Junior Johnson & Associates
Junior Johnson & Associates was a NASCAR team that ran in the Winston Cup Series from 1953 to 1996. The team was run by former driver Junior Johnson and was best known for fielding cars for legendary talents such as Cale Yarborough, Darrell Waltrip, Neil Bonnett, Terry Labonte, Bill Elliott, Geoffrey Bodine, Sterling Marlin. Johnson's team started out in 1953 with him driving a No. 75 Oldsmobile at the Southern 500. The team returned in the 1960s. Johnson scored 13 wins in 1965, A. J. Foyt, Bobby Issac, Gordon Johncock, Curtis Turner drove for Johnson the following year with no wins. Darel Dieringer scored one win at North Wilkesboro Speedway. LeeRoy Yarbrough joined Johnson in 1968, starting but winning at Atlanta and Trenton. 1969 would be far more successful, as Yarbrough not only won that year's Daytona 500, but winning the Rebel 400 and the World 600, becoming the first driver to win NASCAR's "Triple Crown". Yarbrough added 4 more wins to his season total. With the manufacturer withdrawal in 1970, Johnson scaled back operations, fielding the No. 98 for one race drives for Donnie Allison at North Wilkesboro, Fred Lorenzen at Darlington, David Pearson at Martinsville.
Yarbrough returned that year, winning at Charlotte. Yarbrough and Johnson entered only 4 events the following year, remained inactive for two years. In 1974, Johnson's team was revived, he was joined by Cale Yarborough. Ross would claim ROTY honors, while Yarborough scored 4 wins. Ross left Johnson's team with Yarborough staying on. Tyson Foods replaced Carling as primary sponsor in 1975, Yarborough would score three consecutive championships with Johnson from 1976 to 1978. Cale nearly won the 1979 Daytona 500, but was involved in a confrontation between himself and the Allison brothers on the final lap. After 1980, Cale wanted to cut back on his schedule to spend time with his family so he and Junior parted ways after that year. Cale recommended Darrell Waltrip, who came over from DiGard Motorsports with Mountain Dew, along with crew chief Tim Brewer. Johnson and Waltrip grabbed the 1981 championship. After Brewer moved on to other ventures, jackman Jeff Hammond stepped up to crew chief, grabbing 12 more wins and holding off Bobby Allison for the 1982 Championship.
Additionally, Johnson sold 50% of his business to California investor Warner W. Hodgdon in 1982, forming Johnson Hodgdon Racing until 1985.. For 1983, the team changed sponsors to Pepsi. Waltrip did not start off the season well, having a hard crash at the Daytona 500. Waltrip and Allison once again dueled for the Winston Cup championship. Waltrip got up to 2nd in points by Michigan, despite grabbing wins at Bristol and North Wilkesboro late in the season, was unable to catch Allison and DiGard for the championship. In order to win the championship in 1984, Johnson gained new sponsorship Anheuser-Busch through its Budweiser brand, once again expanded to 2 cars; the No. 11 driven by Waltrip and the No. 12 driven by Neil Bonnett and crew chiefed by Doug Richert. The duo were a dominant force, scoring 16 wins between 1984 and 1986, with Darrell winning the 1985 championship. However, Bonnett left after 1986 for RahMoc Enterprises while Waltrip, concerned about his own lifestyle, asked Johnson for a raise and was fired the same year, departing for Hendrick Motorsports along with Hammond.
Johnson would downsize to only the 11 for 1987. Though Brewer returned to the team as crew chief, Labonte scored only 4 wins between 1987 and 1989; as a result, Labonte departed for Precision Products Racing for the 1990 season. Geoffrey Bodine joined Johnson from Hendrick Motorsports for 1990 and 1991. Bodine finished 3rd in points in 1990 with 3 wins. In 1991, Johnson revived his second car, the No. 22 with Sterling Marlin behind the wheel with Maxwell House sponsoring. However, Bodine finished a dismal 14th in points. Bodine departed Johnson's team for Bud Moore Engineering and was replaced by 1988 champion Bill Elliott for 1992. Elliott and Johnson lost the championship by 10 points to Alan Kulwicki. Marlin left Johnson's team for Stavola Brothers Racing after the 1992 season. Elliott stayed on with the No. 11 team, while the No. 22 became the No. 27 and hired Hut Stricklin with sponsorship from McDonald's. Elliott and Stricklin were both winless in 1993. Despite the dismal 1993 season, Elliott returned for 1994, Johnson replaced Stricklin with Jimmy Spencer.
