Glam rock is a style of rock music that developed in the United Kingdom in the early 1970s performed by musicians who wore outrageous costumes and hairstyles platform shoes and glitter. Glam artists drew on diverse sources across music and throwaway pop culture, ranging from bubblegum pop and 1950s rock and roll to cabaret, science fiction, complex art rock; the flamboyant clothing and visual styles of performers were camp or androgynous, have been described as playing with nontraditional gender roles. "Glitter rock" was another term used to refer to a more extreme version of glam. The UK charts were inundated with glam rock acts from 1971 to 1975, with glam manifesting in all areas of British popular culture during this period; the March 1971 appearance of T. Rex frontman Marc Bolan on the BBC's music show Top of the Pops, wearing glitter and satins, is cited as the beginning of the movement. Other British glam rock artists include David Bowie, Freddie Mercury of Queen, Mott the Hoople, Slade, Elton John, Roxy Music and Gary Glitter.
In the US the scene was much less prevalent, with Alice Cooper and Lou Reed the only American artists to score a hit. Other US glam artists include Iggy Pop and Jobriath, it declined after the mid-1970s, but influenced other musical genres including punk rock, glam metal, New Romantic and gothic rock. Glam rock has sporadically revived since the 1990s. Glam rock can be seen as a fashion as well as musical subgenre. Glam artists rejected the revolutionary rhetoric of the late 1960s rock scene, instead glorifying decadence and the simple structures of earlier pop music. Artists drew on such musical influences as bubblegum pop, the brash guitar riffs of hard rock, stomping rhythms, 1950s rock and roll, filtering them through the recording innovations of the late 1960s, it became diverse, varying between the simple rock and roll revivalism of figures like Alvin Stardust to the complex art pop of Roxy Music. In its beginning, however, it was a youth-oriented reaction to the creeping dominance of progressive rock and concept albums – what Bomp! called the "overall denim dullness" of "a deadly boring, prematurely matured music scene".
Visually it was a mesh of various styles, ranging from 1930s Hollywood glamour, through 1950s pin-up sex appeal, pre-war cabaret theatrics, Victorian literary and symbolist styles, science fiction, to ancient and occult mysticism and mythology. Glam is most noted for its sexual and gender ambiguity and representations of androgyny, beside extensive use of theatrics, it was prefigured by the flamboyant English composer Noël Coward his 1931 song "Mad Dogs and Englishmen", with music writer Daryl Easlea stating, "Noël Coward's influence on people like Bowie, Roxy Music and Cockney Rebel was immense. It suggested style and surface were as important as depth and substance. Time magazine noted Coward's'sense of personal style, a combination of cheek and chic and poise', it reads like a glam manifesto." Showmanship and gender identity manipulation acts included the Cockettes and Alice Cooper, the latter of which combined glam with shock rock. Glam rock emerged from the English psychedelic and art rock scenes of the late 1960s and can be seen as both an extension of, a reaction against, those trends.
Its origins are associated with Marc Bolan, who had renamed his acoustic duo T. Rex and taken up electric instruments by the end of the 1960s. Bolan was, in the words of music critic Ken Barnes, "the man who started it all". Cited as the moment of inception is Bolan's appearance on the BBC music show Top of the Pops in March 1971 wearing glitter and satins, to perform what would be his second UK Top 10 hit, "Hot Love"; the Independent states that Bolan's appearance on Top of the Pops “permitted a generation of teeny-boppers to begin playing with the idea of androgyny”. T. Rex's 1971 album. In 1973, a few months after the release of the album Tanx, Bolan captured the front cover of Melody Maker magazine with the declaration "Glam rock is dead!". From late 1971 a minor star, David Bowie developed his Ziggy Stardust persona, incorporating elements of professional makeup and performance into his act. Bowie, in a 1972 interview in which he noted that other artists described as glam rock were doing different work, said "I think glam rock is a lovely way to categorize me and it's nicer to be one of the leaders of it".
Bolan and Bowie were soon followed in the style by acts including Roxy Music, Slade, Mott the Hoople and Alvin Stardust. The popularity of glam rock in the UK was such that three glam rock bands had major UK Christmas hit singles. Glam was not only a successful trend in UK popular music, it became dominant in all other aspects of British popular culture during the 1970s. A heavier variant of glam rock, emphasising guitar riff centric songs, driving rhythms and live performance with audience participation, were represented by bands like Slade and Mott the Hoople, with followers such as Def Leppard, Cheap Trick, Kiss, Bon Jovi, Quiet Riot, some of which either covered Slade compositions or composed new songs based on Slade templates. While successful in the single charts in the UK few of these musicians were able to make a serious impact in the US.
