Jeep is a brand of American automobile and division of FCA US LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Italian-American corporation Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. Jeep has been a part of Chrysler since 1987, when Chrysler acquired the Jeep brand, along with remaining assets, from its previous owner American Motors Corporation. Jeep's product range consists of sport utility vehicles – both cross-overs and off-road worthy models, including one pickup truck. Jeep's range included other pick-ups, as well as small vans, a few roadsters; some of Jeep's vehicles—such as the Grand Cherokee—reach into the luxury SUV segment, a market segment the 1963 Wagoneer is considered to have started. Jeep sold 1.4 million SUVs globally in 2016, up from 500,000 in 2008, two-thirds of which in North America, was Fiat-Chrysler's best selling brand in the U. S. during the first half of 2017. In the U. S. alone, over 2400 dealerships hold franchise rights to sell Jeep-branded vehicles, if Jeep were spun off into a separate company, it is estimated to be worth between $22 and $33.5 billion—slightly more than all of FCA.
Prior to 1940 the term "jeep" had been used as U. S. Army slang for new recruits or vehicles, but the World War II "jeep" that went into production in 1941 tied the name to this light military 4x4, arguably making them the oldest four-wheel drive mass-production vehicles now known as SUVs; the Jeep became the primary light 4-wheel-drive vehicle of the United States Armed Forces and the Allies during World War II, as well as the postwar period. The term became common worldwide in the wake of the war. Doug Stewart noted: "The spartan and unstintingly functional jeep became the ubiquitous World War II four-wheeled personification of Yankee ingenuity and cocky, can-do determination." It is the precursor of subsequent generations of military light utility vehicles such as the Humvee, inspired the creation of civilian analogs such as the original Series I Land Rover. Many Jeep variants serving similar military and civilian roles have since been designed in other nations; the Jeep marque has been headquartered in Toledo, Ohio since Willys-Overland launched production of the first CJ or Civilian Jeep branded models there in 1945.
Its replacement, the conceptually consistent Jeep Wrangler series, remains in production since 1986. With its solid axles and open top, the Wrangler has been called the Jeep model, as central to the brand's identity as the rear-engined 911 is to Porsche. At least two Jeep models enjoyed extraordinary three-decade production runs of a single body generation. In lowercase, the term "jeep" continues to be used as a generic term for vehicles inspired by the Jeep that are suitable for use on rough terrain; when it became clear that the United States would be involved in the European theater of World War II, the Army contacted 135 companies to create working prototypes of a four-wheel drive reconnaissance car. Only two companies responded: American Bantam Car Company and Willys-Overland; the Army set a impossible deadline of 49 days to supply a working prototype. Willys was refused; the Bantam Car Company had only a skeleton staff left on the payroll and solicited Karl Probst, a talented freelance designer from Detroit.
After turning down Bantam's initial request, Probst responded to an Army request and began work on July 17, 1940 without salary. Probst laid out full plans in just two days for the Bantam prototype known as the BRC or Bantam Reconnaissance Car, working up a cost estimate the next day. Bantam's bid was submitted on July 22, complete with blueprints. Much of the vehicle could be assembled from off-the-shelf automotive parts, custom four-wheel drivetrain components were to be supplied by Spicer; the hand-built prototype was completed in Butler and driven to Camp Holabird, Maryland on September 23 for Army testing. The vehicle met all the Army's criteria except engine torque; the Army thought that the Bantam company was too small to supply the required number of vehicles, so it supplied the Bantam design to Willys and Ford, encouraged them to modify the design. The resulting Ford "Pygmy" and Willys "Quad" prototypes looked similar to the Bantam BRC prototype, Spicer supplied similar four-wheel drivetrain components to all three manufacturers.1,500 of each model were built and extensively field-tested.
After the weight specification was revised from 1,275 lb to a maximum of 2,450 lb including oil and water, Willys-Overland's chief engineer Delmar "Barney" Roos modified the design in order to use Willys's heavy but powerful "Go Devil" engine, won the initial production contract. The Willys version became the standard Jeep design, designated the model MB and was built at their plant in Toledo, Ohio; the familiar pressed-metal Jeep grille was a Ford design feature and incorporated in the final design by the Army. Because the US War Department required a large number of vehicles in a short time, Willys-Overland granted the US Government a non-exclusive license to allow another company to manufacture vehicles using Willys' specifications; the Army chose Ford as a second supplier. Willys supplied Ford with a complete set of specifications. American Bantam, the creators of the first Jeep, built 2,700 of them to the BRC-40 design, but spent the rest of the war building heavy-duty trailers for the Army.
