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Jean Macnamara

Dame Annie Jean Macnamara, was an Australian medical doctor and scientist, best known for her contributions to children's health and welfare. Annie Jean Macnamara was born on 1 April 1899 to Annie Macnamara in Beechworth, Victoria, her family moved to Melbourne when she was seven and she attended Spring Road State School. She received a scholarship to study at the Presbyterian Ladies' College, she entered the University of Melbourne at age 17, she graduated M. B. and B. S. in 1922. Following graduation she became a resident medical officer at the Royal Melbourne Hospital. In 1923, Macnamara became a resident doctor at the Royal Children's Hospital in Melbourne. Hospital authorities had at first been reluctant to employ her on the grounds that it had no toilet facilities for women doctors. During her time at the Children's Hospital there was a polio outbreak and Burnet demonstrated that there was more than one strain of the virus, a fact that would be important in the development of the Salk vaccine.

Between 1925 and 1931 she was consultant and medical officer responsible to the Poliomyelitis Committee of Victoria, between 1930 and 1931 was honorary adviser on polio to official authorities in New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. In 1931 she received a Rockefeller Fellowship to travel to England and United States to study orthopaedics; when she returned to Australia in 1934 she married dermatologist Joseph Ivan Connor, they had two daughters and Merran. She conducted a successful orthopaedic work, for this contribution was created DBE in 1935. Although she was considered the foremost Australian authority on the treatment of poliomyelitis, she continued to recommend the use of convalescent serum and splinting to immobilise limbs long after these treatments were abandoned in America. In the 1930s she encouraged the Australian government to trial the myxoma virus to combat the Australian rabbit plague. Although trials were unsuccessful, she lobbied that they be continued, when the virus became epizootic in 1951, the mosquito vector spread the virus among rabbits, causing the successful reduction of wild rabbit numbers.

Macnamara died at the age of 69 from cardiovascular disease in 1968. Seven other Australian medical scientists were commemorated in the issue of a set of four Australian stamps released in 1995, she appears on the 45 cent stamp with fellow University of Melbourne graduate, Frank Macfarlane Burnet. In 2018, the Australian Electoral Commission renamed the federal electoral division of Melbourne Ports to Macnamara in her honour. A suburb of Canberra was named Macnamara, Australian Capital Territory in commemoration of Jean Macnamara. Macnamara Place, in the Canberra suburb of Chisholm, is named in her honour

Linguistics and the Book of Mormon

According to most adherents of the Latter Day Saint movement, the Book of Mormon is a 19th-century translation of a record of ancient inhabitants of the American continent, written in a script which the book refers to as "reformed Egyptian". This claim, as well as all claims to historical authenticity of the Book of Mormon, are rejected by non-Latter Day Saint historians and scientists. Linguistically based assertions are cited and discussed in the context of the subject of the Book of Mormon, both in favor of and against the book's claimed origins. Both critics and promoters of the Book of Mormon have used linguistic methods to analyze the text. Promoters have published claims of stylistic forms that Joseph Smith and his contemporaries are unlikely to have known about, as well as similarities to Egyptian and Hebrew. Critics of the Book of Mormon claim there are places where the language is anachronistic and suggestive of a 19th-century origin consistent with Smith's upbringing and life experience, as well as the books and other literature published just preceding the time that the Book of Mormon was published.

A problem with linguistic reviews of the Book of Mormon is that the claimed original text is either unavailable for study or never existed. Smith said. In 1922, LDS Church general authority B. H. Roberts conducted an in-depth review of the research regarding language development and dialects among the Native American peoples. Under the assumption that the majority of Native Americans descend from the peoples described in the Book of Mormon, Roberts noted that linguistic evidence among the Native American peoples does not appear to support the Book of Mormon narrative, inasmuch as the diverse language stocks and dialects that exist would not have had enough time to develop from a single language dating from A. D. 400. Roberts noted: The facts... developed up to this point seem to be— 1. That there are a large number of separate language stocks in America that show little relationship to each other. 2. That it would take a long time—much longer than that recognized as "historic times"—to develop these dialects and stocks where the development is conceived of as arising from a common source of origin—some primitive language.

3. That there is no connection between the American languages and the language of any people of the Old World. New World languages appear to be indigenous to the New World. 4. That the time limits named in the Book of Mormon—which represents the people of America as speaking and writing one language down to as late a period as 400 A. D.—is not sufficient to allow for these divergences into the American language stocks and their dialects. Apologists from FARMS have published studies that claim that the linguistic evidence cited by Roberts does not contradict the narrative of the Book of Mormon. If one adheres to the limited geography model it is possible that many of the peoples of the Book of Mormon are not the principal ancestors of the Native Americans. Critics of the Book of Mormon have claimed that a variety of linguistic anachronisms exist in it which cast doubt upon its historical authenticity. Linguistic anachronisms in the Book of Mormon are words that represent concepts that are not believed to have existed in the Americas between 2500 B.

