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Jean Grey

Jean Grey-Summers is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character has been known under the aliases Marvel Girl and Dark Phoenix. Created by writer Stan Lee and artist Jack Kirby, the character first appeared in The X-Men #1. Jean is a member of a subspecies of humans known as mutants, she was born with telekinetic powers. Her powers first manifested, she is a caring, nurturing figure, but she has to deal with being an Omega-level mutant and the physical manifestation of the cosmic Phoenix Force. Jean experienced a transformation into the Phoenix in the X-Men storyline "The Dark Phoenix Saga", she has faced death numerous times in the history of the series. Her first death was under her guise as Marvel Girl, when she died and was "reborn" as Phoenix in "The Dark Phoenix Saga"; this transformation led to her second death, suicide, though not her last. She is an important figure in the lives of other Marvel Universe characters the X-Men, including her husband Cyclops, her mentor and father figure Charles Xavier, her unrequited love interest Wolverine, her best friend and sister-like figure Storm, her genetic children Rachel Summers, Stryfe and X-Man.

The character was present for much of the X-Men's history, she was featured in all three X-Men animated series and several video games. She is a playable character in X-Men Legends, X-Men Legends II: Rise of Apocalypse, Marvel Ultimate Alliance 2, Marvel vs Capcom 3: Fate of Two Worlds, Marvel Heroes, Lego Marvel Super Heroes, appeared as a non-playable in the first Marvel: Ultimate Alliance. Famke Janssen portrayed the character as an adult in the X-Men films while Sophie Turner portrays her as a teenager. In 2006, IGN rated Jean Grey 6th on their list of top 25 X-Men from the past forty years, in 2011, IGN ranked her 13th in the "Top 100 Comic Book Heroes", her Dark Phoenix persona was ranked 9th in IGN's "Top 100 Comic Book Villains of All Time" list, the highest rank for a female character. Created by writer Stan Lee and artist/co-writer Jack Kirby, Jean Grey first appeared as Marvel Girl in The X-Men #1; the original team's sole female member, Marvel Girl was a regular part of the team through the series' publication.

Possessing the ability of telekinesis, the character was granted the power of telepathy, which would be retconned years as a suppressed mutant ability. Under the authorship of Chris Claremont and the artwork of first Dave Cockrum and John Byrne in the late 1970s, Jean Grey underwent a significant transformation from the X-Men's weakest member to its most powerful; the storyline in which Jean Grey died as Marvel Girl and was reborn as Phoenix has been retroactively dubbed by fans "The Phoenix Saga", the storyline of her eventual corruption and death as Dark Phoenix has been termed "The Dark Phoenix Saga". This storyline is one of the most well-known and referenced in mainstream American superhero comics, is considered a classic, including Jean Grey's suicidal sacrifice; when the first trade paperback of "The Dark Phoenix Saga" was published in 1984, Marvel published a 48-page special issue titled Phoenix: The Untold Story. It contained the original version of Uncanny X-Men #137, the original splash page for Uncanny X-Men #138, transcripts of a roundtable discussion between Shooter, Byrne, editors Jim Salicrup and Louise Jones, inker Terry Austin about the creation of the new Phoenix persona, the development of the story, what led to its eventual change, Claremont and Byrne's plans for Jean Grey had she survived.

Claremont revealed that his and Cockrum's motivation for Jean Grey's transformation into Phoenix was to create "the first female cosmic hero". The two hoped that, like Thor had been integrated into The Avengers lineup, Phoenix would become an effective and immensely powerful member of the X-Men. However, both Salicrup and Byrne had strong feelings against how powerful Phoenix had become, feeling that she drew too much focus in the book. Byrne worked with Claremont to remove Phoenix from the storyline by removing her powers. However, Byrne's decision to have Dark Phoenix destroy an inhabited planetary system in Uncanny X-Men #135, coupled with the planned ending to the story arc, worried then-Editor-in-Chief Jim Shooter, who felt that allowing Jean to live at the conclusion of the story was both morally unacceptable and an unsatisfying ending from a storytelling point of view. Shooter publicly laid out his reasoning in the 1984 roundtable: I think, I've said this many times, that having a character destroy an inhabited world with billions of people, wipe out a starship and then—well, you know, having the powers removed and being let go on Earth.