Rocked, Wired & Bluesed: The Greatest Hits
Rocked, Wired & Bluesed: The Greatest Hits is a compilation album released by American rock band Cinderella in 2005, featuring tracks from their entire catalog. "Night Songs" – 4:12 "Shake Me" – 3:44 "Nobody's Fool" 4:47 "Somebody Save Me" – 3:16 "Bad Seamstress Blues / Fallin' Apart At The Seams" – 5:21 "Gypsy Road" – 4:01 "Don't Know What You Got" – 5:54 "The Last Mile" – 3:51 "Long Cold Winter" – 5:21 "If You Don't Like It" – 4:14 "Coming Home" – 4:54 "The More Things Change" – 4:21 "Shelter Me" – 4:47 "Heartbreak Station" – 4:28 "Winds Of Change" – 5:34 "Blood From A Stone" – 4:50 "Hot And Bothered" – 3:56All songs written and arranged by Tom Keifer except, "If You Don't Like It" and "Hot and Bothered", by Tom Keifer and Eric Brittingham. Tom Keifer – Lead Vocals, Electric, 12-String Acoustic, 6-String Acoustic, National Steel Guitars, Piano, Harmonica Eric Brittingham – Bass, 12-String Bass, Background Vocals Jeff LaBar – Guitar, Slide Guitar, Background Vocals Fred Coury – Drums, Background Vocals
Still Climbing (Cinderella album)
Still Climbing is the fourth and final studio album by American rock band Cinderella, released in 1994 by Mercury Records. Musically, it consists of more gritty blues-rock, following in the footsteps of their previous effort, Heartbreak Station; the release of Still Climbing was delayed following the Heartbreak Station tour due to Tom Keifer losing his voice in 1991. Due to a new MTV policy, the album was not mentioned at the channel; the record company promoted it in order to test different markets, a pattern that would continue all throughout the rest of the 1990s and 2000s. While Cinderella's first three albums all went platinum, the domination of grunge and alternative rock in the mid-1990s was so strong that it forced Still Climbing to chart at a lowly #178 and drop out after a mere few weeks, despite featuring the minor hits "Bad Attitude Shuffle", "Hard to Find the Words", "Hot & Bothered" from Wayne's World. On a side note, the track "Talk Is Cheap" first appeared during a Cinderella show in 1987, though the version on this album is longer than the original, being slower in vocals.
In addition, "Freewheelin" was an older song, written and demoed by the band in 1985, prior to the recording of their first album. All songs are written by Tom Keifer, except "The Road's Still Long" by Tom Keifer/Andy Johns, "Hot & Bothered" by Tom Keifer/Eric Brittingham. "Bad Attitude Shuffle" - 5:31 "All Comes Down" - 5:04 "Talk Is Cheap" - 4:00 "Hard to Find the Words" - 5:45 "Blood from a Stone" - 4:52 "Still Climbing" - 5:22 "Freewheelin" - 3:06 "Through the Rain" - 5:07 "Easy Come Easy Go" - 4:33 "The Road's Still Long" - 6:05 "Hot & Bothered" - 3:57 "Move Over" - 3:25 Tom Keifer - vocals, piano Eric Brittingham - bass Jeff LaBar - guitar Kenny Aronoff - drums Fred Coury - drums on "Hot and Bothered"
Somebody Save Me
"Somebody Save Me" / "Hell on Wheels" was the third single from Cinderella's triple platinum album Night Songs. Released on February 10, 1987, after Night Songs had peaked at #3, the song reached #66 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, it made #37 on the "Album Rock Chart". Journalist Thom Jurek described the song as a "riotous call for free living no matter the consequences of the next day" At the end of the video, Jon Bon Jovi and Richie Sambora are seen outside of the studio; the video was featured on an episode of Beavis and Butthead
Devil City Angels
Devil City Angels is a rock supergroup formed by guitarist Tracii Guns, drummer Rikki Rockett, bassist Eric Brittingham and vocalist and rhythm guitarist Brandon Gibbs. The new rock supergroup launched a website and posted some songs including their debut single "All My People" and "No Angels". Following the recording of the band's debut album bassist Rudy Sarzo from Quiet Riot replaced Eric Brittingham and the band went on to release their debut music video for their single "Boneyard". In July 2015, Devil City Angels released the single "All I Need" from their self-titled album, produced by the band in Los Angeles and mixed in Nashville by Anthony Focx; the self-titled debut album was released September 11, 2015. Devil City Angels Track listing Numb All My People Boneyard I'm living No Angels Goodbye Forever Ride with Me All I Need Back to the Drive Bad Decisions "All My People" "Boneyard" "All I Need" Brandon Gibbs – lead vocals, rhythm guitar Tracii Guns – lead guitar Rikki Rockett – drums, percussion Rudy Sarzo – bass guitar Eric Brittingham – bass guitar
The cello or violoncello is a string instrument. It is played by bowing or plucking its four strings, which are tuned in perfect fifths an octave lower than the viola: from low to high, C2, G2, D3 and A3, it is the bass member of the violin family, which includes the violin and the double bass, which doubles the bass line an octave lower than the cello in much of the orchestral repertoire. After the double bass, it is the second-largest and second lowest bowed string instrument in the modern symphony orchestra; the cello is used as a solo instrument, as well as in chamber music ensembles, string orchestras, as a member of the string section of symphony orchestras, most modern Chinese orchestras, some types of rock bands. Music for the cello is written in the bass clef, but both tenor clef and treble clef are used for higher-range parts, both in orchestral/chamber music parts and in solo cello works. A person who plays the cello is called a violoncellist. In a small classical ensemble, such as a string quartet, the cello plays the bass part, the lowest-pitched musical line of the piece.