Spencer would grab 2 wins that year, including a 1-2 with Elliott at the Pepsi 400, while road racer Tommy Kendall and Jeff Green drove one race each. Elliott would return to victory lane that year at Darlington, but left Johnson at season's end to form his own team. Johnson hired Geoff's brother Brett Bodine to drive the No. 11 in 1995 with Lowe's. Loy Allen drove the #27 with sponsorship from Hooters which he bought with him from Tri-Star Motorsport’s Elton Sawyer drove the 27 with Hooters for 20 races for Rookie of the Year honors, while Jimmy Horton and Greg Sacks drove the car for one race each; the organization struggled. Johnson sold off both cars for 1996, the No. 11 sticking with Brett Bodine to form Brett Bodine Racing, the No. 27 team with Sawyer would be bought out by attorney David Blair to form David Blair Motorsports. Stock Car History Online
In motorsports, a pit stop is where a racing vehicle stops in the pits during a race for refuelling, new tyres, mechanical adjustments, a driver change, as a penalty, or any combination of the above. Not all of these are allowed in all forms of racing. While the term is still used in motorsports, it gained popularity with driving in general when embarking on long road trips, suggesting a brief break from driving, as well as a refuelling stop; these "pit stops" grant the travelers a bathroom break, a breakfast/lunch/dinner break, or a chance to take in the local scenery. The pits comprise a pit lane which runs parallel to the start/finish straight and is connected at each end to the main track, a row of garages outside which the work is done. Pit stop work is carried out by anywhere from two to twenty mechanics, depending on the series regulations, while the driver waits in the vehicle. Depending on the circuit, the garage may be located in a separate area. Most North American circuits feature a pit lane with a number of pit stalls and a pit wall that separates the pit lane from the infield, with the garages on a separate road in the infield.
In races where there are different series racing together, each series has its own separate garage or are parked in their own area. Circuits in other parts of the world have the individual garages open directly onto the pit lane through the team's assigned pit box. In American English, it is common to drop the definite article and just refer to "pit road", whereas in British English one would always refer to "the pit lane". A further difference is that in British English, the term "pit box" is universally used, whereas in American English, one would say "pit stall", it is important to note that in NASCAR, a pit box is a tool, though there is a definitive term used for them. Where it is permitted, refuelling is an important purpose of a pit stop. Carrying fuel slows down a vehicle and there is a limit on the size of the fuel tank, so many races require multiple stops for fuel to complete the race distance in the minimum time. Changing tyres is common to permit the use of softer tyres that wear faster but provide more grip, to use tyres suitable for wet conditions, or to use a range of tyres designated by the rules.
Teams will aim for each of their vehicles to pit following a planned schedule, with the number of stops determined by many factors such as fuel capacity, tyre lifespan, the trade-off between time lost in the pits versus time gained on the track due to the benefits of pit stops. Choosing the optimum pit strategy of how many stops to make and when to make them is crucial in having a successful race, it is important for teams to take competitors' strategies into account when planning pit stops to avoid being held up behind a competitor where overtaking is difficult or risky. An unscheduled or extended stop, such as for a repair, can be costly for a driver's chance of success, because while they are stopped for service, competitors remaining on the track are gaining time on them. For this reason, the pit crew undergo intensive training to perform operations such as tyre changes as as possible leading to pit stops, for example in Formula 1, where the car is only stationary for a few seconds for a regular pit stop.