It seems to me that that's the same as capturing Hitler alive and letting him go live on Long Island. Now, I don't think. I think a lot of people would come to his door with machine guns... One of the creative team's questions that affected the story's conclusion was whether the Phoenix's personality and descent into madness and evil were inherent to Jean Grey or if the Phoenix was itself an entity possessing her; the relationship between Jean Grey and the Phoenix would continue to be subject to different interpretations and explanations by writers and editors at Marvel Comics following the story's retcon in 1986. At the time of the Dark Phoenix's creation, Byrne felt that, "If someone could be seen to corrupt Jean

Commonwealth Televiews

Commonwealth Televiews was a Canadian documentary television series which aired on CBC Television from 1957 to 1958. This series featured reports from various nations of the British Commonwealth for Canadian audiences, produced in co-operation with Britain's Information Service. Topics included the Arts Council of Great Britain, life in contemporary Harlow, an interview with Kwame Nkrumah, Prime Minister of the Gold Coast, nuclear power featuring Robert McKenzie's interview with John Cockcroft and an interview of Robert Scott, Commissioner-General for Southeast Asia, by Matthew Halton; this 15-minute series was broadcast Sundadays at 12:15 p.m. in two seasons, six episodes from 13 January to 17 February 1957 several episodes from 2 February to 6 April 1958. Allan, Blaine. "Commonwealth Televiews". Queen's University. Archived from the original on 11 March 2010. Retrieved 7 May 2010

Toshio Mori

Toshio Mori was an American author, best known for being one of the earliest Japanese–American writers to publish a book of fiction. He participated in drawing the UFO Robo Grendizer, the Japanese series TV in the years 1975-1977. Mori was born in Oakland and grew up in San Leandro. During World War II, he and his family were interned at Topaz War Relocation Center in Utah, where Mori edited the journal Trek for a year. After the war, Mori returned to the Bay Area, he is the author of Yokohama, The Chauvinist and Other Stories, The Woman from Hiroshima. Mori worked most of his adult life in a small family nursery. Though Mori was a short story fiction writer, his stories echoed and reflected the life of Japanese Americans in pre and postwar America. Imbued with wonderment at the everyday routine of the people around him, Mori's stories told of menial situations that emphasized the emotional connections and culture that all Americans share, regardless of their ethnic background; this tone was one of the main reasons.

Mori's work while in the internment camp was from the'optimistic perspective', a style of writing in the internment camps which encouraged Japanese Americans not to be pessimistic and have faith in the American democratic system. Though the majority of Mori's work was considered lighthearted and comical, some of his works did emphasize the taut emotional strain that a Japanese American felt, before and during the war. Most of his works prewar described the comical problems that a Japanese American dealt with on a daily basis, trying to balance their Japanese culture with the American one. During his internment, Mori's tone became dark in a short story dedicated to his brother which describes a fight between brothers over patriotic duty to their country. Mori, Toshio. New Directions in Prose & Poetry. Ed. James Laughlin. Middlebury, VT, Otter Valley Press, 1938. Yokohama, California, ID: The Caxton Printers, Ltd. 1949. Intro. by William Saroyan. "Tomorrow is Children" Trek. Eds. Jim Yamada, Taro Katayama, Marii Kyogoku.