C. and A. D. 400, or in the Jewish world of Lehi's time—the period of history covered by the narrative of the Book of Mormon. Mormon apologists dispute these claims, with some arguing that during the translation of the golden plates, Smith may have chosen words that he knew that were closest in meaning to the original concept written on the plates; the words "Christ" and "Messiah" are used several hundred times throughout the Book of Mormon. The first instance of the word "Christ" dates to between 559 and 545 B. C; the first instance of the word "Messiah" dates to about 600 B. C."Christ" is the English transliteration of the Greek word Χριστός. Both words have the meaning of "anointed," and are used in the Bible to refer to "the Anointed One". In Greek translations of the Old Testament, the word "Christ" is used for the Hebrew "Messiah", in Hebrew translations of the New Testament, the word "Messiah" is used for the Greek "Christ". Any passage in the Bible that uses the word "Christ" can substitute the word "Messiah" or "the Messiah" with no change in meaning.

The Book of Mormon uses both terms throughout the book. In the vast majority of cases, it uses the terms in an identical manner as the Bible, where it does not matter which word is used: And now, my sons, remember that it is upon the rock of our Redeemer, Christ, the Son of God, that ye must build your foundation".. And after he had baptized the Messiah with water, he should behold and bear record that he had baptized the Lamb of God, who should take away the sins of the world.". Richard Packham argues that the Greek word "Christ" in the Book of Mormon challenges the authenticity of the work since Smith stated that "there was no Greek or Latin upon the plates from which I, through the grace of the Lord, translated the Book of Mormon."Apologists note that the word "Christ" is a translational equivalent to the term "Messiah", arguing that "it is no more anachronistic for pre-Christian era Book of Mormon peoples to believe in a coming Messiah/Christ than it was for Old Testament prophets to believe in

ATP Tour 250

The ATP 250 tournaments are the lowest tier of annual men's tennis tournaments on the main ATP Tour, after the four Grand Slam tournaments, ATP Finals, ATP Tour Masters 1000 tournaments, ATP 500 tournaments. As of 2020, the series includes 39 tournaments, with 250 ranking points awarded to each singles champion—which accounts for the name of the series. Draws consist of 32, or 48 for singles and 16 for doubles. ^ became an ATP 500 event refers to indoor stadiums 2000–2008ATP International Series 2009–2018ATP World Tour 250 2019–presentATP 250 Players with byes receive first round points. Bold face designates active players Grand Slam ATP Finals ATP Tour Masters 1000 ATP 500 Association of Tennis Professionals official website International Tennis Federation official website

Outside Music

Outside Music is a Canadian record label and distributor founded by Lloyd Nishimura in 2001. In 2007, it expanded to include an artist management division which includes Jill Barber, Matthew Barber, Aidan Knight, Justin Rutledge as management clients; the Outside Music Label released The Sadies's Tremendous Efforts and albums by Billy Bragg, The Super Friendz, the soundtrack to the indie film The Life and Hard Times of Guy Terrifico. In 2010, The Sadies's Darker Circles and The Besnard Lakes's The Besnard Lakes Are the Roaring Night appeared on the Polaris Music Prize shortlist while in 2011, Little Scream's The Golden Record, Sloan's The Double Cross, Black Mountain's Wilderness Heart and One Hundred Dollars's Songs of Man all garnered Polaris long list nominations. Matthew Barber, Jill Barber, Oh Susanna, The Sadies, The Hylozoists have all received Juno Award nominations for albums released on the Outside Music Label. On December 1, 2018, Outside Music and Distribution Select merged their sales and distribution services, while maintaining their respective offices.

2007 Jill Barber won Female Artist of the Year as well as Best Album of the Year for For All Time at the East Coast Music Awards. She received nominations for Folk Recording of the Year and Songwriter of the Year for the song "Don't Go Easy" 2008 Jill Barber was nominated for New Artist of the Year and her album For All Time. 2008 The Sadies were nominated for a Juno Award for Best Roots/Traditional Band for the album New Seasons. 2009 Matthew Barber received Juno nomination for the record "Ghost Notes" in the Roots & Traditional Album Of the Year: Solo category. 2009 Jill Barber's Chances long listed for a Polaris Music Prize. 2009 Jill Barber won two East Coast Music Awards for her album Chances. 2009 Sebastien Grainger & The Mountains was nominated for Indie Video of the Year category at the Much Music Video Awards for "Who Do We Care For?" 2010 Tinariwen's album Imidiwan: Companions took the prize for best album in the 2010 Uncut Music Award. 2010 Tinariwen performed for the Vancouver 2010 Olympics at the Orpheum in Vancouver.