In most series the order of the teams' pit boxes is assigned by points standings, race results, or previous qualifying results before the start of the race. In NASCAR and in INDYCAR's Indianapolis 500 pit assignments are made after qualifying, with the fastest qualifiers choosing their pit stall first. In any racing series that permits scheduled pit stops, pit strategy becomes one of the most important features of the race. During a ten-second pit stop, a car's competitors will gain one-quarter mile over the stopped car. However, the car that made the additional pit stop will run faster on the race track than cars that did not make the stop, both because it can carry a smaller amount of fuel, will have less wear on its tyres, providing more traction and allowing higher speeds in the corners. In racing series where teams have their choice of different compound tyres, the lower tyre wear may be enough to allow the team to choose to use a tyre with a softer rubber compound that provides increased grip at the expense of faster wear.
Because of this, race teams plan a pit strategy prior to the start of every race. This is a schedule for each car's planned pit stops during the race, takes into account factors such as rate of fuel consumption, weight of fuel, cornering speed with each available tyre compound, rate of tyre wear, the effect of tyre wear on cornering speed, the length of pit road and the track's pit road speed limit, expected changes in weather and lighting conditions; the pit strategy does not just include a schedule of. The pit strategy is calculated so that the amount of time to be "given away" to other competitors in pit stops is balanced out by the time gained while on the track, theoretically, in the shortest possible time to cover the schedule
Darrell Waltrip Motorsports
Darrell Waltrip Motorsports was a NASCAR team owned by three-time Winston Cup champion Darrell Waltrip. It was formed in 1991 when Waltrip resigned from Hendrick Motorsports to start his own team, was named DarWal, Inc.. During the 1970s, like many drivers of the time, formed their own teams for racing, in lower levels DarWal, was his personal licensing agent and operator for many short-track cars he would race at many circuits on non-Cup weekends or special events, went to Busch Series racing. In 1991, the racing team moved up to the Cup level, with Hendrick support, but he divested himself of Busch operations at the end of the 1993 season. Waltrip has run part-time with his team, with his final NASCAR Truck Series race coming at Martinsville Speedway, where he finished 12th. DWM debuted at the 1991 Daytona 500 as car No. 17 with sponsorship from Western Auto. Waltrip finished 24th following an accident late in the race. Waltrip won five races over the next two years, with his final top-10 points finish coming in 1994.
After that, the pressure of being an owner/driver started to crash down on Waltrip, his performance declined. After Western Auto was renamed to Parts America, they planned on leaving the team, but stayed on for another year before leaving after 1997; that same year, Waltrip failed to qualify for his first race in 23 years since the 1974 Winston 500 at the fall race at Charlotte Motor Speedway. In addition, DWM expanded to two cars, when Rich Bickle finished 34th at that year's Brickyard 400 the No. 26 Kentucky Fried Chicken Chevy fielded by DWM, as well as Waltrip running special paint schemes to commemorate his 25th year in the sport. After losing his team due to a lack of sponsorship, Waltrip signed Speedblock/Builders Square to sponsor his car in 1998, but they did not live up to most of their obligations as a sponsor, Waltrip cancelled the contract. Waltrip's last race as owner/driver came at the spring Darlington race that year, driving the Tim Flock Special, a special paint scheme to honor the NASCAR legend who would lose his battle with cancer that month.
After that, Waltrip sold the team to Tim Beverly. The team was so disorganized; the team returned in the year as the No. 35 Tabasco Pontiac with Waltrip driving after the team merged with the defunct ISM Racing. Waltrip left at the end of the year after not posting a top-ten finish; this team ran as Tyler Jet Motorsports for the next two seasons. In 2007, Darrell Waltrip admitted that he failed as an owner-driver because he thought more like a driver and not like an owner. In 1996, Waltrip began his own team in the Craftsman Truck Series team, hiring Bill Sedgwick to drive his No. 17 Sears/DieHard Chevy. Sedgwick finished 14th in points. In 1997, Rich Bickle drove the truck, finishing second in points. After the season, Bickle resigned as he had hoped to run with Waltrip in the Cup series in 1998. Waltrip was about to run Phil Parsons in the truck, but after Sears pulled out, he shut the team down until 2003. In 2003, Waltrip fielded his own truck, this time in partnership with brother Michael and HT Motorsports for a pair of Craftsman Truck races at Martinsville Speedway with the No.