In an orchestra of the Baroque era and Classical period, the cello plays the bass part doubled an octave lower by the double basses. In Baroque-era music, the cello is used to play the basso continuo bassline along with a keyboard instrument or a fretted, plucked stringed instrument. In such a Baroque performance, the cello player might be joined or replaced by other bass instruments, playing bassoon, double bass, viol or other low-register instruments; the name cello is derived from the ending of the Italian violoncello, which means "little violone". Violone was a large-sized member of the violin family; the term "violone" today refers to the lowest-pitched instrument of the viols, a family of stringed instruments that went out of fashion around the end of the 17th century in most countries except England and France, where they survived another half-century before the louder violin family came into greater favour in that country as well. In modern symphony orchestras, it is the second largest stringed instrument.
Thus, the name "violoncello" contained both the augmentative "-one" and the diminutive "-cello". By the turn of the 20th century, it had become common to shorten the name to'cello, with the apostrophe indicating the missing stem, it is now customary to use "cello" without apostrophe as the full designation. Viol is derived from the root viola, derived from Medieval Latin vitula, meaning stringed instrument. Cellos are tuned in fifths, starting with C2, followed by G2, D3, A3, it is tuned in the same intervals as the viola. Unlike the violin or viola but similar to the double bass, the cello has an endpin that rests on the floor to support the instrument's weight; the cello is most associated with European classical music, has been described as the closest sounding instrument to the human voice. The instrument is a part of the standard orchestra, as part of the string section, is the bass voice of the string quartet, as well as being part of many other chamber groups. Among the most well-known Baroque works for the cello are Johann Sebastian Bach's six unaccompanied Suites.
The cello figures as a member of the basso continuo group in chamber works by Francesca Caccini, Barbara Strozzi with pieces such as Il primo libro di madrigali, per 2–5 voci e basso continuo, op. 1 and Elisabeth Jacquet de La Guerre who wrote six sonatas for violin and basso continuo. From the Classical era, the two concertos by Joseph Haydn in C major and D major stand out, as do the five sonatas for cello and pianoforte of Ludwig van Beethoven, which span the important three periods of his compositional evolution. A Divertimento for Piano, Clarinet and Cello is among the surviving works by Duchess Anna Amalia of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. A review of compositions for cello in the Romantic era must include the German composer Fanny Mendelssohn who wrote the Fantasy in G minor for cello and piano and a Capriccio in A-flat for cello. Other well-known works of the era include the Robert Schumann Concerto, the Antonín Dvořák Concerto as well as the two sonatas and the Double Concerto by Johannes Brahms.
Compositions from the late-19th and early 20th century include three cello sonatas by Dame Ethel Smyth, Edward Elgar's Cello Concerto in E minor, Claude Debussy's Sonata for Cello and Piano, unaccompanied cello sonatas by Zoltán Kodály and Paul Hindemith. Pieces including cello were written by American Music Cente founder Marion Bauer and Ruth Crawford Seeger. Polish composer Grażyna Bacewicz was writing for cello in the mid 20th century with Concerto No. 1 for Cello and Orchestra, Concerto No. 2 for Cello and Orchestra and in 1964 composed her Quartet for four cellos. The cello's versatility made it popular with many male composers in this era as well, such as Sergei Prokofiev, Dmitri Shostakovich, Benjamin Britten, György Ligeti, Witold Lutoslawski and Henri Dutilleux. Well-known cellists include Jacqueline du Pre, Raya Garbousova, Zara Nelsova, Hildur Gudna
Heavy metal music
Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s in the United Kingdom. With roots in blues rock, psychedelic rock, acid rock, the bands that created heavy metal developed a thick, massive sound, characterized by amplified distortion, extended guitar solos, emphatic beats, overall loudness; the genre's lyrics and performance styles are sometimes associated with machismo. In 1968, three of the genre's most famous pioneers, Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath and Deep Purple were founded. Though they came to attract wide audiences, they were derided by critics. During the mid-1970s, Judas Priest helped spur the genre's evolution by discarding much of its blues influence. Beginning in the late 1970s, bands in the new wave of British heavy metal such as Iron Maiden and Def Leppard followed in a similar vein. Before the end of the decade, heavy metal fans became known as "metalheads" or "headbangers". During the 1980s, glam metal became popular with groups such as Mötley Crüe.