Topaz Internment Camp, Utah. 1.1 and 1.2: 13-16. "The Woman Who Makes Swell Doughnuts." Aiiieeeee! An Anthology of Asian-American Writers. Ed. Lawson Fusao Inada, et al.. Washington D. C. 1974. 123. Woman from Hiroshima. San Jose, CA: Isthmus Press, 1979; the Chauvinist and Other Stories. Los Angeles: Asian American Studies Center of University of California, Los Angeles, 1979. Yokohama, California. 2nd ed. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1985. New intro. by Lawson Fusao Inada. "Japanese Hamlet." Imagining America: stories from the promised land. Ed. by Wesley Brown & Amy Ling. New York: Persea Books, 1991. 125-127. "The Chauvinist." Charlie Chan is dead: an anthology of contemporary Asian American Fiction. Ed. by Jessica Hagedorn. New York, N. Y: Penguin Books, 1993. 328-337. "Through Anger and Love." Growing up Asian American, An Anthology. Ed. by Maria Hong. New York: W. Morrow, 1993. 53-64. Unpublished Novels Send These the Homeless The Brothers Murata Way of Sarah Catlin. "Toshio Mori" Asian American Novelists: A Bio-Bibliographical Critical Sourcebook.

Ed. Emmanuel S. Nelson. Westport, CT: Greenwood. 234-39 Bedrosian, Margaret. "Toshio Mori's California Koans." MELUS: 15.2: 47-55. Hassell, Malve von. Ethnography and the Fiction of Toshio Mori. Dialectical Anthropology, 1994. Palomino, Harue. Japanese Americans in Books or in Reality? Three Writers for Young Adults Who Tell a Different Story. "How Much Truth Do We Tell the Children? The Politics of Children's Literature." Ed. Betty Bacon. Minneapolis: Marxist Educational Press. 257. Mayer, David R. "Akegarasu and Emerson: Kindred Spirits of Toshio Mori's "The Seventh Street Philosopher." Amerasia Journal, 1990. The Philosopher in Search of a Voice: Toshio Mori's Japanese-Influenced Narrator. AALA Journal, 1995. "The Short Stories of Toshio Mori." Fu Jen Studies: Literature and Linguistics, 1988. "Toshio Mori and Loneliness." Nanzan Review of American Studies 15: 20-32. "Toshio Mori's Neighborhood Settings: Inner and Outer Oakland." Fu Jen Studies: Literature and Linguistics, 1990. "Toshio Mori's'1936': A True and a False Prophecy."

Academia: Bungaku Gogaku Hen/Literature and Language, 1999 Sept. "Can't See the Forest: Buddhism in Toshio Mori's'The Trees." Academia: Bungaku Gogaku Hen/Literature and Language, 2002 Jan. Palumbo Liu, David. "Universalisms and Minority Culture." Differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 7.1: 188-208. Sato, Gayle K. " Indulgent Listening: Reading Cultural Difference in Yokohama, California." Japanese Journal of American Studies, 2000. Sledge, Linda Ching. "Reviewed Work: The Chauvinist and Other Stories by Toshio Mori." MELUS 7.1: 86-90. Wakida, Patricia. "Unfinished Message" Selected Works of Toshio Mori. The Review of Arts, Literature and the Humanities. Volume XXIV.2. Short radio episode Baseball from the chapter "Lil' Yokohama," in Unfinished Message. California Legacy Project

Wilson Ramos

Wilson Abraham Ramos Campos, nicknamed "The Buffalo", is a Venezuelan professional baseball catcher for the New York Mets of Major League Baseball. He has played for the Minnesota Twins, Washington Nationals, Tampa Bay Rays, Philadelphia Phillies, he is a two-time All-Star, a Silver Slugger Award winner. Ramos signed with the Minnesota Twins as a non-drafted free agent on July 7, 2004, he caught 43% of potential base stealers in his minor league career, has a.987 fielding percentage. In 2008, with the Twins' High-A affiliate, the Fort Myers Miracle, he batted.242 with eight home runs and 42 runs batted in in the first half of the 2008 season, helping his team capture the Florida State League first-half West Division title. When 2008 Florida State League All-Star catcher James Skelton of the Lakeland Flying Tigers suffered an injury, Ramos was added to the West Division All-Star team, joining teammates Rob Delaney, Brian Dinkelman, Jeff Manship, Anthony Slama and Danny Valencia. Ramos' batting average jumped to.333 in the second half of 2008.