17, the first with Tide, the second with the Aaron's promotion of The Three Stooges that ran in various series. DWM became full-time in 2004. NTN Bearings sponsored the truck for two seasons, driven by David Reutimann, who won the NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series Rookie of the Year award; the team expanded to a second team in 2005, purchasing the No. 12 truck piloted by Robert Huffman from Innovative Motorsports. Huffman was replaced during the season by Mike Wallace. Joey Miller attempted to pilot the No. 12 truck full-time in 2006, but was released late in the season and the team finished with various drivers. Reutimann ended the season third in points and moved up to the NEXTEL Cup and Busch Series to drive for Waltrip's brother Michael Waltrip; the team became co-owned by Darrell and Michael Waltrip but kept the Darrell Waltrip Motorsports banner, as noted on the Waltrip Racing Web site. As part of changes in 2007 with its move into Michael Waltrip's operations banner, the team became a one-truck team and the number was switched to No. 00 to maintain consistency with the rest of the Michael Waltrip Racing banner, A. J. Allmendinger drove the No. 00 for a few races to help in his NASCAR experience, with Aaron's as the sponsor, along with Red Bull for a few races early in the season) and Michael Waltrip Racing putting developmental drivers Josh Wise and Ken Butler III in the truck, although Justin Labonte drove a few races for the team.
After one last race with Michael McDowell the team sold off its truck equipment in October 2007 to legendary road racing team The Racer's Group. Ginn Racing Michael Waltrip Racing Darrell Waltrip Motorsports owner statistics at Racing-Reference
NASCAR Gander Outdoors Truck Series
The NASCAR Gander Outdoors Truck Series is a pickup truck racing series owned and operated by the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, is the only series in all of NASCAR to race modified production pickup trucks. The series is one of three national divisions of NASCAR, ranking as the third tier behind the second-tier NASCAR Xfinity Series and the top level Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series. Camping World was the title sponsor from 2009 to 2018; the series was called the NASCAR SuperTruck Series in 1995, the NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series from 1996 through 2008, the NASCAR Camping World Truck Series from 2009 through 2018. The idea for the Truck Series dates back to 1991. A group of SCORE off-road racers had concerns about desert racing's future, decided to create a pavement truck racing series, they visited NASCAR Western Operations Vice President Ken Clapp to promote the idea, who consulted Bill France Jr. with it, but the plans fell apart. Afterwards, Clapp told the four to build a truck before NASCAR considered it.
Bakersfield fabricator Gary Collins built a prototype truck, which were first shown off during Speedweeks for the 1994 Daytona 500 and tested by truck owner Jim Smith around Daytona International Speedway. The truck proved to be popular among fans, NASCAR arranged a meeting in a Burbank, California hotel on April 11, 1994. Four demonstration races were held at Mesa Marin Raceway, Portland Speedway, Saugus Speedway and Tucson Raceway Park. Tucson held four events that winter, which were nationally televised during the Winter Heat Series coverage. Tools line Craftsman served as the sponsor of the series on a three-year deal, the series was renamed to the "Craftsman Truck Series" in 1996. In addition, the series' $580,000 purse is larger than the Busch Grand National Series' fund. While a new series, it garnered immediate support from many prominent Winston Cup Series team owners and drivers. Prominent Cup owners Richard Childress, Rick Hendrick, Jack Roush owned truck teams, top drivers such as Dale Earnhardt and Ernie Irvan fielded SuperTrucks for others.
