Kung Fu (TV series)
Kung Fu is an American action-adventure martial arts western drama television series starring David Carradine. The series follows the adventures of Kwai Chang Caine, a Shaolin monk who travels through the American Old West, armed only with his spiritual training and his skill in martial arts, as he seeks Danny Caine, his half-brother. Many of the aphorisms used in the series are adapted from or derived directly from the Tao Te Ching, a book of ancient Taoist philosophy attributed to the sage Lao-tzu. Kwai Chang Caine is the orphaned son of an American man, Thomas Henry Caine, a Chinese woman, Kwai Lin, in mid-19th-century China. After his maternal grandfather's death he is accepted for training at a Shaolin Monastery, where he grows up to become a Shaolin priest and martial arts expert. In the pilot episode Caine's beloved mentor and elder, Master Po, is murdered by the Emperor's nephew. With a price on his head, Caine flees China to the western United States, where he seeks to find his family roots and his half-brother, Danny Caine.
Although it is his intention to avoid notice, Caine's training and sense of social responsibility force him out into the open, to fight for justice or protect the underdog. After each such encounter he must move on, both to avoid capture and prevent harm from coming to those he has helped. Searching for his family, he meets a preacher and his mute sidekick Sonny Jim his grandfather. Flashbacks are used to recall specific lessons from Caine's childhood training in the monastery from his teachers, the blind Master Po and Master Chen Ming Kan. Part of the appeal of the series was undoubtedly the emphasis laid, via the flashbacks, on the mental and spiritual power that Caine had gained from his rigorous training. In these flashbacks, Master Po calls his young student "Grasshopper" in reference to a scene in the pilot episode: During four episodes of the third and final season, Caine finds his brother Danny and his nephew Zeke. David Carradine as Kwai Chang Caine Radames Pera as Young Caine Keye Luke as Master Po Philip Ahn as Master Kan David Chow, a guest star in the series, acted as the technical and kung fu advisor, a role undertaken by Kam Yuen.
Kung Fu was created by Ed Spielman and produced by Jerry Thorpe, developed by Herman Miller, a writer for, co-producer of, the series. In her memoirs, Bruce Lee's widow, Linda Lee Cadwell, asserts that Lee created the concept for the series, stolen by Warner Bros. There is circumstantial evidence for this in a December 8, 1971, television interview that Bruce Lee gave on The Pierre Berton Show. In the interview, Lee stated that he had developed a concept for a television series called The Warrior, meant to star himself, about a martial artist in the American Old West, but that he was having trouble pitching it to Warner Brothers and Paramount. In the interview, Pierre Berton commented, "There's a pretty good chance that you'll get a TV series in the States called'The Warrior', in it, where you use what, the Martial Arts in Western setting?" Lee responded, "That was the original idea...both of them, I think, they want me to be in a modernized type of a thing, they think that the Western type of thing is out.
Whereas I want to do the Western. Because, you see, how else can you justify all of the punching and kicking and violence, except in the period of the West?" In the interview, Berton asked Lee about "the problems that you face as a Chinese hero in an American series. Have people come up in the industry and said'well, we don't know how the audience are going to take a non-American'?" Lee replied, "Well, such question has been raised, in fact, it is being discussed. That is why The Warrior is not going to be on." Lee adds, "They think. I don't blame them. If the situation were reversed, an American star were to come to Hong Kong, I was the man with the money, I would have my own concerns as to whether the acceptance would be there."Whether or not Kung Fu was based on a concept by Lee, he was undoubtedly considered for the starring role, according to Herbie Pilato in his 1993 book The Kung Fu Book of Caine: The Complete Guide to TV's First Mystical Eastern Western, David Carradine himself in a 1989 interview mentions that Bruce Lee was passed over for the role.