For the season, he batted.288 with thirteen home runs, was named to the All FSL Team. His 78 RBIs was fourth in the Florida State League. Ramos entered the 2009 season ranked as the Twins third best prospect by Baseball America behind Aaron Hicks and Ben Revere, #71 in all of minor league baseball; the Twins added Ramos to their 40-man roster, invited him to Spring training. After which, he was assigned to the Twins' double A Eastern League affiliate, the New Britain Rock Cats, he broke his right index finger in May and suffered a hamstring injury in June, forcing him to do a nearly two-month rehab assignment, during which he hit three home runs in five games with the Gulf Coast League Twins. Ramos rejoined his team in August, batted.317 with four home runs and 29 RBIs for the season. Ramos batted over.400 in spring training in 2010. However, with Joe Mauer behind the plate, the Twins sent Ramos to the Triple-A Rochester Red Wings rather than have him serve in a back-up role in the majors. Ramos received his first major league call-up on May 1, when Mauer was sidelined by a bruised left heel and was limited to emergency pinch hitting.

Ramos took the roster spot of Pat Neshek, placed on the 15-day disabled list retroactive to April 29 with inflammation of the middle finger on his right hand. On May 2, facing the Cleveland Indians, Ramos slapped a single between third base and the shortstop in the top of the second inning for his first major league hit. Ramos went four-for-five on the day with a double, he is the first Twins player since Kirby Puckett in 1984 to collect four hits in a major league debut, the only catcher in modern history to collect four hits in his MLB debut. On May 3, he followed up his debut by going 3 for 4 and driving in his first RBI. All told, he played seven games with the Twins while filling in for Mauer, batting.296 with three doubles and one RBI. On May 13, with Mauer ready to return to action, José Morales coming off the DL, Ramos was reassigned to Rochester. On July 29, 2010, Ramos was traded to the Washington Nationals along with Joe Testa for closer Matt Capps. In 2011, Ramos was chosen by Baseball America as the catcher on its All-Rookie Team.

On May 12, 2012, Ramos tore an anterior cruciate ligament in his right knee while trying to field a passed ball in a game against the Cincinnati Reds. He was placed on the 60-day disabled list for the 2012 season. Ramos and Kurt Suzuki began 2013 as the Nationals starting catchers. However, on April 13, Ramos hurt his hamstring while trying to beat out a ground ball, putting him on the disabled list, with Jhonatan Solano replacing him and Suzuki started. After being activated on April 29, Ramos went back on the disabled list on May 16 with the same injury. Ramos was activated on July 4, in his first game back against the Brewers, he went 3-4 with a three-run home run and five RBI game, his solid July, in which he hit.302/.333/.540 with four HR and 17 RBI in 18 games, earned him more starts over Suzuki before they traded Suzuki to Oakland on August 23. Ramos finished the year as the starting catcher. In 78 games with the Nationals, Ramos hit.272/.307/.470 with 16 HR and 59 RBI. Ramos left the game.

A foul tip hit his hand. Ramos received the Tony Conigliaro Award following the 2014 season. In 2015, Ramos hit.229 with 15 homers, 68 RBIs and 101 strikeouts. His.258 on base percentage was the lowest of all qualified major league batters. On January 13, 2016, he and the Nationals agreed to a one-year, $5.35 million deal to avoid salary arbitration. Ramos was the battery-mate for Nationals pitcher Max Scherzer on May 11, 2016 when Scherzer struck out 20 batters to tie Roger Clemens and Kerry Wood for the major league single-game strikeout record in a 9 inning game, he was named to the 2016 MLB All-Star Game. In 131 games in the 2016 season, Ramos batted.307 with 22 home runs and 80 RBI. On September 26, 2016, Ramos suffered a torn ACL. Despite his shortened season, Ramos won the Silver Slugger for National League catchers. Despite leaving the Nationals following the 2016 season, Ramos has said he looks back on his time with the team as a period of "great moments," including his first career walk-off home run on June 21, 2011.