The series attracted the attention of drivers like sprint car racing star Sammy Swindell, Walker Evans of off-road racing fame, open-wheel veteran Mike Bliss, Atlanta Falcons head coach Jerry Glanville. The inaugural race, the Skoal Bandit Copper World Classic at Phoenix International Raceway, was held on February 5. At the end of the 2008 NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series schedule, Craftsman stopped sponsoring the series. Subsequently, Camping World signed a seven-year contract with NASCAR, rebranding the series as the "Camping World Truck Series". With decreasing money and increasing costs, the series has struggled financially with sponsorship and prize money, the latter being low, while the former would prompt teams to shut down to reduce in size. Teams like Richard Childress Racing, a Cup team with 31 Truck wins, shut down their Truck operations. After the 2014 season, Brad Keselowski stated his Brad Keselowski Racing team had lost $1 million despite recording a win that year, told the Sporting News: "The truck series, you have to be able to lose money on a constant basis.
That's just how the system works." BKR ended up shutting down after the 2017 season. To cut costs, NASCAR required teams to use sealed engines, with teams not being allowed to run at most three races with a previously-used engine. Additionally, NASCAR reduced the maximum number of pit crew members allowed over the wall for a pit stop from seven to five, required teams to only take either fuel or tires on a single pit stop in 2009; this requirement was abandoned for the 2010 season. Starting with the 2011 season, NASCAR implemented a new rule that allows drivers to compete for the drivers' championship in only one of the three national touring series in a given season. On January 19, 2016, NASCAR announced the introduction of a playoff format similar to the NASCAR Cup Series Chase for the Championship: the format consists of eight drivers across three rounds, with two drivers being eliminated after each round. Camping World signed a seven-year extension in 2014 to remain the title sponsor of the Truck Series until at least 2022.
On May 8, 2018, NASCAR and Camping World announced the Truck Series title sponsor would be moved to Camping World subsidiary Gander Outdoors starting in 2019. The contract through 2022 is scheduled to continue as planned. Most of the first drivers in the series were veteran short track drivers who had not made it or struggled to thrive in the other NASCAR national series, it is worth noting that most of the early champions have become NASCAR Cup Series regulars in their careers, such as 1995 champion Skinner, who joined Richard Childress Racing's Cup team in 1997, competing on a full-time basis until 2003. As the years went on, a number of younger drivers debuted in the series, using the series as a springboard for their racing careers. Current NASCAR stars Greg Biffle, Kevin Harvick, Jamie McMurray, Kurt Busch, Carl Edwards, Kyle Busch each started in the series. Kyle Busch was 16 when he was ejected from a 2001 Craftsman Truck Series race in Fontana, California, b
Fox News is an American pay television news channel. It is owned by the Fox News Group, which itself was owned by News Corporation from 1996–2013, 21st Century Fox from 2013–2019, Fox Corporation since 2019; the channel broadcasts from studios at 1211 Avenue of the Americas in New York City. Fox News is provided in 86 countries or overseas territories worldwide, with international broadcasts featuring Fox Extra segments during ad breaks; the channel was created by Australian-American media mogul Rupert Murdoch to appeal to a conservative audience, hiring former Republican Party media consultant and CNBC executive Roger Ailes as its founding CEO. It launched on October 1996, to 17 million cable subscribers. Fox News grew during the late 1990s and 2000s to become the dominant subscription news network in the US; as of February 2015 94,700,000 US households receive Fox News. Murdoch is the current executive chairman and Suzanne Scott is the CEO. Fox News has been described as practicing biased reporting in favor of the Republican Party, the George W. Bush and Donald Trump administrations and conservative causes while slandering the Democratic Party and spreading harmful propaganda intended to negatively affect its members' electoral performances.