The series aired on ABC from October 1972 to April 1975 for a total of 63 episodes. Kung Fu was preceded by a full-length feature television pilot, an ABC Movie of the Week, broadcast on February 22, 1972; the series became one of the most popular television programs of the early 1970s, receiving widespread critical acclaim and commercial success upon its release. The Shaolin Monastery which appeared in flashbacks was a set used for the 1967 film Camelot, it was inexpensively and converted for the setting in China. The series used slow-motion effects for the action sequences, which Warner Brothers had utilized in the 1969 Sam Peckinpah film The Wild Bunch, were subsequently utilized for the action sequences in the science-fiction series The Six Million Dollar Man. In Kung Fu: The Movie Caine is forced to fight Chung Wang. Herbie Pilato in Th
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practiced for a number of reasons such as self-defense and law enforcement applications, physical and spiritual development. Although the term martial art has become associated with the fighting arts of East Asia, it referred to the combat systems of Europe as early as the 1550s; the term means "arts of Mars", the Roman god of war. Some authors have argued that fighting arts or fighting systems would be more appropriate on the basis that many martial arts were never "martial" in the sense of being used or created by professional warriors. Martial arts may be categorized along a variety of criteria, including: Traditional or historical arts vs. contemporary styles of folk wrestling and modern hybrid martial arts. Techniques taught: Armed vs. unarmed, within these groups by type of weapon and by type of combat By application or intent: self-defense, combat sport, choreography or demonstration of forms, physical fitness, etc. Within Chinese tradition: "external" vs. "internal" styles UnarmedUnarmed martial arts can be broadly grouped into focusing on strikes, those focusing on grappling and those that cover both fields described as hybrid martial arts.
Strikes Punching: Boxing, Wing Chun, Karate Kicking: Taekwondo, Savate Others using strikes: Muay Thai, Kung Fu, Pencak SilatGrappling Throwing: Hapkido, Sumo, Aikido Joint lock/Chokeholds/Submission holds: Judo, Brazilian jiu-jitsu, Sambo Pinning Techniques: Judo, AikidoArmedThe traditional martial arts, which train in armed combat encompass a wide spectrum of melee weapons, including bladed weapons and polearms. Such traditions include eskrima, kalaripayat and historical European martial arts those of the German Renaissance. Many Chinese martial arts feature weapons as part of their curriculum. Sometimes, training with one specific weapon will be considered a style of martial arts in its own right, the case in Japanese martial arts with disciplines such as kenjutsu and kendo and kyudo. Modern martial arts and sports include modern fencing, stick-fighting systems like canne de combat, modern competitive archery. Combat-oriented Health-orientedMany martial arts those from Asia teach side disciplines which pertain to medicinal practices.
This is prevalent in traditional Asian martial arts which may teach bone-setting and other aspects of traditional medicine. Spirituality-orientedMartial arts can be linked with religion and spirituality. Numerous systems are reputed to have been disseminated, or practiced by monks or nuns. Throughout Asia, meditation may be incorporated as part of training. In those countries influenced by Hindu-Buddhist philosophy, the art itself may be used as an aid to attaining enlightenment. Japanese styles, when concerning non-physical qualities of the combat, are strongly influenced by Mahayana Buddhist philosophy. Concepts like "empty mind" and "beginner's mind" are recurrent. Aikido, for instance, can have a strong philosophical belief of the flow of energy and peace fostering, as idealised by its founder Morihei Ueshiba. Traditional Korean martial arts place emphasis on the development of the practitioner's spiritual and philosophical development. A common theme in most Korean styles, such as taekkyeon and taekwondo, is the value of "inner peace" in a practitioner, stressed to be only achieved through individual meditation and training.
The Koreans believe. Systema draws upon breathing and relaxation techniques, as well as elements of Russian Orthodox thought, to foster self-conscience and calmness, to benefit the practitioner in different levels: the physical, the psychological and the spiritual; some martial arts in various cultures can be performed in dance-like settings for various reasons, such as for evoking ferocity in preparation for battle or showing off skill in a more stylized manner. Many such martial arts incorporate music strong percussive rhythms; the oldest works of art depicting scenes of battle are cave paintings from eastern Spain dated between 10,000 and 6,000 BCE that show organized groups fighting with bows and arrows. Chinese martial arts originated during the legendary apocryphal, Xia Dynasty more than 4000 years ago, it is said. The Yellow Emperor is described as a famous general who before becoming China's leader, wrote lengthy treatises on medicine and martial arts. One of his main opponents was Chi You, credited as the creator of jiao di, a forerunner to the modern art of Chinese wrestling.
The foundation of modern Asian martial arts is a blend of early Chinese and Indian martial arts. During the Warring States period of Chinese history extensive development in martial philosophy and strategy emerged, as described by Sun Tzu in The Art of War. Legendary accounts link the origin of Shaolinquan to the spread of Buddhism from ancient India during the early 5th century AD, with the figure of Bodhidharma, to China. Written evidence of martial arts in Southern India dates back to the Sangam literature of about the 2nd century BC to the 2nd century AD; the combat techniques of the Sangam period were the earliest precursors to Kalaripayattu. In Europe, the earlie
Americans are nationals and citizens of the United States of America. Although nationals and citizens make up the majority of Americans, some dual citizens and permanent residents may claim American nationality; the United States is home to people of many different ethnic origins. As a result, American culture and law does not equate nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and permanent allegiance. English-speakers, speakers of many other languages use the term "American" to mean people of the United States; the word "American" can refer to people from the Americas in general. The majority of Americans or their ancestors immigrated to America or are descended from people who were brought as slaves within the past five centuries, with the exception of the Native American population and people from Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the Philippine Islands, who became American through expansion of the country in the 19th century, additionally America expanded into American Samoa, the U. S. Virgin Islands and Northern Mariana Islands in the 20th century.
Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture of the United States held in common by most Americans can be referred to as mainstream American culture, a Western culture derived from the traditions of Northern and Western European colonists and immigrants. It includes influences of African-American culture. Westward expansion integrated the Creoles and Cajuns of Louisiana and the Hispanos of the Southwest and brought close contact with the culture of Mexico. Large-scale immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from Southern and Eastern Europe introduced a variety of elements. Immigration from Asia and Latin America has had impact. A cultural melting pot, or pluralistic salad bowl, describes the way in which generations of Americans have celebrated and exchanged distinctive cultural characteristics. In addition to the United States and people of American descent can be found internationally; as many as seven million Americans are estimated to be living abroad, make up the American diaspora.
The United States of America is a diverse country and ethnically. Six races are recognized by the U. S. Census Bureau for statistical purposes: White, American Indian and Alaska Native, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, people of two or more races. "Some other race" is an option in the census and other surveys. The United States Census Bureau classifies Americans as "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino", which identifies Hispanic and Latino Americans as a racially diverse ethnicity that comprises the largest minority group in the nation. People of European descent, or White Americans, constitute the majority of the 308 million people living in the United States, with 72.4% of the population in the 2010 United States Census. They are considered people who trace their ancestry to the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, North Africa. Of those reporting to be White American, 7,487,133 reported to be Multiracial. Additionally, there are Latinos.
Non-Hispanic Whites are the majority in 46 states. There are four minority-majority states: California, New Mexico, Hawaii. In addition, the District of Columbia has a non-white majority; the state with the highest percentage of non-Hispanic White Americans is Maine. The largest continental ancestral group of Americans are that of Europeans who have origins in any of the original peoples of Europe; this includes people via African, North American, Central American or South American and Oceanian nations that have a large European descended population. The Spanish were some of the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now the United States in 1565. Martín de Argüelles born 1566, San Agustín, La Florida a part of New Spain, was the first person of European descent born in what is now the United States. Twenty-one years Virginia Dare born 1587 Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina, was the first child born in the original Thirteen Colonies to English parents. In the 2017 American Community Survey, German Americans, Irish Americans, English Americans and Italian Americans were the four largest self-reported European ancestry groups in the United States forming 35.1% of the total population.
However, the English Americans and British Americans demography is considered a serious under-count as they tend to self-report and identify as "Americans" due to the length of time they have inhabited America. This is over-represented in the Upland South, a region, settled by the British. Overall, as the largest group, European Americans have the lowest poverty rate and the second highest educational attainment levels, median household income, median personal income of any racial demographic in the nation. According to the American Jewish Archives and the Arab American National Museum, some of the first Middle Easterners and North Africans arrived in the Americas between the late 15th and mid-16th centuries. Many were fleeing ethnic or ethnoreligious persecution during the Spanish Inquisition, a few were taken to the Americas as slaves. In 2014, The United States Census Bureau began finalizing the ethnic classification of MENA populations. According to the Arab American Institute, Arab
Slaughterhouse Rock, released in the UK as Hell Island, is a 1988 American B movie/horror film directed and written by Dimitri Logothetis and released by Arista Films. It stars pop singer Toni Basil, features songs by new wave band Devo; the plot concerns a group of teens, attempting to release a curse over their friend, having dreams of the victims of a murderer who lived on the island of Alcatraz. They are aided by the ghost of a dead rock singer. Alex Gardner, a college student suffers from reoccurring nightmares in which he experiences the deaths of the victims of a vicious killer who lived on Alcatraz, before it became a prison; when the nightmares begin manifesting in reality, his friends see him hovering over his bed, his teacher, an occultist, tells him to go to the island to face down the ghost of the killer. The friends become stranded on the island, Alex's brother Richard becomes possessed, killing some friends and raping one of the girls. Alex is aided in his quest by the ghost of a singer for the band Bodybag.