Underground scenes produced an array of more aggressive styles: thrash metal broke into the mainstream with bands such as Metallica, Slayer and Anthrax, while other extreme subgenres of heavy metal such as death metal and black metal remain subcultural phenomena. Since the mid-1990s popular styles have further expanded the definition of the genre; these include groove metal and nu metal, the latter of which incorporates elements of grunge and hip hop. Heavy metal is traditionally characterized by loud distorted guitars, emphatic rhythms, dense bass-and-drum sound, vigorous vocals. Heavy metal subgenres variously alter, or omit one or more of these attributes; the New York Times critic Jon Pareles writes, "In the taxonomy of popular music, heavy metal is a major subspecies of hard-rock—the breed with less syncopation, less blues, more showmanship and more brute force." The typical band lineup includes a drummer, a bassist, a rhythm guitarist, a lead guitarist, a singer, who may or may not be an instrumentalist.
Keyboard instruments are sometimes used to enhance the fullness of the sound. Deep Purple's Jon Lord played an overdriven Hammond organ. In 1970, John Paul Jones used a Moog synthesizer on Led Zeppelin III; the electric guitar and the sonic power that it projects through amplification has been the key element in heavy metal. The heavy metal guitar sound comes from a combined use of heavy distortion. For classic heavy metal guitar tone, guitarists maintain moderate levels gain at moderate levels, without excessive preamp or pedal distortion, to retain open spaces and air in the music. Thrash metal guitar tone has scooped mid-frequencies and compressed sound with lots of bass frequencies. Guitar solos are "an essential element of the heavy metal code... that underscores the significance of the guitar" to the genre. Most heavy metal songs "feature at least one guitar solo", "a primary means through which the heavy metal performer expresses virtuosity"; some exceptions are nu grindcore bands, which tend to omit guitar solos.
With rhythm guitar parts, the "heavy crunch sound in heavy metal... palm muting" the strings with the picking hand and using distortion. Palm muting creates a tighter, more precise sound and it emphasizes the low end; the lead role of the guitar in heavy metal collides with the traditional "frontman" or bandleader role of the vocalist, creating a musical tension as the two "contend for dominance" in a spirit of "affectionate rivalry". Heavy metal "demands the subordination of the voice" to the overall sound of the band. Reflecting metal's roots in the 1960s counterculture, an "explicit display of emotion" is required from the vocals as a sign of authenticity. Critic Simon Frith claims; the prominent role of the bass is key to the metal sound, the interplay of bass and guitar is a central element. The bass guitar provides the low-end sound crucial to making the music "heavy"; the bass plays a "more important role in heavy metal than in any other genre of rock". Metal basslines vary in complexity, from holding down a low pedal point as a foundation to doubling complex riffs and licks along with the lead or rhythm guitars.
Some bands feature the bass as a lead instrument, an approach popularized by Metallica's Cliff Burton with his heavy emphasis on bass guitar solos and use of chords while playing bass in the early 1980s. Lemmy of Motörhead played overdriven power chords in his bass lines; the essence of heavy metal drumming is creating a loud, constant beat for the band using the "trifecta of speed and precision". Heavy metal drumming "requires an exceptional amount of endurance", drummers have to develop "considerable speed and dexterity... to play the intricate patterns" used in heavy metal. A characteristic metal drumming technique is the cymbal choke, which consists of striking a cymbal and immediately silencing it by grabbing it with the other hand, producing a burst of sound; the metal drum setup is much larger than those employed in other forms of rock music. Black metal, death metal and some "mainstream metal" bands "all depend upon double-kicks and blast beats". In live performance, loudness—an "onslaught of sound", in sociologist Deena Weinstein's description—is considered vital.
In his book Metalheads, psychologist Jeffrey Arnett refers to heavy me