On December 12, 2016, Ramos signed a two-year contract worth $12.5 million with the Tampa Bay Rays. Ramos went 1-4 with a single. Wilson missed the first three months of the 2017 season with Tampa Bay due to his torn ACL injury he suffered the season before. He

Mieczysław Gębarowicz

Mieczysław Jan Gębarowicz was a Polish art historian, dissident, museum director and custodian of cultural heritage. Gębarowicz was born in one of three sons in a patriotic Polish family, his mother was Bronisława, née Smolek. His father, was a railway engineer who served as assistant station master in Stanisławów and as station master in Buczacz. In 1912 he completed his schooling at Buczacz Lyceum and was a member of two youth organisations, "Zet" and "Zarzewie", he went on to the History of Art at Lwów University. His studies were interrupted by the outbreak of World War I when he served in the ranks of the Austro-Hungarian Army. At the end of that conflict he took part in the Defence of Lwów with Polish forces during the Polish–Ukrainian War, after which he was able to graduate. Between 1920 and 1922 he was a lecturer in the History faculty of Jan Kazimierz University in a newly independent Poland. In 1921 he was awarded a doctoral degree at the university. In 1922 he took up a post in the National Ossoliński Institute, known as the "Ossolineum" in Lwów, where the following year, he was promoted to curator of the Lubomirski Museum.

He undertook research and lecturing assignments in Italy, France. Belgium, Germany and Czechoslovakia. In 1928 he became an Assistant professor in the History of Art the Department of Humanities at the university. In 1936 he became Honorary professor at Jan Kazimierz University. Between 1923 and 1938 he lectured in Art History in the faculty of Architecture at Lwów Polytechnic. After the outbreak of the war and the sudden death on 18 September 1939 of Ludwik Bernacki, the director of the Ossolineum, Gębarowicz found himself alongside Kazimierz Tyszkowski and Władysław Wisłocki, one of three directors of the Institute. In December 1939 the Soviet authorities had inserted as director, their Polish Communist place-man, Jerzy Borejsza. Following the German occupation of Lwów in 1941 and the murder, in unexplained circumstances, of Władysław Wisłocki, lead director of the Institute, the patron of the institute now allied with the Baworowscy Library, prince Andrzej Lubomirski, covertly nominated Gębarowski as lead director of the institute.

Throughout this period until the return in July 1944 of the Soviet occupiers, Gębarowicz strove to safeguard the priceless collections of the Ossolineum. In 1944 still under German occupation, he arranged secretly to despatch with a Kraków-bound German train consignment, 2,300 literary manuscripts; these included works by Juliusz Słowacki, Aleksander Fredro, Władysław Reymont, Henryk Sienkiewicz and Adam Mickiewicz's original of Pan Tadeusz. In addition there were 2,400 Polish works on paper and several hundred numismatic items which would become the nucleus of the relocated Ossolineum in Wrocław. Gębarowicz decided to remain in Lwow. 1946 saw Gębarowicz become deputy manager of the Faculty of Theory and History of Art of the renamed Ivan Franko National University of Lviv. Thanks to his efforts, in July 1946 as "a gift of the Soviet People to the People of Poland" a further 7,083 manuscripts, 35,565 antiquarian books and 107,397 prints from the 19th and 20th centuries arrived in Wrocław. In March 1947 a further 67,000 books followed.

His decision to stay in the city as custodian of the remaining Polish heritage in Lwów was conditional on his accepting Soviet citizenship and rejecting not only the offer to become director of the National Museum in Krakow, but the offers of professorships at the Universities of Wroclaw and Toruń. Along with other long-term employees of the Library, in February 1950 he was dismissed on the grounds of being an "undesirable element", he was able to find work as a librarian in various Lviv institutions that recognised his status as that of a "junior researcher". He first travelled to the Polish People's Republic in 1957 and declined an offer to become director of the Ossolineum in Wrocław. Not until 1962, when he was aged 69, did the Soviet authorities offer him advancement to "senior researcher"; that year he was forced into retirement as a probable reprisal for the publication in Poland of his "Study of the history of the arts in Late Renaissance Poland". An additional punishment was to bar him from access to the archives in his erstwhile national collection.