Sammy teaches Alex how to levitate and escape his body, is the subject of a dance routine, intercut into the film. The friends lure the ghost of the killer, Alex's brother into the prison chapel, blow it up, releasing the curse. Toni Basil as Sammy Mitchell Nicholas Celozzi as Alex Gardner Tom Reilly as Richard Gardner Donna Denton as Carolyn Harding Hope Marie Carlton as Krista Halpern Tammy Hyler as Jan Squire Steven Brian Smith as Jack Ty Miller as Marty Al Fleming as The Commandant and Monster Michael J. Scherlis as Tour Guide The film was given a limited theatrical release in the United States by Taurus Entertainment Company in May 1988; the film has since gone out of print. Code Red acquired the rights through Blairwood Entertainment and released the film on Blu-Ray on December 12, 2016, on DVD on May 30, 2017; the soundtrack included five tracks by the band Devo, who had reformed with former Sparks drummer David Kendrick. While there was no official soundtrack release, three of the songs saw official release by Devo.
One song, "The Only One" features Toni Basil on lead vocals, was released on the Devo rarities compilation Recombo DNA. Another song, "Man Turned Inside Out," appears on the 1988 Devo album Total Devo. "Part of You," an outtake from the sessions for 1982's Oh, No! It's Devo appears; the songs "Set Me Free" and "Slaughterhouse Rock Theme" have not been released, though "Slaughterhouse Rock Theme" can be found on bootlegs. List of American films of 1988 Slaughterhouse Rock on IMDb
Gōjū-ryū, Japanese for "hard-soft style", is one of the main traditional Okinawan styles of karate, featuring a combination of hard and soft techniques. Both principles and soft, come from the famous martial arts book used by Okinawan masters during the 19th and 20th centuries, the Bubishi. Gō, which means hard, refers to straight linear attacks. Gōjū-ryū incorporates both circular and linear movements into its curriculum, combining hard striking attacks such as kicks and close hand punches with softer open hand circular techniques for attacking and controlling the opponent, including joint locks, grappling and throws. Major emphasis is given to breathing in all of the kata but in the Sanchin kata, one of two core kata of this style; the second kata is called Tensho, meant to teach the student about the soft style of the system. Gōjū-ryū practices methods that include body strengthening and conditioning, its basic approach to fighting, partner drills; the development of Gōjū-ryū goes back to a native of Naha, Okinawa.
Higaonna began studying Shuri-te as a child. He was first exposed to martial arts in 1867 when he began training in Luohan or "Arhat boxing" under Arakaki Seishō, a fluent Chinese speaker and translator for the court of the Ryukyu Kingdom. In 1870, Arakaki went to Beijing to translate for Ryukyuan officials, it was that he recommended Higaonna to Kojo Taitei, under whom Higaonna began training. With the help of Taitei and a family friend, Yoshimura Chomei Higaonna managed to set up safe passage to China and martial arts instruction. In 1873 he left for Fuzhou in Fujian, where he began studying Chinese martial arts under various teachers. In 1877 he began to study under Ryū Ryū Ko. Tokashiki Iken has identified him as founder of Whooping Crane Kung Fu. Zhongxiang taught several Okinawan students. However, since Ryu Ryu Ko had died by 1915 when Chojun Miyagi went to Fuzhou in search of him, Xie Zhong Xiang died in 1926, the two may not be the same person. Higaonna returned to Okinawa in 1882 and continued in the family business of selling firewood, while teaching a new school of martial arts, distinguished by its integration of gō-no and jū-no kenpō into one system.
Higaonna's style was known as a type of Naha-te. Naha-te included other earlier teachers such as the Kojo family style. However, after Japan annexed Okinawa and defeated China in the Sino-Japanese War, the Patron of Naha-te, Yoshimura Udun, his pro-China faction lost power in Okinawan politics, they migrated to Fuzhou, Taiwan or Hawaii and the older schools of Naha-te were lost. Through this period until 1905 when karate was taught in Okinawan schools, Kanryo Higaonna kept Naha-te alive by giving students private lessons at his home. Gōjū-kai history considers that Chinese Nanpa Shorin-ken was the strain of kung fu that influenced this style. Higaonna Morio noted that in 1905, Higaonna Kanryō taught martial arts in two different ways, according to the type of student: At home, he taught Naha-te as a martial art whose ultimate goal was to be able to kill the opponent. Higaonna Kanryo's most prominent student was Chōjun Miyagi, the son of a wealthy shop owner in Naha, who began training under Higaonna at the age of 14.