Critics have cited the channel as detrimental to the integrity of news overall. Fox News employees have said that news reporting operates independently of its opinion and commentary programming, have denied bias in news reporting, while former employees have said that Fox ordered them to "slant the news in favor of conservatives." In May 1985, Australian publisher Rupert Murdoch announced he and American industrialist and philanthropist Marvin Davis intended to develop "a network of independent stations as a fourth marketing force" to compete directly with CBS, NBC, ABC through the purchase of six television stations owned by Metromedia. In July 1985, 20th Century Fox announced Murdoch had completed his purchase of 50% of Fox Filmed Entertainment, the parent company of 20th Century Fox Film Corporation. A year 20th Century Fox earned $5.6 million in its fiscal third period ended May 31, 1986, in contrast to a loss of $55.8 million in the third period of the previous year. Subsequently, prior to founding FNC, Murdoch had gained experience in the 24-hour news business when News Corporation's BSkyB subsidiary began Europe's first 24-hour news channel in the United Kingdom in 1989.
With the success of his fourth network efforts in the United States, experience gained from Sky News and the turnaround of 20th Century Fox, Murdoch announced on January 31, 1996, that News Corp. would launch a 24-hour news channel on cable and satellite systems in the United States as part of a News Corp. "worldwide platform" for Fox programming: "The appetite for news – news that explains to people how it affects them – is expanding enormously". In February 1996, after former U. S. Republican Party political strategist and NBC executive Roger Ailes left cable television channel America's Talking, Murdoch asked him to start Fox News Channel. Ailes demanded five months of 14-hour workdays and several weeks of rehearsal shows before its launch on October 7, 1996. At its debut 17 million households were able to watch FNC. Rolling news coverage during the day consisted of 20-minute single-topic shows such as Fox on Crime or Fox on Politics, surrounded by news headlines. Interviews featured facts at the bottom of the screen about the guest.
The flagship newscast at the time was The Schneider Report, with Mike Schneider's fast-paced delivery of the news. During the evening, Fox featured opinion shows: The O'Reilly Report, The Crier Report and Hannity & Colmes. From the beginning, FNC has placed heavy emphasis on visual presentation. Graphics were designed to gain attention. Fox News created the "Fox News Alert", which interrupted its regular programming when a breaking news story occurred. To accelerate its adoption by cable providers, Fox News paid systems up to $11 per subscriber to distribute the channel; this contrasted with the normal practice, in which cable operators paid stations carriage fees for programming. When Time Warner bought Ted Turner's Turner Broadcasting System, a federal antitrust consent decree required Time Warner to carry a second all-news channel in addition to its own CNN on its cable systems. Time Warner selected MSNBC as the secondary news channel, not Fox News. Fox News claimed. Citing its agreement to keep its U.
S. headquarters and a large studio in New York City, News Corporation enlisted the help of Mayor Rudolph Giuliani's administration to pressure Time Warner Cable to transmit Fox News on a city-owned channel. City officials threatened to take action affecting Time Warner's cable franchises in the city. During the September 11, 2001 attacks, Fox News was the first news organization to run a news ticker on the bottom of the screen to keep up with the flow of information that day; the ticker has remained, informing viewers about additional news which reporters may not mention on-screen and repeating news mentioned during a broadcast. FNC maintains an archive of most of its programs; this archive includes Fox Movietone newsreels. Licensing for the Fox N
Fox NASCAR known as NASCAR on Fox, is the branding used for broadcasts of NASCAR races produced by Fox Sports and have aired on the Fox network in the United States since 2001. Speed, a motorsports-focused cable channel owned by Fox, began broadcasting NASCAR-related events in February 2002, with its successor Fox Sports 1 taking over Fox Sports' cable event coverage rights when that network replaced Speed in August 2013. Throughout its run, Fox's coverage of NASCAR has won thirteen Emmy Awards. On November 11, 1999, NASCAR signed a contract that awarded the U. S. television rights to its races to four networks, split between Fox and sister cable channel FX, NBC and TBS starting with the 2001 season. Fox and FX would alternate coverage of all races held during the first half of the season, while NBC and TNT would air all races held during the second half. Beginning in 2001, Fox alternated coverage of the first and most preeminent race of the season, the Daytona 500, with Fox televising the race in odd-numbered years and NBC airing it in even-numbered years through 2006.