Final production version Jeeps built by Willys-Overland were the Model MB, while those built by Ford were the Model GPW. There were subtle differences be
Henry Pybus "Budge" Bell-Irving, was the 23rd Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia from 1978 to 1983. Born in Vancouver, he was educated at Shawnigan Lake School on Vancouver Island and Loretto at Musselburgh, Scotland, he withdrew because of the war. During World War II, Bell-Irving served with the Seaforth Highlanders of Canada and commanded a company of the battalion in Sicily and Italy and northwest Europe before becoming the commander of the 10th Canadian Infantry Brigade. Next he returned to Vancouver and he joined his family real estate company, Bell-Irving Insurance Agencies, which merged with A. E. LePage in 1972. In 1974 he was elected Chairman of the Vancouver Board of Trade. In 1978, Governor General Jules Léger, on the advice of Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, appointed him Lieutenant-Governor of BC. Bell-Irving met his wife, while attending UBC and was married in April 1937. 1984 - he was made an Officer of the Order of Canada 1985 - he received the Order of British Columbia. 1986 - he was appointed Freeman of the City of Vancouver Biography from the website of the Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia In the Service of the Crown: The story of Budge and Nancy Bell-Irving by Raymond Eagle
This is a list of finalists for the 2018 Archibald Prize for portraiture. As the images are copyright, an external link to an image has been listed. Benjamin Aitken - Natasha Del Kathryn Barton - Self-portrait with studio wife Jason Benjamin - So you want to come down and the silence of painting Peter Berner - Self-portrait with hindsight Amber Boardman - Self-care exhaustion Joanna Braithwaite - Hall of fame – portrait of Pat Corrigan Jun Chen - Judith Bell Yvette Coppersmith - Self-portrait, after George Lambert Winner: Archibald Prize 2018 Tony Costa - Claudia Chan Shaw Jonathan Dalton - Abdul David Darcy - Charlotte Amanda Davies - Self-portrait Graeme Drendel - Portrait of Michel Yvonne East - The Honourable Chief Justice Susan Kiefel AC Marc Etherington - Me and Granny Marina Finlay - Peter and Susan O'Doherty Prudence Flint - Double Andrew Lloyd Greensmith - The serenity of Susan Carland David Griggs - The warrior and the prophet Melissa Grisancich - Courtney Barnett and her weapon of choice Robert Hannaford - Robert Hannaford self-portrait Tsering Hannaford - Self-portrait Nicholas Harding - Treatment, day 49 Amani Haydar - Insert headline here Pei Pei He - Portrait of Theodore Wohng Adam Hill - Uncle Roy Kennedy Paul Jackson - Alison Whyte, a mother of the renaissance Kathrin Longhurst - Self: past and future Mathew Lynn - Gladys Berejiklian Alison Mackay - Quid pro quo William Mackinnon - The long apprenticeship Euan Macleod - Guy at Jamberoo Guy Maestri - The fourth week of parenthood Robert Malherbe - Michael Reid India Mark - Candy Fiona McMonagle - Sangeeta Sandrasegar Julian Meagher - Herb and Flan Anne Middleton - Guy Stephanie Monteith - The letter – I wanted to paint Germaine Greer, but she said'no' Vincent Namatjira - Studio self-portrait Kirsty Neilson - Anxiety still at 30 Tom Polo - I once thought I'd do anything for you James Powditch - Narcissist, the anatomy of melancholy Jamie Preisz - Jimmy Winner: Packing Room Prize 2018 Jordan Richardson - David Wenham and hat Sally Ross - The Huxleys Dee Smart - Lunch in the outback Ben Smith - Tony Loribelle Spirovski - Villains always get the best lines Vanessa Stockard - Self-portrait Noel Thurgate - Elisabeth Cummings in her studio at Wedderburn, 1974 and 2018 Angela Tiatia - Study for a self-portrait Natasha Walsh - Numb to touch Mirra Whale - Don Marcus Wills - Lotte Karyn Zamel - Marina Finlay Salvatore Zofrea - Sally Dowling SC Previous year: List of Archibald Prize 2017 finalists Next year: List of Archibald Prize 2019 finalists List of Archibald Prize winners