Miyagi had begun his martial arts training under Ryuko Arakaki at age 11, it was through Ryuko Arakaki that he was introduced to Higaonna. Miyagi trained under Higaonna for 15 years until Higaonna's death in 1916. In 1915 Miyagi and a friend, went to Fuzhou in search of Higaonna's teacher, they stayed for a year and studied under several masters but the old school was gone due to the Boxer Rebellion. Shortly after their return, Higaonna died. In 1917 Chojun Miyagi once again went to Fuzhou for a short visit to explore local martial arts schools. After he returned, many of Higaonna's students continued to train with Miyagi and he introduced a kata called Tensho around 1918, which he had adapted from Rokkishu of Fujian White Crane. In 1929 delegates from around Japan were meeting in Kyoto for the All Japan Martial Arts Demonstration. Miyagi was unable to attend, so he in turn asked his top student Jin’an Shinzato to go. While Shinzato was there, one of the other demonstrators asked him the name of the martial art he practiced.
At this time, Miyagi had not yet named his style. Not wanting to be embarrassed, Shinzato improvised the name hanko-ryu. On his return to Okinawa Prefecture, he reported this incident to Chōjun Miyagi, who decided on the name Gōjū-ryū as a name for his style. Chojun Miyagi took the name from a line of the poem Hakku Kenpo, which means: "The eight laws of the fist," and describes the eight precepts of the martial arts; this poem was part of the Bubishi and reads, Ho wa Gōjū wa Donto su "the way of inhaling and exhaling is hardness and softness," or "everything in the universe inhales soft and exhales hard."In March 1934, Miyagi wrote Karate-do Gaisetsu, to introduce karate-do and to provide a general explanation of its history and application. This handwritten monograph is one of the few written works composed by Miyagi himself. Miyagi's house was destroyed during World War II. In 1950, several of his students began working to build a house and dojo for him in N
Black belt (martial arts)
In East Asian martial arts, the black belt is associated with expertise, but may indicate only competence, depending on the martial art. The use of colored belts is a recent invention dating from the 1880s; the systematic use of belt colour to denote rank was first used in Japan by Jigoro Kano, the founder of judo in the 1880s. Japanese Koryu instructors tended to provide rank certificates only; the wide obi was used. As practitioners trained in a kimono, only white and black obi were used, it was not until the early 1900s, after the introduction of the judogi, that other colours were added. Other martial arts adopted the custom; this includes martial arts. This kind of ranking is less common in arts that do not claim a far Eastern origin, though it is used in the Marine Corps Martial Arts Program. Rank and belts are not equivalent between arts, styles, or within some organisations. In some arts, a black belt may be awarded in three years or less, while in others it takes dedicated training of ten years or more.
Testing for black belt is more rigorous and more centralised than for lower grades. In contrast to the "black belt as master" stereotype, a black belt indicates the wearer is competent in a style's basic technique and principles. Since in many styles a black belt takes three to six years of training to achieve, a possible analogy might be a bachelor's degree: the student has a good understanding of fundamental concepts and ability, but has not yet perfected their skills. In this analogy a graduate degree would represent advancement past the first degree. Brazilian jiu-jitsu would be a notable exception to this, as a black belt for a jiu-jitsu practitioner takes 7–12 years of training to earn, a black belt holder is viewed as an expert in the art. Another way to describe this links to the terms used in Japanese arts; the shodan black belt is not the end of training but rather as a beginning to advanced learning: the individual now "knows how to walk" and may thus begin the "journey". As a "black belt" is viewed as conferring some status, achieving one has been used as a marketing gimmick.
For example a school might guarantee that one will be awarded within a certain period, or for a certain amount of money. Such schools are sometimes referred to belt factories. In some Japanese schools, after obtaining a black belt the student begins to instruct, may be referred to as a senpai or sensei. In others, a black belt student should not be called sensei until they are sandan, or the titles kyosa or sabom in Korean martial arts as second degree or higher, as this denotes a greater degree of experience and a sensei must have this and grasp of what is involved in teaching a martial art. In Japanese martial arts the further subdivisions of black belt ranks may be linked to dan grades and indicated by'stripes' on the belt. Yūdansha is used to describe those who hold a black belt rank. While the belt remains black, stripes or other insignia may be added to denote seniority, in some arts senior grades will wear differently colored belts. In judo and some forms of karate, a sixth dan will wear a white belt.
The red and white belt is reserved only for ceremonial occasions, a regular black belt is still worn during training. At 9th or 10th dan some schools award red. In some schools of Jujutsu, the Shihan rank and higher wear purple belts; these other colors are still referred to collectively as "black belts". Brazilian jiu-jitsu ranking system Kyū Rank in Judo Origins of the Karate Rank System