52 "Every Night I Say a Prayer" – 3:18