2010 The Besnard Lakes nominated for the SOCAN ECHO Prize for songwriting. 2010 The Sadies appeared on the Junos telecast in a tribute to The Band alongside longtime collaborator and The band co-founder Garth Hudson. 2011 The Sadies's album Darker Circles was nominated for Best Album and they took home the Folk/Roots Group of the Year award at the Canadian Music Fest Indies. Additionally Black Mountain was nominated in the Best Rock Album category for Wilderness Heart. 2011 Polaris Music Prize Long List nominees included label roster artists Black Mountain - Wilderness Heart, Little Scream - The Golden Record, One Hundred Dollars - Songs of Man, Sloan - The Double Cross. 2011 Matthew Barber's song "Where the River Bends" was used by Hockey Night in Canada in a video honouring the NHL players who had died in the summer. 2012 Sloan's album "The Double Cross" was nominated for a Juno Award for Rock Album of the Year 2013 Rose Cousins's album We Have Made a Spark won the Juno Award for Roots & Traditional Album of the Year, Solo 2013 Justin Rutledge's album Valleyheart won the Canadian Folk Music Award for Contemporary Album of The Year 2014 Justin Rutledge's album Valleyheart won the Juno Award for Roots & Traditional Album of The Year, Solo 2015 Jenn Grant's album Compostela was nominated for Adult Alternative Album of the Year and Best Songwriter of the Year at Juno Awards.

Jill Barber Matthew Barber The Besnard Lakes Rose Cousins Evening Hymns Folly and the Hunter Jenn Grant The Hidden Cameras Aidan Knight Tami Neilson Justin Rutledge Snowblink The Weather Station Baby Eagle King Cobb Steelie Blood Meridian Sebastien Grainger Dog Day Woolly Leaves Tinariwen Rebekah Higgs Rock Plaza Central Billy Bragg The Weekend The Wailin' Jennys Little Scream Black Mountain Sloan List of record labels Official site

Latinisation of names

Latinisation of names known as onomastic Latinisation, is the practice of rendering a non-Latin name in a Latin style. It is found with historical proper names, including personal names and toponyms, in the standard binomial nomenclature of the life sciences, it goes further than romanisation, the transliteration of a word to the Latin alphabet from another script. This was done to emulate Latin authors or to present a more impressive image. In a scientific context, the main purpose of Latinisation may be to produce a name, internationally consistent. Latinisation may be carried out by: transforming the name into Latin sounds, or adding Latinate suffixes to the end of a name, or translating a name with a specific meaning into Latin, or choosing a new name based on some attribute of the person. Humanist names, assumed by Renaissance humanists, were Latinised names, though in some cases they invoked Ancient Greek. Latinisation in humanist names may consist of translation from vernacular European languages, sometimes involving a playful element of punning.

Such names could be a cover for humble social origins. The title of the "Wilhelmus", national anthem of the Netherlands, preserves a Latinised form of the name of William the Silent. In English, place names appear in Latinised form; this is a result of many early text books mentioning the places being written in Latin. Because of this, the English language uses Latinised forms of foreign place names instead of anglicised forms or the original names. Examples of Latinised names for countries or regions are: Estonia Ingria Livonia Eboracum was the Latinised name for the modern English city, York, it is a Latinised form of the Brythonic name *Eburākon which means'place of yew trees'. The Brythonic language was evolved into modern Welsh. Latinisation is a common practice for scientific names. For example, the name of a genus of palm trees, is a Latinisation of Livingstone. During the age of the Roman Empire, translation of names into Latin or Greek was common. Additionally, Latinised versions of Greek substantives proper nouns, could be declined by Latin speakers with minimal modification of the original word.

During the medieval period, after the Empire collapsed in Western Europe, the main bastion of scholarship was the Roman Catholic Church, for which Latin was the primary written language. In the early medieval period, most European scholars were priests and most educated people spoke Latin, as a result, Latin became established as the scholarly language for the West. During modern times Europe has abandoned Latin as a scholarly language, but a variety of fields still use Latin terminology as the norm. By tradition, it is still common in some fields to name new discoveries in Latin, and because Western science became dominant during the 18th and 19th centuries, the use of Latin names in many scholarly fields has gained worldwide acceptance, at least when European languages are being used for communication. Nicolson, Dan H.. "Orthography of Names and Epithets: Latinization of Personal Names". Taxon. International Association for Plant Taxonomy. 23: 549–561. Doi:10.2307/1218779

Nestegis sandwicensis

Nestegis sandwicensis known as Hawai'i olive or olopua, is a species of flowering tree in the olive family, endemic to Hawaii. It is found on all major islands at elevations of 30–1,300 m in coastal mesic and mixed mesic forests, dry forests, it reaches a height of 6 m with a trunk diameter of 0.2 m, but may reach 20 m in height with a trunk diameter of 0.9 m. Native Hawaiians used the hard wood of olopua to make ʻau koʻi, apuapu, ʻōʻō, lāʻau melomelo, pou, pāhoa, pīkoi, spears; because the wood burned well if green, it was used as wahie. Krauss, Beatrice H.. Plants in Hawaiian Culture. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1225-5. "Olopua". Native Hawaiian Plants. Kapiʻolani Community College. Archived from the original on 2009-09-18