For balance, the network that did not air the 500 in a given year during the contract would air Daytona's summer night race, the Pepsi 400. Valued at $2.4 billion, Fox/FX held the rights to this particular contract for eight years and NBC/TNT having the rights for six years. Further on the cable side, in October 2002, Speed Channel –, owned by the Fox broadcast network's parent subsidiary Fox Entertainment Group – obtained the rights to televise all of the races in the Craftsman Truck Series, a contract it bought out from ESPN. During the first half of the season, FX served as the primary broadcaster of the Busch Series, airing all but the most prestigious races, which were instead shown on Fox. FX was home to most of the NASCAR Cup Series night races, the All-Star Race, the June race at Dover International Speedway. Should a Fox-scheduled race be rained out on their scheduled race day and rescheduled to resume the following Monday, FX would simulcast the race with some of Fox's affiliates.
Fox Sports Net covered the 2001 Gatorade Twin 125's at Daytona International Speedway, the only time it covered a race. On December 7, 2005, NASCAR signed a new eight-year broadcast deal effective with the 2007 season, valued at $4.48 billion, with Fox and Speed Channel, which would share event rights with Disney-owned ABC, ESPN and ESPN2, as well as TNT. The rights would be divided as follows: Fox became the exclusive broadcaster of the Daytona 500 and hold the rights to the first thirteen points paying races. In addition, the network carried two Truck Series races. Fox did not air any races of what is now the Gander Outdoors Truck Series from 2010 to 2013, with all 25 races instead airing on Speed. Fox's 2011 coverage ended with the STP 400 at Kansas Speedway. TNT carried six NASCAR Cup Series races during the month of June and the first half of July, including the Coke Zero 400 at Daytona. In 2013, in particular, the network aired Pocono Raceway, Michigan International Speedway, Sonoma Raceway, Kentucky Speedway, the Coke Zero 400, New Hampshire Motor Speedway.
ESPN and ABC carried the final seventeen NASCAR Cup Series races from the Brickyard 400 through the end of the season, with the Cup Series Chase for the Championship races airing on ABC. The entire Nationwide season was aired on ESPN2 and ESPN, with selected races on ABC, NASCAR returned to ESPN airing the first six races including Daytona, Las Vegas, ESPN2 carrying Phoenix to Michigan. Speed/Fox Sports 1 carried the Budweiser Duel races and the Sprint All-Star Race, as well as the entire Camping World Truck Series season, except for the 2 races carried each year by Fox from 2007 to 2009. After the 2009 season, all the Truck races aired on Speed/FS1 – with the exception of the 2014 Talladega race, which aired on Fox. In October 2012, NASCAR extended its contract with Fox Sports through 2022, which allowed Fox the online streaming rights for its event telecasts. On August 1, 2013, Fox Sports extended its contract by two additional years through 2024, due to NASCAR's contract with NBC Sports running through that same time, acquired the rights to the first 16 races of the NASCAR Cup Series season, as well as the first 14 Xfinity Series events.
As a result, Fox will broadcast the races it covers, as well as all of the events held in June, which include the events at Pocono and Michigan with coverage ending with the Toyota/Save Mart 350 at Sonoma. Fox had held rights to these three races under its initial 2001–06 contract. Under the current deal: Fox broadcasts ten points races over the air, including the Daytona 500. Fox Sports 1 carries several other events, including the Advance Auto Parts Clash, Can-Am Duel, the NASCAR All-Star Race and six points-paying races, plus the first half of the Xfinity Series season. NBC will broadcast seven races over the air including some races in the NA
A jack, screwjack or jackscrew is a mechanical device used as a lifting device to lift heavy loads or to apply great forces. A mechanical jack employs a screw thread for lifting heavy equipment. A hydraulic jack uses hydraulic power; the most common form is a car jack, floor jack or garage jack, which lifts vehicles so that maintenance can be performed. Jacks are rated for a maximum lifting capacity. Industrial jacks can be rated for many tons of load; the personal name Jack, which came into English usage around the thirteenth century as a nickname form of John, came in the sixteenth century to be used as a colloquial word for'a man'. From here, the word was'applied to things which in some way take the place of a lad or man, or save human labour'; the first attestation in the Oxford English Dictionary of jack in the sense'a machine portable, for lifting heavy weights by force acting from below' is from 1679, referring to'an Engine used for the removing and commodious placing of great Timber.' Scissor car jacks use mechanical advantage to allow a human to lift a vehicle by manual force alone.