Poland awarded him a medal in 1970 for developing the National Ossoliński Institute. In 1981 the Historical Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences commissioned him to write an autobiography as part of a compendium of biographies of leading Polish academics; the Polish authorities balked at his completed manuscript and it could only be published a year by a small Catholic publisher, ZNAK. He was the author of a considerable number of research papers despite his straitened circumstances and no access to the Ossolineum sources. Two well received studies on the art of the Ukraine and of Lwów were published posthumously: his The oldest iconostasis of the volosian orthodox church in Lwów and Mater Misericordiae - Pokrow - Pokrowa in the art and legends of East-Central Europe. Gębarowicz was buried at Lyczakow cemetery in the city, he was remembered as the "Pope of the Polish diaspora" in Lwów. A lecture hall in the National Ossoliński Institute is named in his honour. Autobiografia. Jeden żywot w służbie nauki.

Znak 5. 1982 Zakład Narodowy imienia Ossolińskich we Lwowie. Mieczysław Gębarowicz i Kazimierz Tyszkowski. Lwów: Zakład Narodowy imienia Ossolińskich, 1926 Studia nad dziejami kultury artystycznej późnego Renesansu w Polsce. Toruń: Towarzystwo Naukowe, 1962 Szkice z historii sztuki XVII w. Toruń, 1966 Psałterz floriański: kilka uwag z powodu

Anderson–Darling test

The Anderson–Darling test is a statistical test of whether a given sample of data is drawn from a given probability distribution. In its basic form, the test assumes that there are no parameters to be estimated in the distribution being tested, in which case the test and its set of critical values is distribution-free. However, the test is most used in contexts where a family of distributions is being tested, in which case the parameters of that family need to be estimated and account must be taken of this in adjusting either the test-statistic or its critical values; when applied to testing whether a normal distribution adequately describes a set of data, it is one of the most powerful statistical tools for detecting most departures from normality. K-sample Anderson–Darling tests are available for testing whether several collections of observations can be modelled as coming from a single population, where the distribution function does not have to be specified. In addition to its use as a test of fit for distributions, it can be used in parameter estimation as the basis for a form of minimum distance estimation procedure.

The test is named after Theodore Wilbur Anderson and Donald A. Darling, who invented it in 1952; the Anderson–Darling and Cramér–von Mises statistics belong to the class of quadratic EDF statistics. If the hypothesized distribution is F, empirical cumulative distribution function is F n the quadratic EDF statistics measure the distance between F and F n by n ∫ − ∞ ∞ 2 w d F, where w is a weighting function; when the weighting function is w = 1, the statistic is the Cramér–von Mises statistic. The Anderson–Darling test is based on the distance A 2 = n ∫ − ∞ ∞ 2 F d F, obtained when the weight function is w = − 1. Thus, compared with the Cramér–von Mises distance, the Anderson–Darling distance places more weight on observations in the tails of the distribution; the Anderson–Darling test assesses whether a sample comes from a specified distribution. It makes use of the fact that, when given a hypothesized underlying distribution and assuming the data does arise from this distribution, the cumulative distribution function of the data can be assumed to follow a uniform distribution.

The data can be tested for uniformity with a distance test. The formula for the test statistic A to assess if data comes from a CDF F is A 2 = − n − S, where S = ∑ i = 1 n 2 i − 1 n; the test statistic can be compared against the critical values of the theoretical distribution. Note that in this case no parameters are estimated in relation to the cumulative distribution function F; the same test statistic can be used in the test of fit of a family of distributions, but it must be compared against the critical values appropriate to that family of theoretical distributions and dependent on the method used for parameter estimation. Empirical testing has found that the Anderson–Darling test is not quite as good as the Shapiro–Wilk test, but is better than other tests. Stephens found A 2 to be one