The jack shown at the right is made for a modern vehicle and the notch fits into a hard point on a unibody. Earlier versions have a platform to lift on a vehicle's axle. Electrically operated car scissor jacks are powered by 12 volt electricity supplied directly from the car's cigarette lighter receptacle; the electrical energy is used to power these car jacks to lower automatically. Electric jacks require less effort from the motorist for operation. A house jack called a screw jack, is a mechanical device used to lift buildings from their foundations for repairs or relocation. A series of jacks is used and wood cribbing temporarily supports the structure; this process is repeated. The house jack can be used for jacking carrying beams that have settled or for installing new structural beams. On the top of the jack is a cast iron circular pad that the jacking post rests on; this pad moves independently of the house jack so that it does not turn as the acme-threaded rod is turned with a metal rod.
This piece tilts slightly, but not enough to render the post dangerously out of plumb. In 1838 William Joseph Curtis filed a British patent for a hydraulic jack. In 1851, inventor Richard Dudgeon was granted a patent for a "portable hydraulic press" - the hydraulic jack, a jack which proved to be vastly superior to the screw jacks in use at the time. Hydraulic jacks are used for shop work, rather than as an emergency jack to be carried with the vehicle. Use of jacks not designed for a specific vehicle requires more than the usual care in selecting ground conditions, the jacking point on a vehicle, to ensure stability when the jack is extended. Hydraulic jacks are used to lift elevators in low and medium rise buildings. A hydraulic jack uses a liquid, incompressible, forced into a cylinder by a pump plunger. Oil is used since it is self stable; when the plunger pulls back, it draws oil out of the reservoir through a suction check valve into the pump chamber. When the plunger moves forward, it pushes the oil through a discharge check valve into the cylinder.
The suction valve ball opens with each draw of the plunger. The discharge valve ball opens when the oil is pushed into the cylinder. At this point the suction ball within the chamber is forced shut and oil pressure builds in the cylinder. In a floor jack a horizontal piston pushes on the short end of a bellcrank, with the long arm providing the vertical motion to a lifting pad, kept horizontal with a horizontal linkage. Floor jacks include castors and wheels, allowing compensation for the arc taken by the lifting pad; this mechanism provides a low profile when collapsed, for easy maneuvering underneath the vehicle, while allowing considerable extension. A bottle jack or whiskey jack is a jack which resembles a bottle in shape, having a cylindrical body and a neck. Within is a vertical lifting ram with a support pad of some kind fixed to the top; the jack may work by screw action. In the hydraulic version the hydraulic ram emerges from the body vertically by hydraulic pressure provided by a pump either on the baseplate or at a remote location via a pressure hose.
With a single action piston the lift range is somewhat limited, so its use for lifting vehicles is limited to those with a high clearance. For lifting structures such as houses the hydraulic interconnection of multiple vertical jacks through valves enables the distribution of forces while enabling close control of the lift; the screw version of the bottle jack works by turning a large nut running on the threaded vertical ram at the neck of the body. The nut has gear teeth and is turned by a bevel gear spigotted to the body, the bevel gear being turned manually by a jack handle fitting into a square socket; the ram may have a second screwed ram within it. Bottle jacks may be used to lift a variety of objects. Typical uses include the repair of automobiles and house foundations. Larger, heavy-duty models may be known as a barrel jack; this type of jack is best used for short vertical lifts. Blocks may be used to repeat the operation. An air hydraulic jack is a hydraulic jack, actuated by compressed air - for example, air from a compressor - instead of human work.
This eliminates the need for the user to actuate the hydraulic mechanism, saving effort and i